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Bedford/St. Martin's
American Promise: A Compact History / Edition 3

American Promise: A Compact History / Edition 3


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ISBN-13: 9780312441654
Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
Publication date: 08/01/2006
Edition description: Third Edition
Pages: 992
Product dimensions: 8.51(w) x 10.84(h) x 1.22(d)

About the Author

JAMES L. ROARK (Ph.D., Stanford University) is the Samuel Chandler Dobbs Professor of History at Emory University. He has written and edited four books, including, with Michael P. Johnson, Black Masters: A Free Family of Color in the Old South (1984).

MICHAEL P. JOHNSON (Ph.D., Stanford University) is a professor of history at the Johns Hopkins University. He has written or edited six books, including No Chariot Let Down: Charleston’s Free People of Color on the Eve of the Civil War (1984) and Reading the American Past.

PATRICIA CLINE COHEN (Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley) is professor of history at the University of California at Santa Barbara. She has written three books including The Murder of Helen Jewett: The Life and Death of a Prostitute in Nineteenth-Century New York (1998).

SARAH STAGE (Ph.D., Yale University) is professor of women’s studies at Arizona State University West. She has written three books, including Rethinking Women and Home Economics in the Twentieth Century (1997).

ALAN LAWSON (Ph.D., University of Michigan) is professor of history at Boston College. He has written or edited three books, including From Revolution to Republic (1976).

SUSAN M. HARTMANN (Ph.D., University of Missouri) is professor of history at The Ohio State University. She has written five books, including The Other Feminists: Activists in the Liberal Establishments (1998).

Table of Contents

1. Ancient America, Before 1492

Archaeology and History

The First Americans

     African and Asian Origins

     Paleo-Indian Hunters

HISTORICAL QUESTION: Who Were the First Americans?

Archaic Hunters and Gatherers

     Great Plains Bison Hunters

     Great Basin Cultures

     Pacific Coast Cultures

     Eastern Woodland Cultures

Agricultural Settlements and Chiefdoms

     Southwestern Cultures

     Woodland Burial Mounds and Chiefdoms

Native Americans in the 1490s

The Mexica: A Mesoamerican Culture

Conclusion: The World of Ancient Americans

2. Europeans Encounter the New World, 1492-1600

Europe in the Age of Exploration

     Mediterranean Trade and European Expansion

     A Century of Portuguese Exploration

A Surprising New World in the Western Atlantic

     The Explorations of Columbus

     The Geographic Revolution and the Columbian Exchange

Spanish Exploration and Conquest

     The Conquest of Mexico

     The Search for Other Mexicos

     New Spain in the Sixteenth Century

     The Toll of Spanish Conquest and Colonization

     Spanish Outposts in Florida and New Mexico


The New World and Sixteenth-Century Europe

     The Protestant Reformation and the European Order

     New World Treasure and Spanish Ambitions

     Europe and the Spanish Example

Conclusion: The Promise of the New World for Europeans

3. The Southern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century, 1601-1700

An English Colony on the Chesapeake

     The Fragile Jamestown Settlement

     Cooperation and Conflict between Natives and Newcomers

     From Private Company to Royal Government

A Tobacco Society

     Tobacco Agriculture

     A Servant Labor System

     Cultivating Land and Faith

DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: Virginia Laws Governing Servants and Slaves

The Evolution of Chesapeake Society

     Social and Economic Polarization

     Government Policies and Political Conflict

     Bacon's Rebellion

Religion and Revolt in the Spanish Borderland

Toward a Slave Labor System

     The West Indies: Sugar and Slavery

     Carolina: A West Indian Frontier

     Slave Labor Emerges in the Chesapeake

GLOBAL COMPARISON: Migration to the New World from Europe and Africa, 1492-1700

Conclusion: The Growth of English Colonies Based on Export Crops and Slave Labor

4. The Northern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century, 1601-1700

Puritan Origins: The English Reformation

Puritans and the Settlement of New England

     The Pilgrims and Plymouth Colony

     The Founding of Massachusetts Bay Colony

The Evolution of New England Society

     Church, Covenant, and Conformity

     Government by Puritans for Puritanism

     The Splintering of Puritanism

     Religious Controversies and Economic Changes

The Founding of the Middle Colonies

     From New Netherland to New York

     New Jersey and Pennsylvania

     Toleration and Diversity in Pennsylvania

The Colonies and the English Empire

    Royal Regulation of Colonial Trade

     King Philip's War and the Consolidation of Royal Authority

BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: New France and the Indians: The English Colonies' Northern Borderlands

