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Introduction to Poetry / Edition 12

Introduction to Poetry / Edition 12

by X. J. Kennedy
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While embracing the canon, An Introduction to Poetry, Tenth Edition includes an impressive collection of contemporary poems for a culturally diverse representation of authorship and a richness in range of style. Writer's Perspectives sections give commentary on the craft of writing and revising from authors, which provide insight and a more human perspective on literature and the writing process. Writing Critically sections expand overage of composition with accessible and pragmatic suggestions on writing. Critical Approaches to Literature section provides three essays on every major school of criticism with sections on gender criticism and cultural studies. New poems have been added to the Tenth Edition, along with a new Glossary of Literary Terms and an expanded chapter on translations. Casebooks on Emily Dickinson and Langston Hughes present both poets in depth. For anyone interested in poetry.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 2900321470347
Publisher: Longman
Publication date: 12/13/2006
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 784
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 1.25(h) x 9.00(d)

About the Author

X. J. Kennedy , after graduation from Seton Hall and Columbia, became a journalist second class in the Navy (“Actually, I was pretty eighth class”). His poems, some published in the New Yorker, were first collected in Nude Descending a Staircase (1961). Since then he has written six more collections, several widely adopted literature and writing textbooks, and seventeen books for children, including two novels. He has taught at Michigan, North Carolina (Greensboro), California (Irvine), Wellesley, Tufts, and Leeds. Cited in Bartlett’s Familiar Quotations and reprinted in some 200 anthologies, his verse has brought him a Guggenheim fellowship, a Lamont Award, a Los Angeles Times Book Prize, an award from the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters, an Aiken-Taylor prize, the Robert Frost Medal of the Poetry Society of America, and the Award for Poetry for Children from the National Council of Teachers of English. He now lives in Lexington, Massachusetts, where he and his wife Dorothy have collaborated on four books and five children.

Dana Gioia is a poet, critic, and teacher. Born in Los Angeles of Italian and Mexican ancestry, he attended Stanford and Harvard before taking a detour into business. (“Not many poets have a Stanford M.B.A., thank goodness!”) After years of writing and reading late in the evenings after work, he quit a vice presidency to write and teach. He has published three collections of poetry, Daily Horoscope (1986), The Gods of Winter (1991), and Interrogations at Noon (2001), which won the American Book Award; an opera libretto, Nosferatu (2001); and three critical volumes, including Can Poetry Matter? (1992), an influential study of poetry’s place in contemporary America. Gioia has taught at Johns Hopkins, Sarah Lawrence, Wesleyan (Connecticut), Mercer, and Colorado College.

He is also the co-founder of the summer poetry conference at West Chester University in Pennsylvania. From 2003-2009 he served as Chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts. At the NEA he created the largest literary programs in federal history, including Shakespeare in American Communities and Poetry Out Loud, the national high school poetry recitation contest. He also led the campaign to restore active and engaged literary reading by creating The Big Read, which has helped reverse a quarter century of decline in U.S. reading. He currently divides his time between Washington, D.C. and Santa Rosa, California, living with his wife Mary, their two sons, and two uncontrollable cats.

