In the past twenty years there have been many new developments in the study of animal behaviour: for example, more sophisticated methods of neurophysiology; more precise techniques for assessing hormonal levels; more accurate methods for studying animals in the wild; and, on the functional side, the growth of behavioural ecology with its use of optimality theory and game theory. In addition, there has been a burgeoning number of studies on a wide range of species. The study of aggression has benefited greatly from these develop ments; this is reflected in the appearance of a number of specialized texts, both on behavioural ecology and on physiology and genetics. However, these books have often been collections of papers by spe cialists for specialists. No one book brings together for the non specialist all the diverse aspects of aggression, including behavioural ecology, genetics, development, evolution and neurophysiology. Neither has there been a comparative survey dealing with all these aspects. Therefore one of our aims in writing this book was to fill in these gaps. Another of our aims was to put aggression into context with respect to other aspects of an animal's lifestyle and in particular to other ways in which animals deal with conflicts of interest. Aggressive behaviour does not occur in a biological vacuum. It both influences and is influenced by the animal's ecological and social environment, so we consider both the complex antecedent conditions in which aggressive behaviour occurs, and its ramifying consequences in the ecosystem.
Table of ContentsOne Patterns of Animal Conflict.- 1 Conflict in the animal world.- 1.1 Animal fights.- 1.2 Conflicts of interest.- 1.3 Adaptive responses to conflicts of interest.- 1.4 The problem of definition.- 1.5 The biological study of animal conflict.- 2 A survey of animal conflict.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Acellular organisms and protists.- 2.3 Sea anemones (coelenterates).- 2.4 Parasitic worms (acanthocephalans).- 2.5 Ragworms (annelids).- 2.6 Limpets, octopuses and squids (molluscs).- 2.7 Insects.- 2.8 Shrimps and crabs (crustaceans).- 2.9 Scorpions, mites and spiders (arachnids).- 2.10 Sea urchins (echinoderms).- 2.11 Fish.- 2.12 Salamanders and frogs (amphibians).- 2.13 Lizards and snakes (reptiles).- 2.14 Birds (aves).- 2.15 Mammals.- 3 Issues and concepts in the study of animal conflict.- 3.1 How do animals fight?.- 3.2 Context specific agonistic behaviour.- 3.3 Alternative ways of winning.- Two The Causes of Agonistic Behaviour.- 4 Behavioural mechanisms.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 The systems that control agonistic behaviour.- 4.3 The effects of cues from an opponent.- 4.4 The effects of other stimuli from the environment.- 4.5 The dynamics of undisturbed fights.- 4.6 Models of the control of agonistic behaviour.- 4.7 Overview.- 5 The role of hormones.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Mechanisms.- 5.3 Hormones and the patterns of animal conflict.- 5.4 Reproductive hormones in vertebrates.- 5.5 Adrenal hormones.- 5.6 Endogenous opiates.- 5.7 Other hormones.- 5.8 Invertebrates.- 5.9 Overview.- 6 Neural mechanisms.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Neural mechanisms and the patterns of animal conflict.- 6.3 Analysing agonistic information.- 6.4 Producing agonistic movements.- 6.5 Producing changes in responsiveness.- 6.6 Effects of fighting experience on brain biochemistry.- 6.7 Overview.- Concluding comments on the causes of agonistic behaviour.- Three Genetic and Environmental Influences.- 7 Genetics.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Genetics and the patterns of animal conflict.- 7.3 Identifying genetic influences.- 7.4 Patterns of inheritance.- 7.5 The route from genes to behaviour.- 7.6 Overview.- 8 Development.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 The agonistic behaviour of very young animals.- 8.3 The developmental origin of agonistic movements.- 8.4 Playful fighting.- 8.5 Changes with age.- 8.6 Environmental influences: identifying the relevant factors.- 8.7 Environmental influences: kinds of identified effect.- 8.8 Environmental influences: the non-social environment.- 8.9 Environmental influences: the social environment.- 8.10 Overview.- Genes, environments and agonistic behaviour.- Four Consequences, Fitness and Evolutionary Change.- 9 The consequences of animal conflict.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Consequences for individuals.- 9.3 Consequences for populations.- 9.4 Consequences for ecological communities.- 9.5 Evolutionary consequences.- 9.6 Overview.- 10 Evolutionary history.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Evolutionary origins.- 10.3 Evolutionary diversification.- 10.4 Overview.- 11 The behavioural ecology of animal conflict.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Strategies for resolving conflicts.- 11.3 Costs and benefits of being dominant.- 11.4 Costs and benefits of territorial behaviour.- 11.5 Conflict between the sexes.- 11.6 Conflict within the family.- 11.7 Infanticide and cannibalism.- 11.8 Alternative strategies.- 11.9 Conflict in social groups.- 11.10 Overview.- 12 The biology of human aggression.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 What is human aggression?.- 12.3 Issues and concepts.- 12.4 The causes of aggression in humans.- 12.5 Genes, environment and the development of agonistic behaviour.- 12.6 The behavioural ecology of human conflict.- 12.7 Preventing, predicting and controlling human aggression.- 12.8 Overview.- References.- Species index.