Preface Author’s Note About the Author
PART 1 Archaeology: Studying Ancient Times
SPECIAL FEATURE: Conservation of Sites and Finds
CHAPTER 1 Introducing Archaeology and Prehistory
How Archaeology Began The Discovery of Early Civilizations The Antiquity of Humankind DISCOVERY: Austen Henry Layard at Nineveh The Origins of Scientific Archaeology Archaeology and Prehistory DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: A Short Guide to Archaeological Diversity Prehistory and World Prehistory Major Developments in Human Prehistory Why Are Archaeology and World Prehistory Important?
Mysteries of the Past DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: Pseudoarchaeology, or You, Too, Can Be an Armchair Indiana Jones!
The Powerful Lure of the Past Archaeology and Human Diversity Archaeology as a Political Tool Archaeology and Economic Development Garbology Who Needs the Past?
SITE: Inyan Ceyaka Atonwan, Minnesota Summary Key Terms and Sites Critical Thinking Questions
CHAPTER 2 The Record of the Past
The Goals of Archaeology Constructing Culture History DISCOVERY: The Folsom Bison Kill Site, New Mexico Reconstructing Ancient Lifeways SITE: The ’Ain Ghazal Figurines Explaining Cultural Change The Process of Archaeological Research DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: An Archaeologist’s Ethical Responsibili-ties Research Design Data Acquisition Analysis Interpretation Publication and Curation What Is Culture?
The Archives of the Past: The Archaeological Record Preservation Conditions A Waterlogged Site: Ozette, Washington A Dry Site: Puruchucho-Huaquerones, Peru Cold Conditions: Nevado Ampato, Peru Volcanic Ash: Cerén, El Salvador DISCOVERY: Tragedy at Cerén, El Salvador Context Time and Space The Law of Association The Law of Superposition Summary Key Terms and Sites Critical Thinking Questions
CHAPTER 3 Acquiring the Record
DISCOVERY: Recording the Behistun Inscription, Iran How Do You Find Archaeological Sites?
Accidental Discoveries Deliberate Survey Settlement Patterns and Settlement Archaeology Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
SITE: Teotihuacán, Mexico How Do You Dig Up the Past?
The Ethical Responsibilities of the Excavator Research Design and Problem-Oriented Excavation Koster Types of Excavation DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: Archaeological Sites Excavation as Recording How Old Is It?
Relative Chronology Chronometric Dating DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: Dating the Past Summary Key Terms and Sites Critical Thinking Questions
CHAPTER 4 How Did People Live?
Technologies of the Ancients Stone DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: Classifying Artifact Types DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: Lithic Analysis Bone and Antler
Wood Clay (Ceramics)
Metals and Metallurgy DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: Ceramic Analysis Basketry and Textiles Subsistence: Making a Living SITE: Ancient Wine at Abydos, Egypt Animal Bones DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: Studying Ancient Subsistence Plant Remains Fishing and Fowling DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: Flotation Methods Reconstructing Ancient Diet Summary Key Terms and Sites Critical Thinking Questions
PART 2 Ancient Interactions
SPECIAL FEATURE: Major Developments in Archaeology Since 1798
CHAPTER 5 Individuals and Interactions
An Individual: Ötzi the Ice Man Social Ranking DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: THE LAW CODE OF HAMMURABI OF BABYLON, 1760 B.C.
SITE: The Sepulcher of the Maya Lord Pacal, Palenque, Mexico Gender: Men and Women Grinding Grain at Abu Hureyra, Syria The Engendered Past Ethnicity and Inequality Ideologies of Domination Artifacts, Social Inequality, and Resistance Trade and Exchange DISCOVERY: War Casualties at Thebes, Egypt Types of Exchange and Trade Sourcing DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: OBSIDIAN SOURCING A Unique Portrait of Ancient Trade: The Uluburun Ship Summary Key Terms and Sites Critical Thinking Questions
CHAPTER 6 Studying the Intangible
A Framework of Common Belief DISCOVERY: Shang Oracle Bones, China Ethnographic Analogy and Rock Art DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: COPYING SOUTH AFRICAN ROCK PAINTINGS The Archaeology of Death Artifacts: The Importance of Context Artifacts and Art Styles SITE: The Shrine at Phylakopi, Greece DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: THE ANCIENT MAYA WORLD THROUGH GLYPHS Sacred Places Astroarchaeology and Stonehenge Southwestern Astronomy and Chaco Canyon Summary Key Terms and Sites Critical Thinking Questions
CHAPTER 7 Explaining the Past
Culture History Constructing Culture History Synthesis A Hierarchy of Archaeological Units Descriptive Models of Cultural Change Inevitable Variation Cultural Selection DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: A HIERARCHY OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL ENTITIES Invention Diffusion Migration Analogy DISCOVERY: A Tale of Two Maya Women: Waka, Guatemala Archaeology by Observation and Experiment Ethnoarchaeology Experimental Archaeology Explaining Cultural Change Cultural Systems and Cultural Processes Processual Archaeology DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE REA-SONING People, Not Systems SITE: Guilá Naquitz Cave, Mexico Cognitive-Processual Archaeology The Issue of Complexity Change and No Change Summary Key Terms and Sites Critical Thinking Questions
PART 3 The World of the First Humans
SPECIAL FEATURE: The Pre-Modern World 194
CHAPTER 8 Human Origins
The Great Ice Age (c.2.5 Million to 15,000 Years Ago)
Early Primate Evolution and Adaptation The Primate Order
“Coming Down from the Trees”
The Fossil Evidence for Human Evolution (7 Million to 1.5 Million Years Ago)
The Earliest Known Hominin: Toumaï, Sahelanthropus tchadensis What Is Australopithecus?
