An Interpretive Lexicon of New Testament Greek: Analysis of Prepositions, Adverbs, Particles, Relative Pronouns, and Conjunctions

An Interpretive Lexicon of New Testament Greek: Analysis of Prepositions, Adverbs, Particles, Relative Pronouns, and Conjunctions

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Overview

This Interpretive Lexicon has two primary functions aimed at facilitating the exegetical and translational task, namely as a lexicon and also as an interpretive handbook. First, this book lists the vast majority of Greek prepositions, adverbs, particles, relative pronouns, conjunctions, and other connecting words that are notorious for being some of the most difficult words to translate. For each word included, page references are given for several major lexical resources where the user can quickly go to examine the nuances and parameters of the word for translation options. This book will save considerable time for students of the Greek New Testament text. For example, for the Greek preposition en (occurs 2,750 times in the New Testament) covers four pages of small print in the Bauer-Danker lexicon (BDAG). But Interpretive Lexicon digests those pages in just a few lines, with the page numbers and section references given for A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, 3rd Edition (BDAG, ’00) and 2nd Edition (BAGD, ’79), Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics (Daniel B. Wallace), and Prepositions and Theology in the Greek New Testament (Murray J. Harris). Thus, the translation options can be analyzed quickly. For words with a lower frequency of occurrence and fewer translation options, this book may be sufficient in itself as a lexicon.

Secondly, these prepositions, conjunctions, adverbs, and connecting words in Greek, as in every language, function as explicit discourse-level markers that are essential for ascertaining the main point(s) of a passage. Therefore, this Interpretive Lexicon also evaluates the discourse function(s) of each word that is defined and catalogued, and categorizes its semantic range into defined logical relationships. This feature of the lexicon adds an interpretive element, since translation must include interpretation, at least on a linguistic level. For example, en may be translated in many ways, but those ways are categorized broadly in this book into relationships such as locative (in, among, on), means-end (with, by), grounds (because, on account of), temporal (while, at), and so on. This interpretive feature of the book is tremendously helpful for the exegetical process, allowing for the translator to closely follow the logical flow of the text with greater efficiency. This Interpretive Lexicon is thus a remarkable resource for student, pastor, and scholar alike.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780310494119
Publisher: Zondervan
Publication date: 10/28/2014
Pages: 96
Sales rank: 616,034
Product dimensions: 5.30(w) x 7.80(h) x 0.40(d)
Age Range: 18 Years

About the Author

Gregory K. Beale (Ph D, University of Cambridge) is J. Gresham Machen Chair of New Testatment, Proferssor of New Testament and Bible Theology at Wheaton College Graduate School.


William A. Ross is a doctoral student at the University of Cambridge.

Read an Excerpt

An Interpretive Lexicon of New Testament Greek

Analysis of Prepositions, Adverbs, Particles, Relative Pronouns, and Conjunctions


By Gregory K. Beale, Daniel J. Brendsel, William A. Ross

ZONDERVAN

Copyright © 2014 Gregory K. Beale, William A. Ross, and Daniel Brendsel
All rights reserved.
ISBN: 978-0-310-49411-9


CHAPTER 1

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

pp. 44–45, pp. 38–39

Adversative Particle (or conjunction)

1. on the contrary, yet, but, rather (often after a negative or [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]); -/+ [1, 3, 4b]

2. but, yet, nevertheless, rather; Adv or Alt [2, 3, 4a] [2, 3, 4, 5]

3. now, then (usually in dialogue: Acts 10:20); S-R [5] [6]

4. so, therefore, accordingly (rare: Eph 5:24?); [5] [6]

5. certainly, at least; NLR [4a] [4]

Wallace—independent clauses with a coordinating conjunction, p. 657; common coordinating conjunctions, p. 669; logical contrastive (adversative) and correlative (paired) conjunctions, pp. 671–72; logical emphatic conjunctions, p. 673.