Conclusion: An English Model of Colonization in North America

5. Colonial America in the Eighteenth Century, 1701-1770

A Growing Population and Expanding Economy in British North America

New England: From Puritan Settlers to Yankee Traders

     Natural Increase and Land Distribution

     Farms, Fish, and Atlantic Trade

SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: A Sailor's Life in the Eighteenth-Century Atlantic World

The Middle Colonies: Immigrants, Wheat, and Work

     German and Scots-Irish Immigrants

     Pennsylvania: "The Best Poor [White] Man's Country"

The Southern Colonies: Land of Slavery

     The Atlantic Slave Trade and the Growth of Slavery

     Slave Labor and African American Culture

     Tobacco, Rice, and Prosperity

Unifying Experiences

     Commerce and Consumption

     Religion, Enlightenment, and Revival

     Borderlands and Colonial Politics in the British Empire

GLOBAL COMPARISON: Large Warships in European Navies, 1660-1760

Conclusion: The Dual Identity of British North American Colonists


6. The British Empire and the Colonial Crisis, 1754-1775

The Seven Years' War, 1754-1763

     French-British Rivalry in the Ohio Country

     The Albany Congress and Intercolonial Defense

     The War and Its Consequences

     British Leadership, Pontiac's Uprising, and the Proclamation of 1763

HISTORICAL QUESTION: How Long Did the Seven Years' War Last in Indian Country?

The Sugar and Stamp Acts, 1763-1765

     Grenville's Sugar Act

     The Stamp Act

     Resistance Strategies and Crowd Politics

     Liberty and Property

The Townshend Acts and Economic Retaliation, 1767-1770

     The Townshend Duties

     Nonconsumption and the Daughters of Liberty

     Military Occupation and "Massacre" in Boston

The Tea Party and the Coercive Acts, 1770-1774

     The Calm before the Storm

     Tea in Boston Harbor

     The Coercive Acts

     Beyond Boston: Rural Massachusetts

     The First Continental Congress

Domestic Insurrections, 1774-1775

     Lexington and Concord

     Rebelling against Slavery

Conclusion: How Far Does Liberty Go?

7. The War for America, 1775-1783

The Second Continental Congress

     Assuming Political and Military Authority

     Pursuing Both War and Peace

     Thomas Paine, Abigail Adams, and the Case for Independence

     The Declaration of Independence

The First Year of War, 1775-1776

     The American Military Forces

     The British Strategy

     Quebec, New York, and New Jersey

GLOBAL COMPARISON: How Tall Were Eighteenth-Century Men on Average?

The Home Front

     Patriotism at the Local Level

     The Loyalists

     Who Is a Traitor?

     Financial Instability and Corruption

BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: Prisoners of War in the Eighteenth Century

The Campaigns of 1777-1779: The North and West

     Burgoyne's Army and the Battle of Saratoga

     The War in the West: Indian Country

     The French Alliance

The Southern Strategy and the End of the War

     Georgia and South Carolina

     The Other Southern War: Guerrillas

     Surrender at Yorktown

     The Losers and the Winners

Conclusion: Why the British Lost

8. Building a Republic, 1775-1789

The Articles of Confederation

     Congress, Confederation, and the Problem of Western Lands

     Running the New Government

The Sovereign States

     The State Constitutions

     Who Are "the People"?