Ardipithecus ramidus Australopithecus anamensis and Australopithecus afarensis DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: POTASSIUM-ARGON DATING All Kinds of Australopithecines (3 Million to 2.5 Million Years Ago)
Gracile Australopithecines: Australopithecus africanus Robust Australopithecines: A. aethiopicus, A. boisei, and A. robustus Australopithecus garhi Early Homo: Homo habilis (2.5 Million to 2 Million Years Ago)
A Burst of Rapid Change?
Who Was the First Human?
The Earliest Human Technology SITE: Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania Hunters or Scavengers?
Plant Foraging and Grandmothering The Earliest Human Mind The Development of Language The Earliest Social Organization Summary Key Terms and Sites Critical Thinking Questions
CHAPTER 9 African Exodus
Ice Age Background Homo ergaster in Africa Homo erectus (c. 1.9 Million to c. 200,000 Years Ago)
Radiating out of Africa Homo erectus in Asia The Lifeway of Homo erectus Handaxes and Choppers Bamboo and Choppers Language Archaic Homo sapiens (c. 400,000 to 130,000 Years Ago)
Archaic Homo sapiens: Homo heidelbergensis SITE: A 400,000 YEAR-OLD HUNT AT SCHONINGEN, GER-MANY The Neanderthals (c. 200,000 to 30,000 Years Ago)
The Origins of Modern Humans (c. 180,000 to 150,000 Years Ago)
Continuity or Replacement?
Molecular Biology and Homo sapiens DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: DNA AND PREHISTORY Ecology and Homo sapiens Out of Tropical Africa Summary Key Terms and Sites Critical Thinking Questions
PART 4 Modern Humans Settle the World
SPECIAL FEATURE: The Spread of Modern Humans to 12,000 Years Ago
CHAPTER 10 The Great Diaspora
The Late Ice Age World (50,000 to 15,000 Years Ago)
The Peopling of Southeast Asia and Australia (c. 50,000 to 15,000 Years Ago)
DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: RADIOCARBON DATING Late Ice Age Europe: The Cro-Magnons (45,000 to 15,000 Years Ago)
Subsistence Cro-Magnon Technology Cro-Magnon Art DISCOVERY: Grotte de Chauvet, France Hunter-Gatherers in Eurasia (35,000 to 15,000 Years Ago)
East Asia (35,000 to 15,000 Years Ago)
Sinodonty and Sundadonty Early Human Settlement of Siberia (Before 20,000 to 15,000 Years Ago)
The First Americans (Before 15,000 Years Ago to 11,000 B.C.)
Settlement before 30,000 Years Ago?
Settlement after 15,000 Years Ago?
SITE: Monte Verde, Chile The Clovis People (c. 11,200 to 10,900 B.C.)
Summary Key Terms and Sites
Critical Thinking Questions
PART 5 The First Farmers and Civilizations
SPECIAL FEATURE: Early Food Production
CHAPTER 11 The Earliest Farmers
After the Ice Age Changes in Hunter-Gatherer Societies Social Complexity among Hunter-Gatherers Origins of Food Production DISCOVERY: Hunter-Gatherers at Koster, Illinois DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: ACCELERATOR MASS SPECTROMETRY RADIOCARBON DATING Consequences of Food Production The First Farmers in Southwestern Asia DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: DOMESTICATING WHEAT AND BAR-LEY Egypt and the Nile Valley Early Agriculture in Anatolia SITE: Ritual Buildings in Southeastern Turkey European Farmers Early Agriculture in South and East Asia The Indus Valley Rice Cultivation in Southern China SITE: Easton Down and the Avebury Sacred Landscape, England First Farmers in Northern China Navigators and Chiefs in the Pacific (2000 B.C. to Modern Times)
Summary Key Terms and Sites Critical Thinking Questions
CHAPTER 12 The First Civilizations
SPECIAL FEATURE: Old World Civilizations What Is a State-Organized Society?