[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

* p. 49, p. 42

Adverb

1. at the same time (often with a temporal participle); T or S [1] [1a]

2. together with (sometimes with [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]); NLR [2a] [1b]


Used as a Preposition

1. together with (rare: Matt 13:29); T [2b] [2]

Harris—"improper" prepositions in Hellenistic Greek with chart, p. 241; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], p. 242.


[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

pp. 56–57, pp. 48–49


Particle

1. (if) ... then (in an apodosis or second part of a conditional sentence), (if) ... would (esp. in adversative conditional scenarios; cf. Luke 7:39); C?-E [I.a, I.b] [1, 2] (cf. , p. 277 [1, 2], p. 219 [I])

2. when, whenever, as soon/often as, every time (usually with subj. and combined with other temporal particles or conjunctions, e.g., [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]; see entries below); T [I.c] [3]

3. (following [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]; see entry below); M-Ed [I.d] [4]

4. (sometimes in place of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [rare: John 13:20; Acts 9:2], on which see [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] below); NLR

Wallace—dependent (subordinate) clauses with conditional subjunctive and the construction of the conjunction [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], pp. 469–70; the potential optative mood, pp. 483–84; dependent, indefinite relative clauses, p. 660; the structure of conditions, p. 689; second class (contrary to fact) conditions, pp. 694–96; fourth class (less probable future) conditions, pp. 699–701.


[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

pp. 57–58, p. 49

Preposition with accusative

1. among, between, in the middle, in the midst of; L [1]

2. in turn, in sequence; NLR [2]

3. each, apiece; NLR [3]

Wallace—basic distributive use with genitive, p. 364.

Harris [pp. 45–48]—NT uses of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], pp. 45–46; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in Revelation, pp. 46–48; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in compounds, p. 48.


[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

p. 78, p. 65

Preposition with genitive

1. without; NLR [a, b] [1, 2]

Harris—chart of "improper" prepositions in Hellenistic Greek, p. 241; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], pp. 242–43; notable uses of selected "improper" prepositions: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], pp. 253–55.


[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

* see [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], p. 88, pp. 73–74

Preposition with relative pronoun used as a conjunction

1. because; G [4] [3]

2. therefore, wherefore, so then (rare: Luke 12:3); [therefore] [5] [3]

Wallace—adverbial/conjunctive use of the relative pronoun with a preposition, p. 342.

Harris—basic idea and NT use, p. 49.


[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

pp. 87–88, pp. 73–74

Preposition with genitive

1. as, for, in place of, in exchange for, instead of, in behalf of; Gn-Sp or NLR [1, 2, 3]

2. instead (see Jas 4:15); -/+ or Alt [3]


See also entries for [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] above and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] below.

Wallace—basic uses and significant passages, pp. 365–68; comparison with [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], the issue of atonement, and other significant passages, pp. 383–89.

Harris [pp. 49–56]—basic idea and NT use, p. 49; use as equivalent, pp. 49–50, exchange, p. 50; substitution, pp. 50–51; important NT uses, pp. 51–56; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in compounds, p. 56.


[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

* see [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], p. 88, p. 73

Preposition with demonstrative pronoun used as a conjunction

1. because of, for this reason, therefore (rare: Eph 5:31);

[therefore] [4] [3]

Harris—basic idea and NT use, p. 49.


[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

* p. 89, p. 74

Adverb used as preposition with genitive

1. opposite (rare: Acts 20:15); L

Harris—"improper" prepositions in Hellenistic Greek with chart, pp. 240–41; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], p. 243.


[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

* p. 90, p. 75

Adverb used as preposition with genitive

1. opposite (rare: Luke 8:26); L

Harris—chart of "improper" prepositions in Hellenistic Greek, p. 241; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], p. 243.


[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

* p. 101, p. 84

Adverb used as preposition with genitive

1. opposite, before, in the presence of; L [1b] [1]

2. against, contrary to; W-Ed or Gn-Sp [2]

Harris—chart of "improper" prepositions in Hellenistic Greek, pp. 240–41; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], p. 243.


