Bernard Lazare (1865 - 1903) was a Jewish French literary critic, political journalist, anarchist and polemist. He was among the first Dreyfusards. It was as an anarchist that he became a literary critic and journalist. In 1894 he published Anti-semitism, its History and Causes (LŽAntis mitisme, son histoire est ses cause), an in-depth study and critique of the origins of anti-semitism. Lazare then became very active in the Dreyfus Affair. Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish army officer was accused of treason. He published his first paper, The Dreyfus Affair ù A Miscarriage of Justice in Belgium in November 1896. Because of his experience with anti-Semitism, Lazare became engaged in the struggle for the emancipation of Jews.