Table of Contents

Preface     xxxi
To the Instructor     xxxv
About the Authors     xlv
Reading a Poem     3
The Lake Isle of Innisfree     5
Lyric Poetry     7
Piano     8
Aunt Jennifer's Tigers     8
Narrative Poetry     9
Sir Patrick Spence     9
"Out, Out-"     11
Dramatic Poetry     12
My Last Duchess     12
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing
Recalling "Aunt Jennifer's Tigers"     15
Writing a Paraphrase
Can a Poem Be Paraphrased?     15
Ask Me     16
A Paraphrase of "Ask Me"     16
Checklist: Paraphrasing a Poem     17
Writing Assignment on Paraphrasing     17
More Topics for Writing     17
Listening to a Voice     18
Tone     18
My Papa's Waltz     18
For A Lady I Know     19
The Author to Her Book     20
To A Locomotive in Winter     21
I Like to See it Lap the Miles     22
To the Desert     23
For my Daughter     23
The Person in the Poem     24
White Lies     24
Luke Havergal     26
Hawk Roosting     27
Monologue for an Onion     28
I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud     29
Journal Entry     30
A Glass of Beer     30
Her Kind     31
The Red Wheelbarrow     32
Irony     32
Oh No     32
The Unknown Citizen     34
Rites of Passage     35
In Westminster Abbey     36
The Golf Links     37
Second Fig     37
Missing     38
The Workbox     38
For Review and Further Study
The Chimney Sweeper     39
Rejection Slip     40
At the Un-National Monument Along the Canadian Border     41
I Love the World, as Does Any Dancer     41
To Lucasta     42
Dulce et Decorum Est     42
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing
War Poetry     44
Writing About Voice
Listening to Tone     44
Checklist: Analyzing Tone     45
Writing Assignment on Tone     45
Word Choice, Tone, and Point of View in Roethke's "My Papa's Waltz"     46
More Topics for Writing      49
Words     50
Literal Meaning: What a Poem Says First     50
This is Just to Say     51
Silence     52
Down, Wanton, Down!     53
Batter my Heart, Three-Personed God, For You     53
The Value of a Dictionary     54
Aftermath     55
Mouse's Nest     56
Friend, on this Scaffold Thomas More Lies Dead     57
Advice to a Friend Who Paints     58
Grass     58
Word Choice and Word Order     58
Upon Julia's Clothes     60
Blandeur     62
The Ruined Maid     63
The Fury of Aerial Bombardment     64
Lonely Hearts     65
For Review and Further Study
Anyone Lived in a Pretty How Town     66
The Names     67
Carnation Milk     68
Vitamins and Roughage     69
English con Salsa     69
Jabberwocky     70
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing
Humpty Dumpty Explicates "Jabberwocky"     71
Writing About Diction
Every Word Counts     72
Checklist: Thinking About Word Choice     73
Writing Assignment on Word Choice      73
More Topics for Writing     74
Saying and Suggesting     75
Cargoes     76
London     77
Disillusionment of ten O'Clock     79
Southeast Corner     79
Epitaph     80
Next to of Course God America I     80
Fire and Ice     81
Final Love Note     81
Winter-Proof     82
Tears, Idle Tears     82
Love Calls us to the Things of This World     83
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing
Concerning "Love Calls us to the Things of This World"     84
Writing About Denotation and Connotation
The Ways a Poem Suggests     85
Checklist: Analyzing what a Poem Says and Suggests     86
Writing Assignment on Denotation and Connotation     86
More Topics for Writing     86
Imagery     87
In a Station of the Metro     87
The Piercing Chill I Feel     87
The Winter Evening Settles Down     89
Root Cellar     89
The Fish     90
The Victory     92
Fork     92
A Route of Evanescence     93
Reapers     93
Pied Beauty      94
About Haiku     94
The Falling Flower     94
Heat-Lightning Streak     95
In the Old Stone Pool     95
On the One-Ton Temple Bell     95
I Go     95
Only One Guy     96
Cricket     96
Haiku from Japanese Internment Camps     96
Rain Shower from Mountain     96
War Forced us from California     96
Even the Croaking of Frogs     96
Contemporary Haiku     97
Etheridge Knight, Lee Gurga, Penny Harter, Jennifer Brutschy, John Ridland, Connie Bensley, Adelle Foley, Garry Gay     97
For Review and Further Study
Bright Star! Would I Were Steadfast as Thou Art     98
The Runner     98
Image     98
El Hombre     99