[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

pp. 105–7, pp. 86–88

Preposition with genitive

1. from, away from, out from; L [1b, 2a, 3, 4] [I.2, II.1, III, IV]

2. because of, as a result of, for, with; C-E or G [5] [V]

3. from ... (on/until), since, when, beginning with (sometimes with [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], or the rel. pron.); T [2b] [II.2]

4. of, from; Gn-Sp [1f] [I.6]

5. with, with the help of (rare: Rev 18:15); W-Ed [5b] [V.2]

Wallace—ablatival genitive of separation pp. 107–9, and of source (origin) p. 109; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and the genitive of time, p. 123; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with pronouns, p. 343 (see also entry for [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] below); spatial diagram, p. 358; basic uses and significant passages, p. 368.

Harris [pp. 57–67]—relation of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], pp. 57–58; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], pp. 58–60; ellipses with (pregnant) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], pp. 60–61; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in Paul's epistolary salutations, p. 62; other notable instances, pp. 62–67; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in compounds, p. 67.


[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

* p. 127, pp. 103–4

Particle

1. then, so, consequently, as a result, you see, therefore; [therefore] or C-E [1, 2b] [1, 2, 4]

2. then (introducing the apodosis, or second part of a conditional sentence [as a complement to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]; see entry below]); C?-E [2a] [3]

3. (after [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) then, otherwise; NLR [1a] [3]

4. (combined with [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]; see also entry below) therefore, then, so then; P or [therfore] [2b] [4]

Wallace—independent clauses introduced by a coordinating conjunction, p. 658; and by logical inferential conjunctions, p. 673.


[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

* p. 127, p. 104

Interrogative particle

1. then (rare: Luke 18:8; Acts 8:30; Gal 2:17); T, C?-E, and/or Q-A


[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

* p. 148, p. 120

Preposition with genitive

1. without, apart from; L or W-Ed

Harris— chart of "improper" prepositions in Hellenistic Greek, p. 241; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], p. 243.


[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

see [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], p. 105, p. 87; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], p. 727, p. 585

Preposition with genitive relative pronoun

1. when once, since, until (the time when) (rare: Luke 13:25; Col 1:6, 9); T ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [2bγ] [II.2c]; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [1kζ] [I.11f])

Wallace—adverbial/conjunctive use of the relative pronoun with a preposition, p. 343.

Harris—relation of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] pp. 57–58; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], pp. 58–60; ellipses with (pregnant) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], pp. 60–61; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in Paul's epistolary salutations, p. 62; other notable instances, pp. 62–67; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in compounds, p. 67.


[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

* pp. 160–61, pp. 128–29; see also [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] p. 727, p. 585

Preposition with genitive used as a conjunction

1. until (also with rel. pro. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]); T [1] [1a, 2] (see also [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [1kζ] [I.11f])

2. as far as; L [2] [1b, 2]

Wallace—genitive after certain prepositions, p. 136; subjunctive in indefinite temporal clause, p. 479; use with future and aorist tense, p. 568 n. 4; adverbial temporal conjunctions, p. 677.

Harris— chart of "improper" prepositions in Hellenistic Greek, p. 241; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], pp. 243–44.


[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

pp. 189–90, pp. 151–52

Conjunction

1. for, because; G [1]

2. for, you see, moreover, now; Ft-In or Gn-Sp [2] [2, 4]

3. therefore, so, then, certainly, by all means; [therefore] [3] [3, 4]

4. indeed, to be sure, certainly (similar to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]); S or P [2] [4]

5. but, although (rare: Rom 5:7); Adv or Alt [2] [4]

Wallace—independent clauses introduced by a coordinating, explanatory conjunction, p. 658; introducing subordinate causal clauses, p. 662 n. 12; common Greek coordinating conjunctions, pp. 668–69; logical explanatory, inferential, and causal conjunctions, pp. 673–74.


