About this new exam and test prep: The new AP® European History exam is structured around five course themes and 19 key concepts in four different chronological periods, from approximately 1450 to the present. REA's all-new AP® European History Crash Course is perfect for the time-crunched student, the last-minute studier, or anyone who wants a refresher on the subject.
Are you crunched for time? Have you started studying for your Advanced Placement® European History exam yet? How will you memorize everything you need to know before the test? Do you wish there was a fast and easy way to study for the exam AND boost your score?
If this sounds like you, don't panic. REA's Crash Course for AP® European History is just what you need. Our Crash Course gives you:
Targeted, Focused Review - Study Only What You Need to Know
The Crash Course is based on an in-depth analysis of the new AP® European History course description outline and actual AP® test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exam, so you can make the most of your valuable study time.
Written by an AP® European History expert the targeted review prepares students for the new test by focusing on the new framework concepts and learning objectives tested on the redesigned AP® European History exam. Our easy-to-read format gives students a crash course in the historical events, topics, and issues in European History The book also features must-know terms all AP® European History terms students should know before test day.
Expert Test-taking Strategies
With our Crash Course, you can study the subject faster, learn the crucial material, and boost your AP® score all in less time. Our author shares detailed question-level strategies and explains the best way to answer the multiple-choice and free-response questions you'll encounter on test day. By following our expert tips and advice, you can boost your overall point score!
FREE Practice Exam
After studying the material in the Crash Course, go to the online REA Study Center and test what you've learned. Our free practice exam features timed testing, detailed explanations of answers, and automatic scoring analysis. The exam is balanced to include every topic and type of question found on the actual AP® exam, so you know you're studying the smart way.
Whether you're cramming for the test at the last minute, looking for extra review, or want to study on your own in preparation for the exams - this is the test prep every AP® European History student must have.
When it's crucial crunch time and your Advanced Placement® exam is just around the corner, you need REA's Crash Course for AP® European History!
Read an Excerpt
Seven Keys for Success on the AP European History Exam
AP European History textbooks are very thick and contain thousands of names, dates, places, and events. If all of these facts had an equal chance of appearing on your Advanced Placement European History (APEURO) exam, studying would be a nightmare. Where would you begin? What would you emphasize? Is there any information you can safely omit? Or must you study everything?
Fortunately, preparing for the APEURO exam does not have to be a nightmare. By studying efficiently and strategically, you can score a 4 or a 5 on the exam. This book will help you understand and use the following seven keys for success.
1. Understanding the APEURO Scale
Many students believe they must make close to a perfect score to receive a 5. Nothing could be further from the truth. Each APEURO exam contains a total of 130 points — 52 from the multiple-choice and 78 from the free-response questions. Here is the score range for the 2016 APEURO exam:
Score Range AP Grade Minimum Percent Right
93–130 5 72%
This chart is not a misprint. As is clearly shown, you can achieve a 5 by correctly answering just 72 percent of the questions, a 4 by correctly answering just 59 percent of the questions, and a 3 by correctly answering just 45 percent of the questions!
2. Understanding the Four Chronological Periods
APEURO test writers follow a detailed framework, or outline, that divides European history into the following four distinct historical periods:
Period 1: c. 1450 to c. 1648
Period 2: c. 1648 to c. 1815
Period 3: c. 1815 to c. 1914
Period 4: c. 1914 to the Present
Each of these four chronological time periods will receive equal coverage on your exam. No AP European History exam question will require students to know historical content that falls outside of these chronological periods. The 22 chapters in our Chronological Review are designed to provide you with the key events, trends, ideas, and historical comparisons and connections from these four periods.
3. Understanding the APEURO Topical Themes
Many students believe that members of the APEURO exam development committee have the freedom to write any question on any topic they wish. This widespread belief is not true. APEURO test writers follow a framework devoted to the following six themes:
Interaction of Europe and the World
Poverty and Prosperity
Objective Knowledge and Subjective Visions
States and Other Institutions of Power
Individual and Society
National and European Identity
These six themes explain why there are so many questions on key intellectual figures, major artistic movements, diplomatic agreements, and economic policies. They also explain why it is a waste of time to study battles, generals, and specific dates.
