ISBN-10:
0471952680
ISBN-13:
9780471952688
Pub. Date:
10/18/2001
Publisher:
Wiley
Applications of Synthetic Resin Latices , Fundamental Chemistry of Latices & Applications in Adhesives / Edition 1

Applications of Synthetic Resin Latices , Fundamental Chemistry of Latices & Applications in Adhesives / Edition 1

by H. Warson, C. A. Finch

Hardcover

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780471952688
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 10/18/2001
Series: Applications of Synthetic Resin Latices , #1
Edition description: Volume 1
Pages: 732
Product dimensions: 6.34(w) x 9.39(h) x 1.86(d)

About the Author

H. Warson is the author of Applications of Synthetic Resin Latices , Volume 1, Fundamental Chemistry of Latices & Applications in Adhesives, published by Wiley. C. A. Finch is the author of Applications of Synthetic Resin Latices , Volume 1, Fundamental Chemistry of Latices & Applications in Adhesives, published by Wiley.

Table of Contents

Preface.

Applications—A Note on References.

Patent Viability.

Introduction.

FUNDAMENTALS OF POLYMER CHEMISTRY.

The Concept of a Polymer.

Historical Introduction.

Definitions.

Addition Polymerisation.

Free radical polymerisation.

Copolymerisation.

Chain Branching;
Block and Graft Copolymers.

Chain Branching.

Graft Copolymers.

Polymer Structure and Properties.

Polymer structure.

Molecular weight effects.

Transition points.

Technology of Polymerisation.

Bulk polymerisation.

Solution polymerisation.

Suspension polymerisation.

The Principal Monomers and Their Polymer.

Hydrocarbons.

Vinyl esters.

Clorinated monomers.

Acrylics.

Polymerisable acids and anhydrides.

Self-emulsifying monomers.

Esters for copolymerisation.

Monomers with several double bonds.

Allyl derivatives.

Vinyl ethers.

Miscellaneous monomers containing nitrogen.

Toxicity and handling.

Physical Properties of Monomers.

Appendix.

References.

EMULSIONS AND COLLOIDS.

Introduction to Colloid Chemistry.

Historical.

Emulsions.

Surfactants and Stabilisers.

A Survey of Technical Surfactants.

Anionic types-fatty acids and allied salts.

Sulfates and sulfonates.

Hydrotropes.

Phosphates.

Fluorochemical emulsifiers.

Non-ionic types.

Biodegradable emulsifiers.

Cationic types.

Amphoteric emulsifiers.

Polymerisable agents.

Dispersing agents.

Solid dispersants.

Colloids and High Molecular Weight Stabilisers.

Starch and dextrin.

Cellulose ethers.

Other semi-synthetic colloids.

Polyvinyl alcohol.

Polyelectrolytes.

Other synthetic water-soluble polymers.

Associative thickeners.

References.

Supplementary references for Section 3.9.

EMULSION POLYMERISATION.

General Principles.

Chemistry and fundamentals.

Technology, Laboratory and Large Scale.

Monomers.

Pilot plants and large-scale reactors.

Special techniques; continuous processes.

Varied polymerisation techniques.

Vinyl Acetate and Copolymer Latices.

Historical development of latices.

Polyvinyl acetate and related coploymers.

Copolymers of vinyl acetate.

Alkali-soluble polymers.

Equivalence of 'external' and 'internal' plasticisation.

Acrylic Latices.

Typical acrylic formulations.

Developments in polymerisation of acrylics.

Styrene Latices.

Processes-general.

Diene Polymers and Copolymers.

Introduction.

Dienes: non-rubber applications.

Carboxylated latex formulations.

Vinyl Halides.

Vinyl chloride polymers and copolymers.

Vinylidene chloride polymers and copolymers.

Monomers containing bromine.

Vinyl compounds containing fluorine.

Emulsion Polymerisation-Theoretical Considerations.

Types of mechanism.

Theories of Harkins and Smith and Ewart.

Theory of Medvedev.

Theoretical developments-Fitch and Ugelstadt.

Copolymerisation-theoretical.

Specificity of surfactants and stabilisers.

Latex particle stablization.

Further quantitative investigations.

1 Styrene.

Emulsion polymerisation, acrylic and methacrylic esters.

Emulsion polymerisation of vinyl acetate.

Styrene copolymers (except with dienes).

Butadiene copolymers.

Copolymerisation including a water-soluble monomer.

Emulsion Polymerisation in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.

Inverse Emulsions.

Interpenetrating Networks (IPN).

Conclusions.

References.

LATEX PROPERTIES RELATIVE TO APPLICATIONS.

Introduction.

Various Properties and Descriptions.

Emulsion particles and resultant properties.

Particle characterization.

Core-shell copolymers-surface and buried groups.

Adsorption of surfactants on latex particles.

Emulsion viscosity.

Freeze-Thaw and Tropical Stability.

Freeze-thaw stability-general principles.

Freeze-thaw stability-technical methods of control.

Freeze-thaw stability-tests.

Tropical stability.

Emulsion Films.

Film formation.

Theoretical developments.

Minimum film-forming temperature.

Specific studies-film formation.

Summary.

Addition of Plasticisers and Coalescing Solvents.

Introduction.

The mechanism of platicisation in emulsion.

Plasticisation of principle polymers.

Transient plasticisers (coalescing solvents).

Pigementation.