Tired Sex     99
Driving to Town Late to Mail a Letter     99
Silos     99
Mock Orange     100
Embrace     100
Winter News     101
Not Waving but Drowning     101
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing
The Image     102
Writing About Imagery
Analyzing Images     102
Checklist: Thinking About Imagery      104
Writing Assignment on Imagery     104
Elizabeth Bishop's Use of Imagery In "The Fish"     104
More Topics for Writing     109
Figures of Speech     110
Why Speak Figuratively?     110
The Eagle     111
Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day?     111
Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day?     112
Metaphor and Simile     112
My Life Had Stood - A Loaded Gun     114
Flower in the Crannied Wall     115
To See A World in A Grain of Sand     115
Metaphors     115
Simile     116
It Dropped so Low - in my Regard     116
A Martian Sends a Postcard Home     117
Other Figures of Speech     119
The Wind     119
You Fit Into Me     122
The Cathedral Is     122
The Pulley     122
Money     123
My Shoes     123
For Review and Further Study
The Silken Tent     124
Low Tide     125
The Suitor     125
The Secret Sits     126
Coward     126
Turtle     126
Language Lesson, 1976      126
Hands     127
Oh, My Love is Like a Red, Red Rose     128
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing
The Importance of Poetic Metaphor     128
Writing About Metaphors
How Metaphors Enlarge a Poem's Meaning     129
Checklist: Analyzing Metaphor     129
Writing Assignment on Figures of Speech     130
More Topics for Writing     130
Song     131
Singing and Saying     131
To Celia     132
The Cruel Mother     133
O Mistress Mine     134
Richard Cory     136
Richard Cory     136
Ballads     137
Bonny Barbara Allan     137
Ballad of Birmingham     140
Blues     141
Jailhouse Blues     142
Funeral Blues     143
Rap     143
From Peter Piper     144
For Review and Further Study
Eleanor Rigby     145
The Times They Are A-Changin     146
Deathly     148
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing
Creating "Eleanor Rigby"     149
Writing About Song Lyrics
Poetry's Close Kinship with Song     150
Checklist: Looking at Lyrics as Poetry     150
Writing Assignment on Song Lyrics     151
More Topics for Writing     151
Sound     152
Sound as Meaning     152
True Ease in Writing Comes from Art, Not Chance     153
Who Goes With Fergus?     155
Recital     155
A Slumber Did my Spirit Seal     156
Rain     156
When Maidens Are Young     156
Alliteration and Assonance     150
Eight O'Clock     158
All Day I Hear     158
The Splendor Falls on Castle Walls     159
Rime     159
On my Boat on Lake Cayuga     160
Rough Weather     162
The Hippopotamus     163
The Panther     163
Leda and the Swan     164
God's Grandeur     164
Narcissus and Echo     165
Desert Places     166
Reading and Hearing Poems Aloud     107
In Memoriam John Coltrane     168
Full Fathom Five Thy Father Lies     169
Lai with Sounds of Skin     169
Virginia     169
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing
The Music of Poetry      170
Writing About Sound
Listening to the Music     171
Checklist: Writing About a Poem's Sound     171
Writing Assignment on Sound     172
More Topics for Writing     172
Rhythm     173
Stresses and Pauses     173
We Real Cool     177
Break, Break, Break     178
Slow, Slow, Fresh Fount, Keep Time with my Salt Tears     178
With Serving Still     179
Resume     180
Meter     180
On the Imprint of the First English Edition of the Works of Max Beerbohm     180
Rose-Cheeked Laura, Come     186
Counting-Out Rhyme     187
Song for the Music in the Warsaw Ghetto     188
When I was One-and-Twenty     188
Smell!     189
Beat! Beat! Drums!     189
Song of the Powers     190
Dream Boogie     190
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing
Hearing "We Real Cool"     191
Writing About Rhythm
Freeze-Framing the Sound     192
Checklist: Scanning a Poem     192
Writing Assignment on Rhythm     193
More Topics for Writing     193
Closed Form     194
Formal Patterns     195
This Living Hand, Now Warm and Capable     195
Counting the Beats     197
Song ("Go and Catch a Falling Star")     198
Brief Bio     200
The Sonnet     200
Let me Not to the Marriage of True Minds     201