     Equality and Slavery


The Confederation's Problems

     Financial Chaos and Paper Money

     The Treaty of Fort Stanwix

     Land Ordinances and the Northwest Territory

     Shays's Rebellion, 1786-1787

The United States Constitution

     From Annapolis to Philadelphia

     The Virginia and New Jersey Plans

     Democracy versus Republicanism

Ratification of the Constitution

     The Federalists

     The Antifederalists

     The Big Holdouts: Virginia and New York

Conclusion: The "Republican Remedy"

9. The New Nation Takes Form, 1789-1800

The Search for Stability

     Washington Inaugurates the Government

     The Bill of Rights

     The Republican Wife and Mother

Hamilton's Economic Policies

     Agriculture, Transportation, and Banking

     The Public Debt and Taxes

     The First Bank of the United States and the Report on Manufactures

     The Whiskey Rebellion

BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: France, Britain, and Woman's Rights in the 1790s

Conflicts West, East, and South

     To the West: The Indians

     Across the Atlantic: France and Britain

     To the South: The Haitian Revolution

Federalists and Republicans

     The Election of 1796

     The XYZ Affair

     The Alien and Sedition Acts

Conclusion: Parties Nonetheless

10. Republicans in Power, 1800-1824

Jefferson's Presidency

     Turbulent Times: Election and Rebellion

     The Jeffersonian Vision of Republican Simplicity

     The Promise of the West: The Louisiana Purchase and the Lewis and Clark Expedition

     Challenges Overseas: The Barbary Wars

     More Transatlantic Troubles: Impressment and Embargo

HISTORICAL QUESTION: How Could a Vice President Get Away with Murder?

The Madisons in the White House

     Women in Washington City

     Indian Troubles in the West

     The War of 1812

     Washington City Burns: The British Offensive

Women's Status in the Early Republic

     Women and the Law

     Women and Church Governance

     Female Education

Monroe and Adams

     From Property to Democracy

     The Missouri Compromise

     The Monroe Doctrine

     The Election of 1824

     The Adams Administration

Conclusion: Republican Simplicity Becomes Complex

11. The Expanding Republic, 1815-1840

The Market Revolution

     Improvements in Transportation

     Factories, Workingwomen, and Wage Labor

     Bankers and Lawyers

     Booms and Busts

The Spread of Democracy

     Popular Politics and Partisan Identity

     The Election of 1828 and the Character Issue

     Jackson's Democratic Agenda

Jackson Defines the Democratic Party

     Indian Policy and the Trail of Tears

     The Tariff of Abominations and Nullification

     The Bank War and Economic Boom

Cultural Shifts, Religion, and Reform

     The Family and Separate Spheres

     The Education and Training of Youths

     The Second Great Awakening

     The Temperance Movement and the Campaign for Moral Reform

     Organizing against Slavery

GLOBAL COMPARISON: Changing Trends in Age at First Marriage for Women

BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: Transatlantic Abolition

Van Buren's One-Term Presidency

     The Politics of Slavery

     Elections and Panics

Conclusion: The Age of Jackson or the Era of Reform?

12. The New West and Free North, 1840-1860

Economic and Industrial Evolution

     Agriculture and Land Policy

     Manufacturing and Mechanization

     Railroads: Breaking the Bonds of Nature

Free Labor: Promise and Reality

     The Free-Labor Ideal: Freedom plus Labor

     Economic Inequality

     Immigrants and the Free-Labor Ladder

GLOBAL COMPARISON: Nineteenth-Century School Enrollment and Literacy Rates

The Westward Movement

     Manifest Destiny

     Oregon and the Overland Trail

     The Mormon Exodus

     The Mexican Borderlands

Expansion and the Mexican-American War

     The Politics of Expansion

     The Mexican-American War, 1846-1848

     Victory in Mexico

     Golden California

HISTORICAL QUESTION: Who Rushed for California Gold?

