Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Silicon-Based Films 2003: Volume 762

Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Silicon-Based Films 2003: Volume 762

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Overview

Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Silicon-Based Films 2003: Volume 762 by John R. Abelson

Amorphous silicon technology has been the subject of symposia every year since 1984. This remarkable longevity is due to the continuous emergence of new scientific questions and new technological challenges for silicon thin films. Earlier there was a strong emphasis on methods to achieve high deposition rates using plasma or hot-wire chemical vapor deposition, and on the properties and applications of nanocrystalline silicon films, which for example have been incorporated into stacked a-Si:H/nc-Si:H solar cells. The papers appearing in this book are sorted under six chapter headings on the basis of subject matter. Chapter I is concerned with amorphous network structures, electronic metastability, defects, and photoluminescence. Chapter II focuses on thin-film transistors and imager arrays. Chapter III covers solar cells. Chapter IV addresses growth mechanisms, hot-filament CVD, and nc-Si:H growth. Chapter V contains all remaining topics in film growth, especially those related to devices. Finally, Chapter VI focuses on crystallized film.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781558996991
Publisher: Materials Research Society
Publication date: 11/12/2003
Series: MRS Proceedings Series , #762
Pages: 794
Product dimensions: 6.40(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.90(d)

Table of Contents

Prefacexix
Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedingsxx
Amorphous Network Structures, Electronic Metastability, Defects and Photoluminescence
Numerical Studies of the Dynamics of Silicon: Relaxation, Nucleation and Energy Landscape3
Atomistic Character of Nanocrystalline and Mixed Phase Silicon15
Kinetics of Light-Induced Effects in Mixed-Phase Hydrogenated Silicon Solar Cells21
Temperature Dependence of a Hydrogen Doublet Site in Light-Soaked a-Si:H From [superscript 1]H NMR27
Evidence for Trap-Conversion Induced Instability in Amorphous Silicon33
Evolution of Charged Gap States in a-Si:H Under Light Exposure39
Metamict Transformation of Silica45
Metastable Defects in the Amorphous Silicon-Germanium Alloys51
Temperature Dependence of the Decay of Optically Excited Charge Carriers in Amorphous Silicon63
Electron-Spin-Resonance Investigation of Laser Crystallized Polycrystalline Silicon69
Time-Resolved Switching Studies in a-Si:H and Related Films75
Adsorption and Oxidation Effects in Microcrystalline Silicon81
Silicon Nanostructured Films Formed by Pulsed-Laser Deposition in Inert Gas and Reactive Gas87
Origin of the Low-Energy Photoluminescence in Microcrystalline Silicon Films93
Post-Transit Analysis of Transient Photocurrents From High-Deposition-Rate a-Si:H Samples99
Size Distribution of Embedded Nano-Crystallites in Polymorphous Silicon Studied by Raman Spectroscopy and Photoluminescence105
Thin Film Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy and Second Harmonic Generation on Thin a-Si:H Films111
High Frequency Electron Spin Resonance Study of Hydrogenated Microcrystalline Silicon117
Photoelectron Spectroscopic Investigations of Very Thin a-Si:H Layers125
Determination of Defect Densities by Constant Photocurrent Method--Comparison of AC and DC Methods131
Depth Profiling of Light-Induced Defects in Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon by Transient Photocurrent Spectroscopy137
A Study of Electronic Defects in Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Prepared by the Expanding Thermal Plasma Technique143
Thin Film Transistors and Imager Arrays
Performance of Thin-Film Silicon MEMS Resonators in Vacuum151
Area-Dependent Switching in Thin-Film Silicon Devices157
Properties of Silicon Nitride Films Prepared by Combination of Catalytic-Nitridation and Catalytic-CVD163
High-Rate ([greater than sign] 1nm/s) and Low-Temperature ([less than sign] 400[degree]C) Deposition of Silicon Nitride Using an N[subscript 2]/SiH[subscript 4] and NH[subscript 3]/SiH[subscript 4] Expanding Thermal Plasma169
Switch-On Transients and Static Characteristics of Polymorphous and Amorphous Silicon Thin-Film Transistor175
Dependences of Structural Parameters on the Characteristics of Poly-Si Thin-Film Transistors After Plasma Passivation181
Above-Threshold Parameter Extraction Including Contact Resistance Effects for a-Si:H TFTs on Glass and Plastic187
Mechanical Stress and Process Integration of Direct X-ray Detector and TFT in a-Si:H Technology193
Stacked n-i-p-n-i-p Heterojunctions for Image Recognition199
Development of Vertically Integrated Imaging and Particle Sensors205