Since There's No Help, Come Let us Kiss and Part     202
What Lips my Lips Have Kissed, and Where, and Why     202
Acquainted with the Night     203
First Poem for You     204
Unholy Sonnet: Hands Folded     204
Summer     205
Sine Qua Non     205
Shakespearean Sonnet     206
The Epigram     206
A Selection of Epigrams     207
Clerihews     209
Other Forms     210
ABC     210
Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night     211
Triolet     211
Sestina     212
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing
On Form and Artifice     214
Writing About Form
Turning Points     215
Checklist: Thinking About a Sonnet     215
Writing Assignment on a Sonnet     216
More Topics for Writing     216
Open Form      217
Ancient Stairway     217
Buffalo Bill's     221
For the Anniversary of my Death     221
The Dance     222
The Heart     223
Cavalry Crossing a Ford     223
Salutation     224
Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird     224
Prose Poetry     226
The Colonel     227
The Magic Study of Happiness     227
Visual Poetry     228
Easter Wings     228
Swan and Shadow     229
From Papyrus     230
Concrete Cat     231
Found Poetry     232
Yield     232
Seeing the Logic of Open Form Verse     233
In Just     233
I Shall Paint my Nails Red     234
Failure     234
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing
The Poetry of the Future     235
Writing About Free Verse
Lining Up for Free Verse     236
Checklist: Analyzing Line Breaks in Free Verse     237
Writing Assignment on Open Form     237
More Topics for Writing     237
Symbol     238
The Boston Evening Transcript     239
The Lightning is a Yellow Fork     240
Neutral Tones     241
The Parable of the Good Seed     242
The World     243
Outwitted     244
A Box Comes Home     244
The Road Not Taken     245
Uphill     246
Postolka     246
For Review and Further Study
The Term     247
Carrie     248
Tree     248
An Evening Walk     249
Popcorn-Can Cover     249
Anecdote of the Jar     250
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing
Poetic Symbols     250
Writing About Symbols
Reading a Symbol     251
Checklist: Analyzing a Symbol     252
Writing Assignment on Symbolism     252
More Topics for Writing     252
Myth and Narrative     253
Nothing Gold Can Stay     255
Bavarian Gentians     255
The World is Too Much With Us     256
Helen     257
Archetype     257
Medusa     258
La Belle Dame Sans Merci     259
Personal Myth     261
The Second Coming     261
Two Lines from The Brothers Grimm      262
Memento Mori in Middle School     262
Myth and Popular Culture     264
Taken Up     265
Snow White     266
Cinderella     267
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing
Transforming Fairy Tales     270
Writing About Myth
Demystifying Myth     271
Checklist: Thinking About Myth     271
Writing Assignment on Myth     272
The Bonds Between Love and Hatred in H. D.'s "Helen"     272
More Topics for Writing     276
Poetry and Personal Identity     277
Lady Lazarus     278
Bilingual/Bilingue     281
Culture, Race, and Ethnicity     282
America     282
The Shrine Whose Shape I Am     283
The X in my Name     284
Quinceanera     284
Deliberate     285
Facing It     286
Gender     287
Sous-Entendu     287
Listening     288
Men at Forty     289
Women     289
For Review and Further Study
Learning to Love America     290
Elegy For my Father, Who is Not Dead     290
Speaking a Foreign Language      291
Aubade     292
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing
Being a Bilingual Writer     293
Writing About the Poetry of Personal Identity
Poetic Voice and Personal Identity     295
Checklist: Writing About Voice and Personal Identity     295
Writing Assignment on Personal Identity     296
More Topics for Writing     296
Translation     297
Is Poetic Translation Possible?     297
World Poetry     297
Drinking Alone Beneath the Moon (Chinese Text)     298
Moon-Beneath Alone Drink (Literal Translation)     299
Drinking Alone by Moonlight     299
Comparing Translations     300
Carpe Diem Ode (Latin text)     300
Seize the Day (literal translation)     300
Horace to Leuconoe     301
Don't Ask     301
A New Year's Toast     302
Rubai (Persian Text)     302
Rubai (literal Translation)     302
A Book of Verses Underneath the Bough     303