Reforming Self and Society

     The Pursuit of Perfection: Transcendentalists and Utopians

     Woman's Rights Activists

     Abolitionists and the American Ideal

Conclusion: Free Labor, Free Men

13. The Slave South, 1820-1860

The Growing Distinctiveness of the South

     Cotton Kingdom, Slave Empire

     The South in Black and White

     The Plantation Economy


Masters, Mistresses, and the Big House

     Plantation Masters

     Plantation Mistresses

Slaves and the Quarter


     Family, Religion, and Community

     Resistance and Rebellion

Black and Free: On the Middle Ground

     Precarious Freedom

     Achievement despite Restrictions

The Plain Folk

     Plantation Belt Yeomen

     Upcountry Yeomen

     Poor Whites

     The Culture of the Plain Folk

The Politics of Slavery

     The Democratization of the Political Arena

     Planter Power

Conclusion: A Slave Society

14. The House Divided, 1846-1861

The Bitter Fruits of War

     The Wilmot Proviso and the Expansion of Slavery

     The Election of 1848

     Debate and Compromise

The Sectional Balance Undone

     The Fugitive Slave Act

     Uncle Tom's Cabin

     The Kansas-Nebraska Act

Realignment of the Party System

     The Old Parties: Whigs and Democrats

     The New Parties: Know-Nothings and Republicans

     The Election of 1856

SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "A Purse of Her Own": Petitioning for the Right to Own Property

Freedom under Siege

     "Bleeding Kansas"

     The Dred Scott Decision

     Prairie Republican: Abraham Lincoln

     The Lincoln-Douglas Debates

The Union Collapses

     The Aftermath of John Brown's Raid

     Republican Victory in 1860

     Secession Winter

Conclusion: Slavery, Free Labor, and the Failure of Political Compromise

15. The Crucible of War, 1861-1865

"And the War Came"

     Attack on Fort Sumter

     The Upper South Chooses Sides

The Combatants

     How They Expected to Win

     Lincoln and Davis Mobilize

Battling It Out, 1861-1862

     Stalemate in the Eastern Theater

     Union Victories in the Western Theater

     The Atlantic Theater

     International Diplomacy

GLOBAL COMPARISON: European Cotton Imports, 1860-1870

Union and Freedom

     From Slaves to Contraband

     From Contraband to Free People

     War of Black Liberation

The South at War

     Revolution from Above

     Hardship Below

     The Disintegration of Slavery

SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: The Right to Fight: Black Soldiers in the Civil War

The North at War

     The Government and the Economy

     Women and Work on the Home Front

     Politics and Dissent

Grinding Out Victory, 1863-1865

     Vicksburg and Gettysburg

     Grant Takes Command

     The Election of 1864

     The Confederacy Collapses

Conclusion: The Second American Revolution

16. Reconstruction, 1863-1877

Wartime Reconstruction

     "To Bind Up the Nation's Wounds"

     Land and Labor

     The African American Quest for Autonomy


Presidential Reconstruction

     Johnson's Program of Reconciliation

     White Southern Resistance and Black Codes

     Expansion of Federal Authority and Black Rights

Congressional Reconstruction

     The Fourteenth Amendment and Escalating Violence

     Radical Reconstruction and Military Rule

     Impeaching a President

     The Fifteenth Amendment and Women's Demands

The Struggle in the South

     Freedmen, Yankees, and Yeomen

     Republican Rule

     White Landlords, Black Sharecroppers

Reconstruction Collapses

     Grant's Troubled Presidency

     Northern Resolve Withers

     White Supremacy Triumphs

     An Election and a Compromise

Conclusion: "A Revolution But Half Accomplished"

17. The Contested West, 1870-1900

Conquest and Empire in the West

     Indian Removal and the Reservation System

     The Decimation of the Great Bison Herds and the Fight for the Black Hills

     The Dawes Act and Indian Land Allotment

     Indian Resistance and Survival

BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: Imperialism, Colonialism, and the Treatment of the Sioux and the Zulu

