This two-volume handbook provides a comprehensive review of addiction. Volume 1 has an introduction and three sections focusing on the background and history of addiction, the distal and proximal influences on addiction, and the expressions of addiction; the latter includes chapter discussions about the universal and unique consequences of addiction. Volume 2 also has three major sections. These sections examine the many aspects associated with recovery from addiction, the prevention of addiction, and other essential issues commonly associated with addiction, such as technology, driving under the influence, and homelessness. There is also a Foreword in Volume 1 and an Epilogue in Volume 2 that provide insight and perspective about the addiction syndrome and the place of this handbook within the development of a science of addiction. Editor-in-chief Howard J. Shaffer asked contributors to consider their areas of interest with respect to the addiction syndrome model. In addition, to advance the conceptual framework that guides addiction research and treatment, contributors were asked to provide evidence to support or refute the addiction syndrome model. Dr. Shaffer hopes this approach will stimulate an enthusiastic dialogue that can advance the field by revising and improving the etiological models that provide the guiding wisdom about addiction and its causes and consequences.