Our Days Portion     303
I Need a Bare Sufficiency     303
Parody     304
We Four Lads From Liverpool Are     305
From Strugnell's Rubaiyat      305
What, Still Alive at Twenty-Two?     306
The Lady Speaks Again     306
If Richard Lovelace Became a Free Agent     306
Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Tortilla     307
Writing Effectively
Writers on Writing
The Method of Translation     309
Writing a Parody
Parody Is the Sincerest Form of Flattery     310
Checklist: Writing a Parody     310
Writing Assignment on Parody     311
More Topics for Writing     311
Poetry in Spanish: Literature of Latin America     312
Asegura la Confianza de Que Ocultura de Todo UN Secreto     314
She Promises to Hold a Secret in Confidence     314
Presente en Que el Carino Hace Regalo la Llaneza     314
A Simple Gift Made Rich by Affection     314
Muchos Somos     315
We Are Many     315
Cien Sonetos de Amor (V)     317
One Hundred Love Sonnets (V)     317
Amorosa Anticipacion     318
Anticipation of Love     319
Los Enigmas     319
The Enigmas     320
Con Los Ojos Cerrados     321
With Eyes Closed     321
Certeza     321
Certainty      321
Surrealism in Latin American Poetry     322
The Two Fridas     323
La Colera Que Quiebra Al Hombre en Ninos     323
Anger     324
Contemporary Mexican Poetry     325
Alta Traicion     325
High Treason     325
Bajo Cero     325
Below Zero     326
Convalecencia     326
Convalescence     326
Writers on Writing
In Search of the Present     327
Writers on Translating
Translating Neruda     327
Writing Assignment on Spanish Poetry     328
More Topics for Writing     328
Recognizing Excellence     329
O Moon, When I Gaze on Thy Beautiful Face     331
Life     331
A Dying Tiger - Moaned for Drink     331
Thoughts on Capital Punishment     334
Traveling Through the Dark     335
Reincarnation     336
Recognizing Excellence     337
Sailing to Byzantium     338
On the Vanity of Earthly Greatness     340
Ozymandias     340
The Whipping     341
One Art     342
September 1, 1939     343
O Captain! My Captain!     346
We Wear the Mask     348
The New Colossus     349
Annabel Lee     350
Writing Effect Ively
Writers on Writing
A Long Poem Does Not Exist     351
Writing an Evaluation
You Be the Judge     351
Checklist: Evaluating a Poem     352
Writing Assignment on Evaluating a Poem     352
More Topics for Writing     352
What Is Poetry?     353
Ars Poetica     353
Some Definitions of Poetry     354
Missed Time     356
Two Critical Casebooks: Emily Dickinson and Langston Hughes     357
Emily Dickinson     357
Success is Counted Sweetest     358
I Taste a Liquor Never Brewed     358
Wild Nights - Wild Nights!     359
I Felt a Funeral, In my Brain     359
I'm Nobody! Who Are You?     360
I Dwell in Possibility     360
The Soul Selects Her Own Society     360
Some Keep the Sabbath Going to Church     361
After Great Pain, A Formal Feeling Comes     361
This is my Letter to the World     361
I Heard a Fly Buzz - When i Dies     362
I Started Early - Took my Dog      362
Because I Could Not Stop for Death     363
The Bustle in {sharp} House     363
Tell All the Truth But Tell it Slant     363
Emily Dickinson on Emily Dickinson
Recognizing Poetry     364
Self-Description     365
Critics on Emily Dickinson
Meeting Emily Dickinson     367
The Discovery of Emily Dickinson's Manuscripts     368
The Three Privations of Emily Dickinson     369
Dickinson and Death (A Reading of "Because I Could not Stop for Death")     370
A Reading of "My Life Had Stood - A Loaded Gun"     372
Langston Hughes     374
The Negro Speaks of Rivers     374
Mother to Son     375
Dream Variations     375
I, Too     376
The Weary Blues     376
Song for A Dark Girl     377
Prayer     377
Ballad of the Landlord     378
Ku Klux     378
End     379
Theme for English B     379
Subway Rush Hour     380
Sliver     380
Harlem [Dream Deferred]     381
As Befits a Man     381
Langston Hughes on Langston Hughes
The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain      382
The Harlem Renaissance     383
Critics on Langston Hughes
Hughes as an Experimentalist     385
Langston Hughes and Harlem     386
Black Identity in Langston Hughes     388
Langston Hughes and Jazz     389
A Reading of "Dream Deferred"     391
Topics for Writing About Emily Dickinson     392