Gold Fever and the Mining West

     Mining on the Comstock Lode

     Territorial Government

     The Diverse Peoples of the West

Land Fever

     Moving West: Homesteaders and Speculators

     Ranchers and Cowboys

     Tenants, Sharecroppers, and Migrants

     Commercial Farming and Industrial Cowboys

Conclusion: The Mythic West

18. Business and Politics in the Gilded Age, 1870-1895

Old Industries Transformed, New Industries Born

     Railroads: America's First Big Business

     Andrew Carnegie, Steel, and Vertical Integration

     John D. Rockefeller, Standard Oil, and the Trust

     New Inventions: The Telephone and Electricity

GLOBAL COMPARISON: Railroad Track Mileage, 1890


From Competition to Consolidation

     J. P. Morgan and Finance Capitalism

     Social Darwinism, Laissez-Faire, and the Supreme Court

Politics and Culture

     Political Participation and Party Loyalty

     Sectionalism and the New South

     Gender, Race, and Politics

     Women's Activism

Presidential Politics

     Corruption and Party Strife

     Garfield's Assassination and Civil Service Reform

     Reform and Scandal: The Campaign of 1884

Economic Issues and Party Realignment

     The Tariff and the Politics of Protection

     Railroads, Trusts, and the Federal Government

     The Fight for Free Silver

     Panic and Depression

Conclusion: Business Dominates an Era

19. The City and Its Workers, 1870-1900

The Rise of the City

     The Urban Explosion, a Global Migration

     Racism and the Cry for Immigration Restriction

     The Social Geography of the City

GLOBAL COMPARISON: European Emigration, 1870-1890

At Work in Industrial America

     America's Diverse Workers

     The Family Economy: Women and Children

     White-Collar Workers: Managers, "Typewriters," and Salesclerks

Workers Organize

     The Great Railroad Strike of 1877

     The Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor

     Haymarket and the Specter of Labor Radicalism

At Home and at Play

     Domesticity and "Domestics"

     Cheap Amusements

City Growth and City Government

     Building Cities of Stone and Steel

     City Government and the "Bosses"

     White City or City of Sin?

BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: The World's Columbian Exposition and Nineteenth-Century World's Fairs

Conclusion: Who Built the Cities?

20. Dissent, Depression, and War, 1890-1900

The Farmers' Revolt

     The Farmers' Alliance

     The Populist Movement

The Labor Wars

     The Homestead Lockout

     The Cripple Creek Miners' Strike of 1894

     Eugene V. Debs and the Pullman Strike

Women's Politics

     Frances Willard and the Woman's Christian Temperance Union

     Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and the Movement for Woman Suffrage

Depression Politics

     Coxey's Army

     The People's Party and the Election of 1896

The United States and the World

     Markets and Missionaries

     The Monroe Doctrine and the Open Door Policy

BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: Regime Change in Hawaii

War and Empire

     "A Splendid Little War"

     The Debate over American Imperialism

Conclusion: Rallying around the Flag

21. Progressivism from the Grass Roots to the White House, 1890-1916

Grassroots Progressivism

     Civilizing the City

     Progressives and the Working Class

Progressivism: Theory and Practice

     Reform Darwinism and Social Engineering

     Progressive Government: City and State

Progressivism Finds a President: Theodore Roosevelt

     The Square Deal

     Roosevelt the Reformer

     Roosevelt and Conservation

     The Big Stick

HISTORICAL QUESTION: Progressives and Conservation: Should Hetch Hetchy Be Dammed or Saved?

Progressivism Stalled

     The Troubled Presidency of William Howard Taft

     Progressive Insurgency and the Election of 1912

Woodrow Wilson and Progressivism at High Tide

     Wilson's Reforms: Tariff, Banking, and the Trusts

     Wilson, Reluctant Progressive

The Limits of Progressive Reform

     Radical Alternatives

     Progressivism for White Men Only

     Conclusion: The Transformation of the Liberal State

22. World War I: The Progressive Crusade at Home and Abroad, 1914-1920

Woodrow Wilson and the World

     Taming the Americas

     The European Crisis

     The Ordeal of American Neutrality

     The United States Enters the War

"Over There"

     The Call to Arms

     The War in France

GLOBAL COMPARISON: Casualties of the First World War

The Crusade for Democracy at Home

     The Progressive Stake in the War

     Women, War, and the Battle for Suffrage

     Rally around the Flag — or Else


A Compromised Peace

     Wilson's Fourteen Points

     The Paris Peace Conference

     The Fight for the Treaty

Democracy at Risk

     Economic Hardship and Labor Upheaval

     The Red Scare

     The Great Migrations of African Americans and Mexicans

     Postwar Politics and the Election of 1920

Conclusion: Troubled Crusade

23. From New Era to Great Depression, 1920-1932

The New Era

     A Business Government

     Promoting Prosperity and Peace Abroad

     Automobiles, Mass Production, and Assembly-Line Progress

     Consumer Culture

The Roaring Twenties


     The New Woman

     The New Negro

     Mass Culture

     The Lost Generation

SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: A Place of One's Own: The Quest for Home Ownership