[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

p. 190, pp. 152–53

Enclitic Particle

1. yet, at least; Adv [aα] [1]

2. even, indeed; Ft-In or NLR [aβ] [2]

3. though, although (with [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] or [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]); Adv [bγ, δ] [3c, d]

See also entry for [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] below.

Wallace—emphatic conjunctions, p. 673.


[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

p. 213, p. 171

Particle used as a conjunction

1. and, as for, then, so, at the same time, and also (with [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]), untranslated;S or P [1, 2, 3, 5] [1c, 2, 3, 4]

2. but (sometimes with [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: but also/even), rather, on the other hand; Adv, -/+, or Alt [4a, b, c, 5] [1a, b, d, 4]

3. now, that is; Ft-In or Gn-Sp [2]

4. and, then, now, so; C-E or S-R [2, 4a] [not in BAGD]

5. then (introducing an apodosis, or second part of a conditional sentence) (rare: 2 Pet 1:5, see v. 3 for protasis); C?-E [4d] [1e]

In combination with [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], see entry for [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] below.

Wallace—the article in place of or amplifying the personal pronoun, pp. 211–13; independent clauses introduced by a coordinating, connective conjunction, p. 657, and correlative conjunction, p. 658; common Greek coordinating conjunctions, p. 669; logical conjunctions: ascensive conjunctions, p. 670, connective (continuative, coordinate) conjunctions, p. 671, contrastive (adversative) conjunctions p. 671; correlative (paired) conjunctions, p. 672, explanatory conjunctions, p. 673.


[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

pp. 220–21, p. 177 Ordinal number sometimes used as an adverb

1. second (esp. in a sequence or list); P or NLR [1, 2] [3, 4]


[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

* p. 222, p. 178

Particle

1. now, then, therefore; [therefore] , Ft-In, or NLR [1, 2]

Wallace—emphatic conjunctions, p. 673.


[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

pp. 223–26, pp. 179–81

Preposition with genitive

1. through, via, throughout; L [A1] [A.I]

2. throughout, through, during, after; T [A2] [A.II]

3. by, via, through (the agency of); M-Ed [A3a, d, e, f, A4] [A.III.1a, d, e, f, A.III.2]

4. by, in; W-Ed [A3b, c] [A.III.1b, c]

5. via, by; C-E or G [A3d, e, 5] [A.III.1d, e, A.IV]


Preposition with accusative

1. because of, for the sake of, for this reason (with, e.g., [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]; also see entry for [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] below); C-E, [therefore], or G [B2] [B.II]

2. through (rare: Luke 17:11); L [B1] [B.I]

3. why? (in interrogative clauses, often with [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]); Q-A [B2b] [B.II.2]

See also [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] + inf., and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], below

Wallace—genitive of agency, p. 126; dative of agency and the intermediate agent, p. 164; demonstrative pronouns used as conceptual antecedent/postcedent, p. 333; spatial diagram, p. 358; basic uses and significant passages, pp. 368–69; passive voice, prepositions, and agency, pp. 431–34; adverbial, causal use of the infinitive, pp. 596–97; articular infinitives with a governing preposition, p. 610; independent clauses introduced by a prepositional phrase, p. 658.

Harris [pp. 69–82]—origin and basic idea, p. 69; notable instances of main uses: temporal, pp. 69–70, means/ instrument/agent, pp. 70–72, cause or ground, pp. 72–76, attendant/accompanying/prevailing circumstances and manner, pp. 77–80, purpose?, pp. 80–82; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in compounds, p. 82.


[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] + inf.

see [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] p. 226, p. 181

Preposition with accusative articular infinitive

1. because; G [B2c] [B.II.3]

Wallace— infinitive, adverbial uses, cause, pp. 596–97; articular infinitives, p. 610.


[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

See [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] pp. 225–26, p. 181; cf. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] p. 251, p. 199

Prepositional phrase used as a conjunction

1. because of this, for the sake of this, for this reason; C-E, [therfore], G, or Gn-Sp [B2] [B.II] (see also entry for [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] below)

Wallace—demonstrative pronouns used as conceptual antecedent/postcedent, p. 333; independent clauses introduced by a prepositional phrase, p. 658.