Topics for Writing About Langston Hughes     392
Critical Casebook: T. S. Eliot's "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock"     393
T. S. Eliot     393
The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock     395
Publishing "Prufrock"     399
The Reviewers on Prufrock     402
Review from Times Literary Supplement     402
Review from Literary World     402
Review from New Statesman     402
From "Divers Realists," the Dial     403
From "Another Impressionist," the New Republic     403
From "a Note on T. S. Eliot's Book," Poetry     403
From "Prufrock and Other Observations: a Criticism," the Little Review     404
T. S. Eliot on writing
Poetry and Emotion     405
The Objective Correlative     406
The Difficulty of Poetry     406
Critics on "Prufrock"
One of the Irrefutable Poets     408
What's in a Name?     409
The Pronouns in the Poem: "One," "You," and "I"     410
Will There be Time?     411
Indeterminacy" in Elliot's Poetry     412
Prufrock's Dilemma     413
Adolescents Singing     416
Topics for Writing     417
Poems for Further Reading     418
Lord Randall     419
The Three Ravens     420
The Twa Corbies     421
Last Words of the Prophet     421
Dover Beach     422
At North Farm     423
Siren Song     423
As I Walked Out One Evening     425
Musee Des Beaux Arts     427
Filling Station     428
The Tyger     430
The Sick Rose     431
Anorexic     432
The Mother     433
The Preacher: Ruminates Behind the Sermon     434
How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count the Ways     435
Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister     435
Merciless Beauty     437
The Donkey     438
Homage to My Hips     439
Kubla Khan     440
Care and Feeding      441
My Grandmother's Love Letters     442
Somewhere I Have Never Travelled, Gladly Beyond     443
Perfect Dress     444
Death Be Not Proud     445
The Flea     446
A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning     446
To the Memory of Mr. Oldham     448
Journey of the Magi     448
Indian Boarding School: The Runaways     450
A Starlit Night     451
Birches     451
Mending Wall     453
Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening     454
A Supermarket in California     454
The Man with Night Sweats     455
Names of Horses     456
The Convergence of the Twain     457
The Darkling Thrush     459
Hap     460
Those Winter Sundays     461
Digging     462
Adam     463
Love     465
To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time     466
Spring and Fall     466
No Worst, There is None     467
The Windhover     467
Loveliest of Trees, the Cherry Now     468
To an Athleth Dying Young     468
The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner     469
To the Stone-Cutters     470
On My First Son     470
On the Death of Friends in Childhood     471
Ode on a Grecian Urn     471
When I Have Fears That I May Cease to be     473
To Autumn     474
Abandoned Farmhouse     475
Home is so Sad     476
Poetry of Departures     477
The Bull Calf     478
The Ache of Marriage     479
They Feed They Lion     480
Riding Into California     481
Skunk Hour     482
To His Coy Mistress     483
Recuerdo     484
How Soon Hath Time     485
When I Consider How My Light is Spent     486
Poetry     486
The Master     487
A Strange Beautiful Woman     488
The War in the Air     489
Poet's Work     489
A Selectson of Hokku     490
The One Girl at the Boys' Party     491
Anthem for Doomed Youth     492
Ethics     492
Running on Empty     493
Daddy     494
A Dream Within a Dream     497
A Little Learning is a Dang'rous Thing     497
The River-Merchant's Wife: A Letter     498
A Different Image     499
Piazza Piece     500
Naming of Parts     500
Living in Sin     501
Miniver Cheevy     502
Elegy for Jane     503
Welcome to Hiroshima     504
When, in Disgrace with Fortune and Men's Eyes     506
Not Marble Nor the Gilded Monuments     507
That Time of Year Thou Mayst in Me Behold     507
My Mistress' Eyes Are Nothing Like the Sun     508
American Poetry     508
Titanic     508
For I Will Consider My Cat Jeoffry     509
American Primitive     511
Stamp Collecting     512
The Farm on the Great Plains     513
The Emperor of Ice-Cream     514
A Description of the Morning     515
Vertigo     516
The Flight     517
Dark House, By Which Once More I Stand     517