4. Understanding the APEURO Exam Format
Your APEURO exam will include four very different question formats. Here are the key facts about each of these formats:
A. MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. You will be asked to answer 55 multiple-choice questions. However, six of these will be experimental questions that will be used on future exams. You will not know which are experimental and which count toward your score.
2. The 55 questions will be grouped into sets containing between 2 and 5 questions. Each set of questions will be based upon a stimulus (prompt). The prompts will be a brief source that could be a reading passage, a chart or graph, an illustration, or a map.
3. Each of the 49 questions counted toward your score will be worth 1.06 points for a total of 52 points. The multiple-choice questions will count for 40 percent of your total score.
4. You will be given 55 minutes to complete the multiple-choice question section.
See Chapter 28 for detailed strategies for answering the multiple-choice questions.
B. SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS
1. You will be asked to answer 3 short-answer questions.
2. The short-answer questions ask you to respond to a primary source passage or a secondary source such as a debate between two historians, a map, an illustration, or a chart.
3. Each short-answer question will include three very specific sub-points. Your answers to these sub-points do not require a thesis. Concentrate on writing concise statements that include specific historic examples. Use complete sentences. An outline or a list of bulleted points is not acceptable.
4. Each sub-point is worth 2.888 points. As a result, a full short-answer question is worth 8.664 points. Taken together, the three short-answer questions are worth a total of 26 points, or 20 percent of your total exam score.
5. You will be given 40 minutes to complete the three short-answer questions.
See Chapter 29 for detailed strategies for answering the short-answer questions.
C. THE DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION (DBQ)
1. The DBQ is an essay question that requires you to interpret and analyze seven brief primary source documents. The documents typically include excerpts from diaries, speeches, letters, reports, and official decrees. In addition, DBQs often include at least one graph, chart, map, political cartoon, or work of art.
2. The DBQ begins with a mandatory 15-minute reading and planning period. You will then have 45 minutes to write your essay.
3. Your DBQ will be scored on a scale that includes seven specific points. Each point is worth 4.642 points. Taken together, the DBQ is worth a maximum of 32.5 points or 25 percent of your total score.
See Chapter 30 for detailed strategies for answering the document-based question.
D. THE LONG-ESSAY QUESTION
1. You will be given three long-essay questions. Although the three questions will be taken from different time periods, they will be related by a common theme and historical thinking skill. You will be asked to select and write about just one of the three long-essay questions.
2. You will be given 40 minutes to write your essay.
3. Your essay will be scored on a scale that includes six specific points. Each point is worth 3.25 points. The long-essay question is worth 19.50 points or 15 percent of your total exam score.
See Chapter 31 for detailed strategies for answering the long-essay questions.
5. Understanding the Meaning and Uses of Seven Historical Thinking Skills
The APEURO course stresses the understanding and use of seven key historical thinking skills. It is very important that you understand the meaning of each skill and the role it plays on the exam.
A. HISTORICAL CAUSATION
1. This skill involves the ability to identify and evaluate the long-and short-term causes and consequences of a historical event, development, or process.
2. This skill plays a significant role in the multiple-choice questions, the short-answer questions, and the long-essay question.
B. PATTERNS OF CONTINUITY AND CHANGE OVER TIME
1. This skill involves the ability to recognize, analyze, and evaluate the dynamics of historical continuity and change over periods of time of varying length. It also involves the ability to connect these patterns to larger historical processes or themes.
2. This skill plays a significant role in the DBQ question and the long-essay question.
1. This skill involves the ability to identify, compare, and evaluate multiple perspectives on a given historical event, development, or process.
2. This skill plays a significant role in the DBQ question and the long-essay question.
1. This skill involves the ability to connect historical events and processes to specific circumstances of time and place, as well as to broader regional, national, and global processes occurring at the same time.
2. This skill plays a significant role in the multiple-choice questions. It also generates a specific point in both the DBQ and long-essay rubrics.