An Amorphous Silicon Photoconductor for UV Detection211
Correlation Between the Tunneling Oxide and I-V Curves of MIS Photodiodes217
Numerical Simulation of the Influence of the Gap State of a-Si:H on the Characteristics of a-Si:H p-i-n/OLED Coupling Device223
Low-Temperature Growth of Poly-Si and SiGe Thin Films by Reactive Thermal CVD and Fabrication of High Mobility TFTs Over 50 cm[superscript 2]/Vs229
Improvement of Gate Oxide Integrity in Low Temperature Poly Silicon TFT241
Threshold Voltage Performance of a-Si:H TFTs for Analog Applications247
Characteristics of Bottom Gate Thin Film Transistors With Silicon Rich Poly-Si[subscript 1-x]Ge[subscript x] and Poly-Si Fabricated by Reactive Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition253
Optoelectronic Detection of DNA Molecules Using an Amorphous Silicon Photodetector259
Fabrication of Novel TFT LCD Panels With High Aperture Ratio Using a-SiCO:H Films as a Passivation Layer265
Leakage Current Behavior In Common i-Layer a-Si:H p-i-n Photodiode Arrays271
Enhanced Blue Sensitivity in ITO/a-SiN[subscript x]:H/a-Si:H MIS Photodetectors277
Solar Cells
Amorphous and Microcrystalline Silicon Based Solar Cells and Modules on Textured Zinc Oxide Coated Glass Substrates285
Bandtail Limits to Solar Conversion Efficiencies in Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells297
Carrier Transport and Recombination in a-Si:H p-i-n Solar Cells in Dark and Under Illumination303
Hydrogenated Microcrystalline Silicon Single-Junction and Multi-Junction Solar Cells309
Electronic Properties of Microcrystalline Silicon Investigated by Photoluminescence Spectroscopy on Films and Devices321
Localized States in Microcrystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Structures Studied by Post-Transit Time-of-Flight Spectroscopy327
Femtosecond Far-Infrared Studies of Carrier Dynamics in Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon and Silicon-Germanium Alloys333
Micro-Raman Studies of Mixed-Phase Hydrogenated Silicon Solar Cells339
Hole Drift-Mobility Measurements in Contemporary Amorphous Silicon345
Recombination in n-i-p (Substrate) a-Si:H Solar Cells With Silicon Carbide and Protocrystalline p-Layers351
Nanocrystalline Silicon (nc-Si) From Single Ion Beam Sputtering357
Correlation of Material Properties and Open-Circuit Voltage of Amorphous Silicon Based Solar Cells363
Simulations of Buffer Layers in a-Si:H Thin Film Solar Cells Deposited With an Expanding Thermal Plasma369
Microcrystalline (Si,Ge):H Solar Cells375
Investigation of the Causes and Variation of Leakage Currents in Amorphous Silicon p-i-n Diodes381
Deposition of Device Quality [mu]c-Si Films and Solar Cells at High Rates by HWCVD in a W Filament Regime Where W/Si Formation is Minimal387
Room Temperature Recovery of Light Induced Changes in Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells393
Toward Understanding the Degradation Without Light Soaking in Hot-Wire a-Si:H Thin Films and Solar Cells399
Material Aspects of Reactively MF-Sputtered Zinc Oxide for TCO Application in Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells405
Growth Mechanisms, Hot Filament CVD and Microcrystalline Si:H Growth
Combinatorial Approach to Thin-Film Silicon Materials and Devices413
Calculations of SiH[subscript 3] Diffusion and Growth Processes on a-Si:H Surfaces425
The a-Si:H Growth Mechanism: Temperature Study of the SiH[subscript 3] Surface Reactivity and the Surface Silicon Hydride Composition During Film Growth431
Effects of Excitation Frequency and H[subscript 2] Dilution on Cluster Generation in Silane High-Frequency Discharges437
Application of Deposition Phase Diagrams for the Optimization of a-Si:H-Based Materials and Solar Cells443
Influence of Filament and Substrate Temperatures on Structural and Optoelectronic Properties of Narrow Gap a-SiGe:H Alloys Deposited by Hot-Wire CVD455
On the Role of Surface Diffusion and Its Relation to the Hydrogen Incorporation During Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Growth461
Effect of Temperature and Temperature Uniformity on Plasma and Device Stability467
Hydrosilylation of Silicon Surfaces: Crystalline Versus Amorphous473
Present Status of Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition Technology479
Properties of High Quality p-Type Micro-Crystalline-Si Prepared by Cat-CVD491
Investigations on the Real-Time Monitoring of the Crystallinity of Hydrogenated Microcrystalline Silicon Films497
Towards Microcrystalline Silicon n-i-p Solar Cells With 10% Conversion Efficiency503
Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Thin Films With Nanocrystalline Silicon Inclusions509
Microstructure and Optical Functions of Transparent Conductors and Their Impact on Collection in Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells515