[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

p. 250, p. 198

Conjunction

1. therefore, for this reason; [therefore]

Wallace—classification of independent clauses: introduced by a coordinating conjunction, pp. 657–58; inferential conjunctions, p. 673.


[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

* p. 250, p. 199

Conjunction

1. therefore, for this very reason; [therefore]


[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

* p. 251, p. 199

Conjunction

1. because, for; C-E or G [1, 3]

2. therefore (=[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], on which see [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] above; rare: Acts 13:35); [therefore] [2]

3. that; (rare: Rom 8:21 [variant]); Ft-In or Gn-Sp [4]

Wallace—logical inferential conjunctions, p. 673; adverbial causal conjunctions, p. 674.


[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

pp. 267–68, p. 211

Conjunction

1. if (introducing the protasis, or first part of a conditional statement); C?-E [1a, b, c] [I.1, 2, 3]

2. whenever, when; T [2] [I.1d]

3. (sometimes in place of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [rare: Matt 5:19; 1 Cor 16:6], on which see [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] above); NLR [3] [II]

Wallace—subjunctive used in dependent (subordinate) clauses and the construction of the conjunction [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], pp. 469–71; dependent, indefinite relative clauses, p. 660; third class conditional clauses, p. 663; common Greek subordinating conjunctions with subjunctive, p. 669; adverbial conditional conjunctions, p. 675; conditional sentences, pp. 680–87; structural categories of conditional sentences, p. 689; the third class condition, pp. 696–99; the controversy between systems of classification of conditional sentences, pp. 705–12.


[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

* see [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] p. 268, p. 211

Conjunction

1. if indeed, if only, supposing that (rare: Heb 3:6; 6:3);

C?-E [1cγ] [I.3c]

Wallace—see sections in entry for [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] above.


(Continues...)

Excerpted from An Interpretive Lexicon of New Testament Greek by Gregory K. Beale, Daniel J. Brendsel, William A. Ross. Copyright © 2014 Gregory K. Beale, William A. Ross, and Daniel Brendsel. Excerpted by permission of ZONDERVAN.
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From the Publisher

One of the most challenging tasks in language acquisition is mastering the small words that are the warp and woof of an author’s thought. Frequently, these words reveal the logical flow of a discourse and are thus crucial for understanding a given text. Gathering up the data from reference works, principally BDAG, Greg Beale and company have laid out the material in a way that focuses on the various kinds of logical relationships intended by the author. Systematically labeling each word in this lexicon according to sound discourse analysis principles, they have produced a volume whose time has come. — Daniel B. Wallace, Professor of New Testament Studies, Dallas Theological Seminary

As evangelical Protestants we believe in sola scriptura. We are committed, therefore, to discovering the meaning of the Scriptures, which means that we must study the Scriptures with intensity and rigor. This invaluable tool assists us in the task of careful exegesis and should be warmly welcomed. — Thomas R. Schreiner, Professor of New Testament Interpretation; Associate Dean, The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary

Your life depends on the meaning of little words. 'Soldier get in your foxhole now!' If you think 'in' means 'out' you're dead. The stakes are even higher with 'justified by faith.' Or, 'in this hope we were saved.' Or, 'created in Christ Jesus for good works.' Or, 'On account of these the wrath of God is coming.' Beale's Interpretive Lexicon of New Testament Greek is dedicated to the conviction that crucial and glorious things in scripture come into focus through rightly understanding the relationships signaled by these little words. This book wins my affection especially by correlating its definitions with the relational symbols I have been using for 40 years. The book will accomplish a high purpose if it merely heightens the Bible-reader's expectancy that life-changing meaning is found not just in words and phrases, but in how words and phrases relate. Thank you, Dr. Beale and your team. — John Piper, Chancellor and Professor of New Testament, Bethlehem College and Seminary

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