Resistance to Change

     Rejecting the Undesirables

     The Rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan

     The Scopes Trial

     Al Smith and the Election of 1928

The Great Crash

     Herbert Hoover: The Great Engineer

     The Distorted Economy

     The Crash of 1929

     Hoover and the Limits of Individualism

Life in the Depression

     The Human Toll

     Denial and Escape

     Working-Class Militancy

Conclusion: Dazzle and Despair

24. The New Deal Experiment, 1932-1939

Franklin D. Roosevelt: A Patrician in Government

     The Making of a Politician

     The Election of 1932

Launching the New Deal

     The New Dealers

     Banking and Finance Reform

     Relief and Conservation Programs

    Agricultural Initiatives

     Industrial Recovery

Challenges to the New Deal

     Resistance to Business Reform

     Casualties in the Countryside

     Politics on the Fringes

SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: Textile Workers Strike for Better Wages and Working Conditions

Toward a Welfare State

     Relief for the Unemployed

     Empowering Labor

     Social Security and Tax Reform

     Neglected Americans and the New Deal

The New Deal from Victory to Deadlock

     The Election of 1936

     Court Packing

     Reaction and Recession

     The Last of the New Deal Reforms

GLOBAL COMPARISON: National Populations and Economies, ca. 1938

Conclusion: Achievements and Limitations of the New Deal

25. The United States and the Second World War, 1939-1945

Peacetime Dilemmas

     Roosevelt and Reluctant Isolation

    The Good Neighbor Policy

     The Price of Noninvolvement

The Onset of War

     Nazi Aggression and War in Europe

     From Neutrality to the Arsenal of Democracy

     Japan Attacks America

Mobilizing for War

     Home-Front Security

     Building a Citizen Army

     Conversion to a War Economy

GLOBAL COMPARISON: Weapons Production by the Axis and Allied Powers during World War II

Fighting Back

     Turning the Tide in the Pacific

     The Campaign in Europe

The Wartime Home Front

     Women and Families, Guns and Butter

     The Double V Campaign

     Wartime Politics and the 1944 Election

     Reaction to the Holocaust

Toward Unconditional Surrender

     From Bombing Raids to Berlin

     The Defeat of Japan

     Atomic Warfare

HISTORICAL QUESTION: Why Did the Allies Win World War II?

Conclusion: Allied Victory and America's Emergence as a Superpower

26. Cold War Politics in the Truman Years, 1945-1953

From the Grand Alliance to Containment

     The Cold War Begins

     The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan

     Building a National Security State

     Superpower Rivalry around the Globe


Truman and the Fair Deal at Home

     Reconverting to a Peacetime Economy

     Blacks and Mexican Americans Push for Their Civil Rights

     The Fair Deal Flounders

     The Domestic Chill: McCarthyism

The Cold War Becomes Hot: Korea

     Korea and the Military Implementation of Containment

     From Containment to Rollback to Containment

     Korea, Communism, and the 1952 Election

     An Armistice and the War's Costs

Conclusion: The Cold War's Costs and Consequences

27. The Politics and Culture of Abundance, 1952-1960

Eisenhower and the Politics of the "Middle Way"

     Modern Republicanism

     Termination and Relocation of Native Americans

     The 1956 Election and the Second Term

Liberation Rhetoric and the Practice of Containment

     The "New Look" in Foreign Policy

     Applying Containment to Vietnam

     Interventions in Latin America and the Middle East

     The Nuclear Arms Race

SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: Operation Pedro Pan: Young Political Refugees Take Flight