Reaction Control in Amorphous Silicon Film Deposition by Hydrogen Chloride521
Material Structure of Microcrystalline Silicon Deposited With an Expanding Thermal Plasma527
Microcrystalline Silicon Thin Film Growth by Electron Cyclotron Resonance Chemical Vapour Deposition at 80[degree]C for Plastic Application533
Evolution of Crystallinity in Mixed-Phase (a+[mu]c)-Si:H as Determined by Real Time Spectroscopic Ellipsometry539
Structural Characterization of Microcrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Fabricated by Conventional RF-PECVD545
Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition for Epitaxial Silicon Growth on Large-Grained Polycrystalline Silicon Templates551
Film Growth Related to Devices
Helium Versus Hydrogen Dilution of Silane in the Deposition of Polymorphous Silicon Films: Effects on the Structure and the Transport Properties559
Characterization of Nanocrystalline Silicon Film Grown by LEPECVD for Photovoltaic Applications565
Influence of Substrate Temperature and Hydrogen Dilution Ratio on the Properties of Nanocrystalline Silicon Thin Films Grown by Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition571
Electrical Properties of Phosphorus-Doped and Boron-Doped Nanocrystalline Germanium Thin-Films for p-i-n Devices577
p- and n-Type Microcrystalline SiC Fabricated by rf Plasma CVD With Ethane Gas583
Polymorphous Silicon Films Produced in Large Area Reactors by PECVD at 27.12 MHz and 13.56 MHz589
Surface Roughness Study of Low-Temperature PECVD a-Si:H595
Hollow Electrode Enhanced RF Glow Plasma Generation and Its Application to the Fast Deposition of Microcrystalline Silicon Films601
The Reliability of Measurements on Electron Energy Distribution Function in Silane rf Glow Discharges607
High Rate Deposition of Stable Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon in Transition From Amorphous to Microcrystalline Silicon613
Properties of Nanocrystalline Germanium-Carbon Films and Devices619
Structural Evolution of Nanocrystalline Germanium Thin Films With Film Thickness and Substrate Temperature625
Process Parameters for Poly-Silicon Deposition at a High Growth Rate (1-7nm/s) by Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition631
High Temperature n- and p-Type Doped Microcrystalline Silicon Layers Grown by VHF PECVD Layer-by-Layer Deposition637
Deposition of Device Quality [mu]c-Si Films and Solar Cells at High Rates by HWCVD in a W Filament Regime Where W/Si Formation is Minimal643
Influence of Hydrogen Dilution on Properties of Silicon Films Prepared by D.C. Saddle-Field Glow-Discharge: Observation of Microcrystallinity649
Reactive Pulsed Laser Deposition of Microcrystalline Ge-Based Thin Films655
Electrical and Optical Properties of Amorphous and Microcrystalline Hydrogenated Silicon Films Deposited Using Saddle-Field Glow-Discharge661
Crystallized Films
Stress Effects on Nanocrystal Formation by Ni-Induced Crystallization of Amorphous Si669
Field-Assisted Germanium Induced Crystallization of Amorphous Silicon675
Prediction of the Interface Response Functions for Amorphous and Crystalline Phases of Silicon and Germanium681
Advanced Lateral Crystal Growth of a-Si Thin Films by Double-Pulsed Irradiation of All Solid-State Lasers687
Influence of Laser Annealing on Hydrogen Bonding in Disordered Silicon Thin Films693
Metal Containing Link Formed in Amorphous Silicon Metal-to-Metal Antifuse699
Direct Electrical Characterization of Metal Induced Lateral Crystallization Regions by Spreading Resistance Probe Measurements705
Effect of SiO[subscript 2] Capping Layer on a Laser Crystallization of a-Si Thin Film711
Laser Interference Structuring of a-GeN for the Production of Optical Diffraction Gratings717
Observation and Annealing of Incomplete Recrystallized Junction Defects Due to the Excimer Laser Beam Diffraction at the Gate Edge in Poly-Si TFT723
2-Dimensional Controlled Large Lateral Grain Growth on the Floating Amorphous Silicon Film by Excimer Laser Recrystallization729
Improved Electrical Properties in Nanocrystalline Si Formed by Metal Induced Growth735
A Simple Lateral Grain Growth of Poly-Si by Single Excimer Laser Crystallization of Amorphous Silicon Film Deposited on Polygon Shaped Trench741
Formation of Large, Orientation-Controlled, Nearly Single Crystalline Si Thin Films on SiO[subscript 2] Using Contact Printing of Rolled and Annealed Nickel Tapes747
Lifetime Measurements of Stain Etched and Passivated Porous Silicon753
Anomalous Behavior of Stain Etched Porous Silicon Photoluminescence759
Scattering Rings in Birefringent Porous Silicon767
Light and Thermally Induced Metastabilities in Nanocrystalline Silicon773
Physicochemical Characterization of Porous Silicon Surfaces Etched in Salt Solutions of Varying Compositions and pH779
Author Index785
Subject Index791

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