E. HISTORICAL ARGUMENTATION
1. This skill involves the ability to create an argument and support it using relevant historical ideas.
2. This skill plays a significant role in both the DBQ and the long-essay question. The rubrics in both of these questions award points for developing and supporting a defensible thesis.
F. ANALYZING EVIDENCE
1. This skill involves the ability to analyze features of historical evidence such as audience, purpose, point of view, and historical context. It also involves the ability to demonstrate a complex understanding of a historical development by using evidence to corroborate or qualify an argument.
2. This skill plays a particularly significant role in both the DBQ and the long-essay question. The DBQ rubric awards up to 5 points for using and analyzing evidence while the long-essay rubric awards up to 4 points for these skills.
1. This skill involves the ability to describe, analyze, and evaluate the different ways historians interpret the past.
2. This skill plays a significant role in the short-answer questions and the DBQ.
6. Understanding How to Use Your Crash Course to Build a Winning Coalition of Points
This Crash Course book is based on a careful analysis of the AP European History Curriculum Framework and the released exam questions. Chapter 2 contains key terms that you absolutely, positively have to know. Chapters 3–24 provide you with a detailed chronological review of European history. Chapters 25–27 review key themes and facts from European intellectual, diplomatic, and women's history. And finally, Chapters 28–31 provide you with examples of each of the four major question types that appear on the APEURO exam.
If you have the time, review the entire book. This is desirable, but not mandatory. The chapters can be studied in any order. Each chapter provides you with a digest of key information that is repeatedly tested. Battles, inventions, rulers, and political events that have never been asked about have been omitted. Unlike most review books, the digests are not meant to be exhaustive. Instead, they are meant to focus your attention on the vital material you must study.
Many of the chapters in this book have a special feature called "Making Comparisons." This feature is designed to provide you with in-depth discussions of key topics. The Making Comparison feature will help you develop the historical thinking skills of making comparisons and interpreting events.
7. Using Materials to Supplement Your Crash Course
This Crash Course contains everything you need to know to score a 4 or a 5 on your exam. You should, however, supplement it with other materials designed specifically for studying AP European History. Visit the College Board's AP Central website for the full text of the AP European History Curriculum Framework and sample questions.
I. EUROPE IN TRANSITION, 1450–1650
1. HUMANISM – The scholarly interest in the study of the classical texts, values, and styles of Greece and Rome. Humanism contributed to the promotion of a liberal arts education based on the study of the classics, rhetoric, and history.
2. CHRISTIAN HUMANISM – A branch of humanism associated with northern Europe. Like their Italian counterparts, the Christian humanists closely studied classical texts. However, they also sought to give humanism a specifically Christian context. Christian humanists like Desiderius Erasmus were committed to religious piety and institutional reform.
3. VERNACULAR – The everyday language of a region or country. Miguel de Cervantes, Geoffrey Chaucer, Dante, and Martin Luther all encouraged the development of their national languages by writing in the vernacular. Desiderius Erasmus, however, continued to write in Latin.
4. NEW MONARCHS – European monarchs who created professional armies and a more centralized administrative bureaucracy. The new monarchs also negotiated a new relationship with the Catholic Church. Key new monarchs include Charles VII, Louis XI, Henry VII, and Ferdinand and Isabella.
5. TAILLE – A direct tax on the French peasantry. The taille was one of the most important sources of income for French monarchs until the French Revolution.
6. RECONQUISTA – The centuries-long Christian "reconquest" of Spain from the Muslims. The Reconquista culminated in 1492 with the conquest of the last Muslim stronghold, Granada.
7. INDULGENCE – A certificate granted by the pope in return for the payment of a fee to the church. The certificate stated that the soul of the dead relative or friend of the purchaser would have his time in purgatory reduced by many years or cancelled altogether.
8. ANABAPTIST – Protestants who insisted that only adult baptism conformed to Scripture. Protestant and Catholic leaders condemned Anabaptists for advocating the complete separation of church and state.
9. PREDESTINATION – Doctrine espoused by John Calvin that God has known since the beginning of time who will be saved and who will be damned. Calvin declared that "by an eternal and immutable counsel, God has once and for all determined, both whom he would admit to salvation, and whom he would condemn to destruction."