Ulysses     518
Fern Hill     520
Ex-Basketball Player     521
The Virgins     522
Go, Lovely Rose     523
From Song of the Open Road      524
I Hear America Singing     525
The Writer     525
Elms     526
Spring and All     527
To Waken an Old Lady     528
Composed Upon Westminster Bridge     529
A Blessing     530
Autumn-Begins in Martins Ferry, Ohio     530
In This Strange Labyrinth     531
They Flee from Me That Sometime Did Me Seke     532
Crazy Jane Talks with the Bishop     533
The Magi     534
When You Are Old     534
Penitents     535
Lives of the Poets     530
Writing About Literature     565
Reading Actively     505
Nothing Gold Can Stay     566
Planning Your Essay     567
Prewriting: Discovering Ideas     568
Sample Student Prewriting Exercises     568
Developing a Literary Argument     572
Checklist: Developing a Literary Argument     574
Writing a Rough Draft     574
(Rough Draft)     575
Revising     577
Checklist: Revision Steps     581
Some Final Advice on Rewriting     582
(Revised Draft)      583
Using Critical Sources and Maintaining Academic Integrity     586
The Form of Your Finished Paper     586
Spell-Check and Grammar-Check Programs     587
A Little Poem Regarding Computer Spell Checkers     587
Writing About a Poem     589
Getting Started     589
Reading Actively     589
Design     590
Thinking About a Poem     590
Preparing to Write: Discovering Ideas     591
Sample Student Prewriting Exercises     591
Writing a First Draft     594
Checklist: Writing a Rough Draft     595
Revising     596
Checklist: Revision     598
Some Common Approaches to Writing About Poetry     598
Explication     598
(Explication)     599
A Critic's Explication of Frost's "Design"     602
Analysis     603
(Analysis)     604
Comparison and Contrast     606
Wing-Spread     606
(Comparison and Contrast)     607
How to Quote a Poem     609
Topics for Writing     611
In White     612
Writing a Research Paper     614
Getting Started      614
Choosing a Topic     615
Finding Research Sources     615
Finding Print Resources     615
Using Online Databases     616
Finding Reliable Web Sources     616
Checklist: Finding Sources     617
Using Visual Images     618
Checklist: Using Visual Images     619
Evaluating Sources     619
Evaluating Print Resources     619
Evaluating Web Resources     619
Checklist: Evaluating Sources     620
Organizing Your Research     621
Refining Your Thesis     622
Organizing Your Paper     622
Writing and Revising     623
Guarding Academic Integrity     623
Acknowledging Sources     624
Quoting a Source     624
Citing Ideas     624
Documenting Sources Using MLA Style     626
List of Sources     626
Parenthetical References     626
Works Cited List     627
Citing Print Sources in MLA Style     627
Citing Internet Sources in MLA Style     628
Sample Works Cited List     629
Concluding Thoughts     630
Reference Guide for Citations     631
Critical Approaches to Literature     638
Formalist Criticism     639
The Formalist Critic     639
On Robert Browning's "My Last Duchess"     640
Biographical Criticism     642
The Relationship of Poet and Poem     643
On Elizabeth Bishop's "One Art"     644
Historical Criticism     645
Imagism     646
"To His Coy Mistress" and the Renaissance Tradition     647
Psychological Criticism     648
The Destiny of Oedipus     649
Poetic Influence     650
Mythological Criticism     651
The Collective Unconscious and Archetypes     652
Mythic Archetypes     653
Sociological Criticism     653
Content Determines Form     654
Walt Whitman and Abraham Lincoln     655
Gender Criticism     656
Toward a Feminist Poetics     657
The Freedom of Emily Dickinson     657
Reader-Response Criticism     658
An Eskimo "A Rose for Emily"     659
"How Do We Make a Poem?     660
Deconstructionist Criticism     662
The Death of the Author      663
On Wordsworth's "A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal"     663
Cultural Studies     665
What is Cultural Studies     666
A Reading of William Bake's "The Chimney Sweeper     667
Glossary of Literary Terms     G1
Acknowledgments     A1
Index of Major Themes     I1
Index of First Lines of Poetry     I7
Index of Authors and Titles     I13
Index of Literary Terms (end of book)

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