New Work and Living Patterns in an Economy of Abundance

     Technology Transforms Agriculture and Industry

     Burgeoning Suburbs and Declining Cities

     The Rise of the Sun Belt

     The Democratization of Higher Education

The Culture of Abundance

     Consumption Rules the Day

     The Revival of Domesticity and Religion

     Television Transforms Culture and Politics


GLOBAL COMPARISON: The Baby Boom in International Perspective

Emergence of a Civil Rights Movement

     African Americans Challenge the Supreme Court and the President

     Montgomery and Mass Protest

Conclusion: Peace and Prosperity Mask Unmet Challenges

28. Reform, Rebellion, and Reaction, 1960-1974

Liberalism at High Tide

     The Unrealized Promise of Kennedy's New Frontier

     Johnson Fulfills the Kennedy Promise

     Policymaking for a Great Society

     Assessing the Great Society

     The Judicial Revolution

The Second Reconstruction

     The Flowering of the Black Freedom Struggle

     The Response in Washington

     Black Power and Urban Rebellions

A Multitude of Movements

     Native American Protest

     Latino Struggles for Justice

     Student Rebellion, the New Left, and the Counterculture

     Gay Men and Lesbians Organize

     A New Movement to Save the Environment

The New Wave of Feminism

     A Multifaceted Movement Emerges

     Feminist Gains Spark a Countermovement

BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: Transnational Feminisms

Liberal Reform in the Nixon Administration

     Extending the Welfare State and Regulating the Economy

     Responding to Demands for Social Justice

Conclusion: Achievements and Limitations of Liberalism

29. Vietnam and the Limits of Power, 1961-1975

New Frontiers in Foreign Policy

     Meeting the "Hour of Maximum Danger"

     New Approaches to the Third World

     The Arms Race and the Nuclear Brink

     A Growing War in Vietnam

Lyndon Johnson's War against Communism

     An All-Out Commitment in Vietnam

     Preventing Another Castro in Latin America

     The Americanized War

HISTORICAL QUESTION: Why Couldn't the United States Bomb Its Way to Victory in Vietnam?

A Nation Polarized

     The Widening War at Home

     1968: Year of Upheaval

Nixon, Detente, and the Search for Peace in Vietnam

     Moving toward Detente with the Soviet Union and China

     Shoring Up Anticommunism in the Third World

     Vietnam Becomes Nixon's War

     The Peace Accords and the Legacy of Defeat

Conclusion: An Unwinnable War

30. America Moves to the Right, 1969-1989

Nixon and the Rise of Postwar Conservatism

     Emergence of a Grassroots Movement

     Nixon Courts the Right

Constitutional Crisis and Restoration

     The Election of 1972


     The Ford Presidency and the 1976 Election

The "Outsider" Presidency of Jimmy Carter

     Retreat from Liberalism

     Energy and Environmental Reform

     Promoting Human Rights Abroad

     The Cold War Intensifies

GLOBAL COMPARISON: Energy Consumption per Capita, 1980

Ronald Reagan and the Conservative Ascendancy

     Appealing to the New Right and Beyond

     Unleashing Free Enterprise

     Winners and Losers in a Flourishing Economy


Continuing Struggles over Rights

     Battles in the Courts and Congress

     Feminism on the Defensive

     The Gay and Lesbian Rights Movement

Ronald Reagan Confronts an "Evil Empire"

     Militarization and Interventions Abroad

     The Iran-Contra Scandal

     A Thaw in Soviet-American Relations

Conclusion: Reversing the Course of Government

31. The End of the Cold War and the Challenges of Globalization Since 1989

The Presidency of George H. W. Bush

     Gridlock in Government

     Going to War in Central America and the Persian Gulf

     The End of the Cold War

     The 1992 Election

SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: Suing for Access: Disability and the Courts

The Clinton Administration's Search for the Middle Ground

     Clinton's Promise of Change

     The Clinton Administration Moves Right

     Impeaching the President

     The Booming Economy of the 1990s

The United States in a Globalizing World

     Defining America's Place in a New World Order

     Debates over Globalization

     The Internationalization of the United States

GLOBAL COMPARISON: Countries with the Highest Military Expenditures, 2005

President George W. Bush: Conservatism at Home and Radical Initiatives Abroad

     The Disputed Election of 2000

     The Domestic Policies of a "Compassionate Conservative"

     The Globalization of Terrorism

     Unilateralism, Preemption, and the Iraq War

     Barack Obama and the Promise of Change

Conclusion: Defining the Government's Role at Home and Abroad

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