10. HUGUENOTS – French Protestants who followed the teachings of John Calvin.
11. POLITIQUES – Rulers who put political necessities above personal beliefs. For example, both Henry IV of France and Elizabeth I of England subordinated theological controversies in order to achieve political unity.
12. COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE – The interchange of plants, animals, diseases, and human populations between the Old World and the New World.
13. MERCANTILISM – Economic philosophy that called for close government regulation of the economy. Mercantilist theory emphasized building a strong, self-sufficient economy by maximizing exports and limiting imports. Mercantilists supported the acquisition of colonies as sources of raw materials and markets for finished goods. This favorable balance of trade would enable a country to accumulate reserves of gold and silver.
14. PUTTING-OUT SYSTEM – A preindustrial manufacturing system in which an entrepreneur would bring materials to rural people who worked on them in their own homes. For example, watch manufacturers in Swiss towns employed villagers to make parts for their products. The system enabled entrepreneurs to avoid restrictive guild regulations.
15. JOINT-STOCK COMPANY – A business arrangement in which many investors raise money for a venture too large for any of them to undertake alone. They share the profits in proportion to the amount they invest. English entrepreneurs used joint-stock companies to finance the establishment of New World colonies.
Excerpted from "AP European History Crash Course"
Copyright © 2016 Research & Education Association, Inc..
Excerpted by permission of Research & Education Association.
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Table of Contents
About Our Author, vi,
About Our Book, vii,
PART 1 INTRODUCTION,
Chapter 1 Keys for Success on the AP European History Exam, 3,
Chapter 2 Key Terms, 11,
PART II CHRONOLOGICAL REVIEW,
PERIOD 1: c. 1450 to c. 1648,
Chapter 3 The Italian Renaissance, 25,
Chapter 4 The Northern Renaissance, 37,
Chapter 5 The New Monarchs, 43,
Chapter 6 The Protestant Reformation, 47,
Chapter 7 The Catholic Reformation and the Wars of Religion, 59,
Chapter 8 The Age of Exploration and the Commercial Revolution, 73,
PERIOD 2: c. 1648 to c. 1815,
Chapter 9 Constitutionalism: The Dutch Republic and England, 1600–1689, 85,
Chapter 10 Absolutism in Western Europe: France and Spain, 1589–1715, 97,
Chapter 11 Absolutism in Eastern Europe, 1600–1725, 109,
Chapter 12 The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment, 117,
Chapter 13 Peace, War, and Enlightened Despots, 1715–1789, 131,
Chapter 14 Life and Culture in Eighteenth-Century Europe, 141,
Chapter 15 The French Revolution and Napoleon, 1789–1815, 149,
PERIOD 3: c. 1815 to c. 1914,
Chapter 16 The Industrial Revolution, 165,
Chapter 17 Restoration, Romanticism, and Revolution, 1815–1848, 177,
Chapter 18 Nationalism, Realpolitik, and Realism, 1850–1871, 193,
Chapter 19 Industry, Mass Politics, and Culture, 1871–1914, 209,
PERIOD 4: c. 1914 to the Present,
Chapter 20 War and Revolution, 229,
Chapter 21 The Age of Anxiety, 241,
Chapter 22 Depression, Dictators, and World War II, 251,
Chapter 23 The Cold War, 1946–1991, 267,
Chapter 24 Key Trends in Post-Cold War Europe, 285,
PART III KEY THEMES AND FACTS,
Chapter 25 Key Figures in European Intellectual History, 299,
Chapter 26 Key Events in European Diplomatic History, 307,
Chapter 27 Key Events, Trends, and Figures in European Women's History, 313,
PART IV TEST-TAKING STRATEGIES,
Chapter 28 Strategies for the Multiple-Choice Questions, 319,
Chapter 29 Strategies for the Short-Answer Questions, 325,
Chapter 30 Strategies for the Document-Based Question (DBQ), 331,
Chapter 31 Strategies for the Long-Essay Question, 339,
Practice Exam www.rea.com/studycenter,