Cities Theories of the Origins of States The Collapse of Civilizations Early Civilization in Mesopotamia (5500 to 3100 B.C.)
The First Cities: Uruk DISCOVERY: The Temple at Eridu, Iraq The Sumerians (c. 3100 to 2334 B.C.)
DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: The Sumerians Ancient Egyptian Civilization (c. 3100 B.C. to 30 B.C.)
Predynastic Egypt: Ancient Monopoly? (5000 to 3100 B.C.)
Dynastic Egyptian Civilization (c. 3100 to 30 B.C.)
SITE: The Step Pyramid at Saqqara DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: AHMOSE, SON OF EBANA Summary Key Terms and Sites Critical Thinking Questions
CHAPTER 13 Early Asian Civilizations
South Asia: The Harappan Civilization (c. 2700 to 1700 B.C.)
Mature Harappan Civilization South Asia after the Harappans (1700 to 180 B.C.)
The Origins of Chinese Civilization (2600 to 1100 B.C.)
Royal Capitals Royal Burials Bronze Working Shang Warriors The War Lords (1100 to 221 B.C.)
Southeast Asian Civilization (A.D. 1 to 1500)
DISCOVERY: The Burial Mound of Emperor Shihuangdi, China The Angkor State (A.D. 802 to 1430)
SITE: Angkor Wat, Cambodia Summary Key Terms and Sites Critical Thinking Questions
PART 6 Ancient America
SPECIAL FEATURE: Native American Civilizations
CHAPTER 14 Maize, Pueblos, and Mound Builders
North America after First Settlement SITE: The Olsen-Chubbock Bison Kill, New Mexico The Story of Maize Mesoamerica: Guilá Naquitz and Early Cultivation The Earliest Maize Andean Farmers The North American Southwest (300 B.C. to Modern Times)
Hohokam, Mogollon, and Ancestral Pueblo DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: DENDROCHRONOLOGY (TREE-RING DATING)
Mound Builders in Eastern North America (2000 B.C. to A.D. 1650)
Adena and Hopewell The Mississippian Tradition SITE: Moundville, Alabama Summary Key Terms and Sites Critical Thinking Questions
CHAPTER 15 Mesoamerican Civilizations
The Olmec (1500 to 500 B.C.)
Ancient Maya Civilization (Before 1000 B.C. to A.D. 1519)
Beginnings (Before 1000 to 300 B.C.)
Kingship Classic Maya Civilization (A.D. 300 to 900)
The Classic Maya Collapse DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: THE HIEROGLYPHIC STAIRWAY AT COPÁN DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: STUDYING THE MAYA COLLAPSE AT COPÁN The Rise of Highland Civilization (1500 to 200 B.C.)
Teotihuacán (200 B.C. to A.D. 750)
DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: LIFE IN TEOTIHUACÁN’S BARRIOS The Toltecs (650 to 1200)
Aztec Civilization (1200 to 1521)
Tenochtitlán SITE: The Great Temple at Tenochtitlán The World of the Fifth Sun The Aztec State The Spanish Conquest Summary Key Terms and Sites Critical Thinking Questions
CHAPTER 16 Andean Civilizations
The Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization Coastal Foundations (2500 to 900 B.C.)
Caral El Paraíso and Huaca Florida The Early Horizon and Chavín de Huántar (900 to 200 B.C.)
The Initial Period Irrigation Agriculture Inland (After 1800 B.C.)
The Lake Titicaca Basin: Chiripa and Pukara (1000 B.C. to A.D. 100)
The Moche State (200 B.C. to A.D. 700)
DISCOVERY: The Lords of Sipán, Peru The Middle Horizon: Tiwanaku and Wari (600 to 1000)
Tiwanaku Wari The Late Intermediate Period: Sicán and Chimu (700 to 1460)
The Late Horizon: The Inka State (1476 to 1534)
SITE: Cuzco, the Imperial Inka Capital The Spanish Conquest (1532 to 1534)
Summary Key Terms and Sites Critical Thinking Questions
PART 7 On Being an Archaeologist
CHAPTER 17 So You Want to Become an Archaeologist
Archaeology as a Profession Deciding to Become an Archaeologist Gaining Fieldwork Experience Career Opportunities Academic Qualifications and Graduate School Thoughts on Not Becoming a Professional Archaeologist Our Responsibilities to the Past A Simple Code of Archaeological Ethics for All Summary Key Term Critical Thinking Questions
Glossary References Credits Index