vi Williamsburg, Virginia, February 21-23, 1978. This symposium was sponsored by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Energy Minerals and Industry, Washington, DC, and Office of Health and Ecological Effects, Health Effects Re search Laboratory, Biochemistry Branch, Research Triangle Park, NC. The symposium consisted of 24 formal presentations that amplify the three major topics discussed during the symposium: an overview of short-term bioassay systems; current methodology involving the collection and chemical analysis of environmental samples; and current research in volving the use of short-term bioassays in the fractionation and analysis of complex environmental mixtures. The purpose of this symposium was to present the state-of-the-art tech niques in bioassay and chemical analysis as applied to com plex mixtures and to foster continued advancement of this important area. Complex mixtures discussed include ambient air and water, waste water, drinking water, shale oil, syn thetic fuels, automobile exhaust, diesel particulate, coal fly ash, cigarette smoke condensates, and food products. It is our hope that this volume will serve as a refer ence to catalyze and encourage further research in this field. Michael D. Waters, Ph. D. Stephen Nesnow, Ph. D. vii Acknowledgment We would like to thank Gerald Rausa, Office of Energy Minerals and Industry, for his advice, encouragement, and support of this program. We would also like to express our appreciation to Wendy A. Martin, Peter A. Murphy, and David F. Wright of Kappa Systems, Inc.
Table of ContentsSection 1: Short-Term Bioassay SystemsAn Overview.- The Use of Microbial Assay Systems in the Detection of Environmental Mutagens in Complex Mixtures.- Mutagenesis of Mammalian Cells by Chemical Carcinogens After Metabolic Activation.- Oncogenic Transformation of Mammalian Cells by Chemicals and Viral-Chemical Interactions.- Higher Plant Systems as Monitors of Environmental Mutagens.- The Role of Drosophila in Chemical Mutagenesis Testing.- The Cellular Toxicity of Complex Environmental Mixtures.- Section 2: Collection and Chemical Analysis of Environmental Samples.- Atmospheric GenotoxicantsWhat Numbers Do We Collect?.- State-of-the-Art Analytical Techniques for Ambient Vapor Phase Organics and Volatile Organics in Aqueous Samples from Energy-Related Activities.- Strategy for Collection of Drinking Water Concentrates.- Section 3: Current Research.- Short-term Bioassay of Complex Organic Mixtures: Part I, Chemistry.- Short-term Bioassay of Complex Organic Mixtures: Part II, Mutagenicity Testing.- Quantitative Mammalian Cell Genetic Toxicology: Study of the Cytotoxicity and Mutagenicity of Seventy Individual Environmental Agents Related to Energy Technologies and Three Subfractions of a Crude Synthetic Oil in the CHO/HGPRT System.- Environmental Testing.- Integrating Microbiological and Chemical Testing into the Screening of Air Samples for Potential Mutagenicity.- Chemical and Microbiological Studies of Mutagenic Pollutants in Real and Simulated Atmospheres.- Application of Bioassay to the Characterization of Diesel Particle Emissions.- Measurement of Biological Activity of Ambient Air Mixtures Using a Mobile Laboratory for In Situ Exposures: Preliminary Results from the Tradescantia Plant Test System.- Physical and Biological Studies of Coal Fly Ash.- Mutagenicity of Shale Oil Components.- Mutagenic Analysis of Drinking Water.- In Vitro Activation of Cigarette Smoke Condensate Materials to Their Mutagenic Forms.- Mutagenic, Carcinogenic, and Toxic Effects of Residual Organics in Drinking Water.- Mutagenic Analysis of Complex Samples of Aqueous Effluents, Air Particulates, and Foods.