Introduction.

Pigmentary power.

Some common pigments and extenders.

Pigmentation of latices.

General properties of pigmented systems.

Critical pigment volume concentration.

Pigment encapsulation.

Organic Extenders.

References.

CROSSLINKING AND CURING.

Introduction.

Problems of crosslinking in latices.

A survey of crosslinking.

Estimation of Crosslinking.

Cure studies.

Cure tests.

Multiple Double Bonds.

Polymers including divinylbenzene and allied monomers.

Polymers derived from acrylic and allied esters-multiple double bonds.

Allyl polymers-multiple double bonds.

Diene polymers.

Other vinyl-type polymers with residual unsaturation.

The Carboxyl Function in Polymers.

Introduction.

Combinations with hydroxyl and epoxide groups.

Metal oxides.

The Hydroxyl Function.

Reactions with aldehydes.

Dioxalane derivatives.

The Epoxide Function.

Internal epoxide groups in unsaturated monomer.

External epoxide compounds.

Di-Isocyanates and Polyurethanes In Vinyl-Type Cures.

Polymers Containing (Meth)Acrylamide.

Chemistry of the reactions.

Simple derivatives of acrylamide.

Diacetoneacrylamide (DAAM).

Methylene bis acrylamide (MBAM).

The aminimides.

Acrylamidoglycollates.

Other amide derivatives with unsaturation.

Cure with aminoplasts.

Polymers Containing Halogens.

Radiation Curing.

Ultraviolet curing.

Cure by electron beam (EB).

Incorporation of Siloxanes.

Cure of Eva and Saturated Polymers.

Other Crosslinking Systems.

Acid and alkali induced crosslinking.

Crosslinking via beta-ketonic acid esters.

Crosslinking with reactive nitrogen compounds.

Intra- and inter-molecular reactions.

Unspecified.

References.

TECHNICAL POLYMER LATICES.

Introduction.

Polyvinyl Acetate and Related Polymers.

Polyvinyl acetate.

Copolymers of dinyl acetate.

Typical commercial products.

Acrylic Polymers and Copolymers.

Properties of acrylic polymers.

Properties of acrylic resin films.

Vinyl Halide Polymers.

Polyvinyl chloride.

Polymers and copolymers of vinylidene chloride.

Fluorocarbon latices.

Styrene Polymers and Copolymers.

Polystyrene.

Styrene-butaiene copolymers.

Polymers Based on Aliphatic Hydrocarbons.

Vinylpyrrolidone Copolymersd.

The Testing of Latices.

Total solids content.

Monomer content.

Specific gravity.

pH stability.

Freeze-thaw stability.

Emulsion viscosity.

Particle size.

Soap titration; surface tension measurements.

Settling and sedimentation.

Mechanical stability.

Minimum film temperature (MFT).

Relative molecular weight (viscosity).

General film measurements.

Determination of charge.

UNSATURATED POLYMERS AND NON-VINYL EMULSIONS.

Introduction.

Alkyds and Polyesters.

Polyesters.

Alkyds and allied products.

Aminoplasts.

Polyamide Emulsions.

Epoxide Resins and Blends.

Initial condensation in emulsion.

Amine salt emulsification.

Non-ionic emulsifiers.

Cycloaliphatic epoxides.

Water-in-oil emulsions.

Epoxides containing halogens.

Epoxide-polyamide emulsions.

Epoxide emulsions-miscellaneous blends and reactions.

Applications.

Phenoplasts.

Silicones.

Elementary chemistry.

Some methods of emulsification.

Textile and paper applications of silicone oragnopolysiloxane latices.

Silicone latices in surface coating and building.

Miscellaneous applications.

Polyurethanes.

Chemistry of isocyanate adducts.

Polyurethane latex.

Applications of polyurethane latices.

References.

POLYMER LATICES IN THE FORMULATION OF ADHESIVES.

Introduction.

Terminology of adhesives.

Survey of Theories of Adhesion.

Basic theory.

The function of adhesives: latex adhesives.

Latex-Based Adhesives: Some Practical Aspects.

Introduction.

Functions of adhesives.

Practical requirements of adhesives.

Specific Adhesive Types.

Polyvinyl acetate homopolymer-based adhesives.

Polyvinyl acetate copolymer-based adhesives.

Polyvinyl propionate latices in adhesives.

Acrylic copolymer latices.

Vinylidene chloride and other halogenated polymer latices in adhesive.

Butadiene coploymer latices.

Other latex types.

Latex-Based Adhesives with Specific Functions.

Pressure-sensitive adhesives.

Removable pressure-sensitive adhesives.

Contact adhesives.

Heat-seal adhesives.

Delayed tack adhesives.

Remoistenable adhesives.

Quick-tack and contact-grab adhesives.

Redispersible components for pressure-sensitive adhesives.

Adhesive for Specific Applications.

Wood adhesives.

Latex-based adhesives for paper bonding.

Adhesives for packaging.

Miscellaneous latex-based adhesives.

Rubber-to-Fabric Adhesives.

Introduction.

Vinylpyriding copolymer adhesives.

Dip additives and composition.

Other rubber adhesive systems.

Modifications of resorcinol-formaldehyde resins.

Latex modifications.

Test Methods for Adhesives.

Appendix: Some Technical Products for Water-Based Adhesives.

Glossary of Terms Relating to Adhesives.

References.

Index.

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