Appeal to Expert Opinion: Arguments from Authority

Appeal to Expert Opinion: Arguments from Authority

by Douglas Walton

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780271016955
Publisher: Penn State University Press
Publication date: 10/13/1997
Pages: 296
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.94(d)

About the Author

Douglas N. Walton is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Winnipeg. He has published two books with Penn State Press, The Place of Emotion in Argument (1992) and Arguments from Ignorance (1995). Other recent books of his include Slippery Slope Arguments (1992) and Plausible Arguments in Everyday Conversation (1992).

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments xi(2)
Preface xiii
CHAPTER ONE: THE PROBLEM OF AUTHORITY
1(31)
1. Peirce's Four Methods of Fixing Belief
3(2)
2. Science As the Modern Authoritarianism
5(4)
3. The Culture of Technical Control
9(4)
4. Different Conceptions of Scientific Knowledge
13(4)
5. Expert Testimony in Court
17(2)
6. A Complex Type of Argument
19(3)
7. Being Intimidated by Experts
22(1)
8. Questioning an Expert Opinion
23(5)
9. The Problem of Fallacies
28(1)
10. Finding a Middle Way
29(3)
CHAPTER TWO: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
32(31)
1. Overview of Developments
33(2)
2. Plato on Socratic Questioning of Experts
35(3)
3. Aristotle on Dialectical Arguments
38(5)
4. The Medieval View of Argument from Authority
43(3)
5. Galileo's Challenge to Proof by Authority
46(2)
6. The Port-Royal Logic
48(4)
7. Locke's Account of Argumentum ad Verecundiam
52(3)
8. Bentham on Appeal to Authority
55(2)
9. The Meaning of Verecundia
57(3)
10. Where to Begin
60(3)
CHAPTER THREE: IDENTIFICATION OF THE TYPE OF ARGUMENT
63(28)
1. Appeal to Reverence
64(3)
2. Knowledge Versus Appeal to Authority
67(2)
3. Testimony of Authoritative Sources
69(3)
4. Varying Definitions of Ad Verecundiam
72(4)
5. The Ambiguity of'Authority'
76(3)
6. Advertising Testimonials
79(3)
7. Position to Know
82(2)
8. Authority and Expertise
84(2)
9. Terminological Choice
86(2)
10. Provisional Conclusions
88(3)
CHAPTER FOUR: FORM OF THE ARGUMENT
91(35)
1. Deductive Forms
92(4)
2. Probable Inferences from a Knowledge Base
96(2)
3. Inductive Forms
98(2)
4. Presumptive Forms
100(4)
5. Expert Systems
104(3)
6. Informal Logic and Expert Systems
107(3)
7. The Concept of an Expert
110(4)
8. Reliability and Bias--Subjective Factors
114(3)
9. Human and Machine Expertise
117(3)
10. Evaluating the Form in a Context of Dialogue
120(6)
CHAPTER FIVE: DIALECTICAL ASPECTS
126(41)
1. The Case of the Deadly Radar Gun
127(7)
2. The Case of Lorenzo's Oil
134(3)
3. Reported Controversies
137(3)
4. Appeal to Expert Opinion in Political Debate
140(4)
5. The Context of Dialogue
144(5)
6. Style of Presentation
149(4)
7. The Secondary Level of Dialogue
153(4)
8. Critical Questions and Logical Form
157(2)
9. Drawing Inferences from Expert Opinion
159(5)
10. Dialectical Structure of Appeal to Expert Opinion
164(3)
CHAPTER SIX: EXPERT TESTIMONY AS LEGAL EVIDENCE
167(32)
1. The Adversarial Setting of a Trial
168(3)
2. The Battle of the Experts
171(5)
3. Junk Science in the Courts
176(3)
4. The Go-It-Alone Expert
179(2)
5. Legal Criteria for Scientific Testimony
181(4)
6. Hearsay Evidence in Expert Testimony
185(3)
7. Science As a Body of Knowledge
188(4)
8. Solutions to the Junk Science Problem
192(2)
9. The Framework of Dialogue in a Trial
194(3)
10. The Consistency Critical Question
197(2)
CHAPTER SEVEN: CRITICAL QUESTIONS
199(31)
1. Premises and Critical Questions
200(2)
2. Early Accounts
202(3)
3. Accounts in the 1970s
205(3)
4. Recent Accounts
208(5)
5. Personal Reliability and Bias
213(2)
6. The Trustworthiness Question
215(2)
7. Position to Know
217(1)
8. General Acceptance in a Field
218(4)
9. General Recommendations
222(3)
10. Using Critical Questions for Evaluation
225(5)
CHAPTER EIGHT: EXPLAINING THE FALLACY
230(33)
1. Suspect and Fallacious Appeals
231(3)
2. Specific Defaults Cited
234(5)
3. Dogmatic Appeals to Authority
239(4)
4. The Halo Effect and Milgram's Experiments
243(2)
5. Institutional Setting of Authority
245(2)
6. Fallible Arguments Absolutized
247(3)
7. Confusing Two Types of Authority
250(3)
8. Profiles of Dialogue
253(2)
9. Subfallacies
255(2)
10. Summary
257(6)
Bibliography 263(12)
Index 275

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