ISBN-10:
3433031479
ISBN-13:
9783433031476
Pub. Date:
04/25/2016
Publisher:
Wiley
Applied Building Physics: Ambient Conditions, Building Performance and Material Properties / Edition 2

Applied Building Physics: Ambient Conditions, Building Performance and Material Properties / Edition 2

by Hugo S. L. Hens
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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783433031476
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 04/25/2016
Pages: 358
Product dimensions: 6.70(w) x 9.40(h) x 1.00(d)

About the Author

Dr. Ir. Hugo S.L.C. Hens is an emeritus professor at the University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Belgium. Till 1972, he worked as a structural engineer and site supervisor at a mid-sized architectural office. In 1975, after defending his PhD-thesis, he started the research unit Building Physics within the Faculty of Engineering of the university. He taught Building Physics from 1975 till 2003, Performance Based Building Design from 1975 till 2005 and Building Services from 1975 till 1977 and 1990 till 2008.
He authored and co-authored some 70 peer reviewed journal and 170 conference papers about the research done at the unit, helped man-aging hundreds of building damage cases and acted as coordinator of the CIB W40 working group on Heat and Mass Transfer in Buildings from 1983 till 1993. Between 1986 and 2008, he was operating agent of the Annexes 14, 24, 32 and 41 of the International Energy Agency's EXCO on Energy in Buildings and Communities. He is a fellow of the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE).

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Table of Contents

Preface xv

0 Introduction 1

0.1 Subject of the book 1

0.2 Building physics vs. applied building physics 1

0.3 Units and symbols 2

Further reading 5

1 Outdoor and indoor ambient conditions 7

1.1 Overview 7

1.2 Outdoors 8

1.2.1 Air temperature 9

1.2.2 Solar radiation 12

1.2.2.1 Beam radiation 14

1.2.2.2 Diffuse radiation 16

1.2.2.3 Reflected radiation 17

1.2.2.4 Total radiation 17

1.2.3 Longwave radiation 18

1.2.4 Relative humidity and (partial water) vapour pressure 22

1.2.5 Wind 23

1.2.5.1 Wind speed 24

1.2.5.2 Wind pressure 24

1.2.6 Precipitation and wind-driven rain 26

1.2.6.1 Precipitation 27

1.2.6.2 Wind-driven rain 28

1.2.7 Microclimates around buildings 30

1.2.8 Standardized outdoor climate data 31

1.2.8.1 Design temperature 31

1.2.8.2 Reference years 31

1.2.8.3 Very hot summer, very cold winter day 31

1.2.8.4 Moisture reference years 31

1.2.8.5 Equivalent temperature for condensation and drying 34

1.2.8.6 Monthly mean vapour pressure outdoors 37

1.3 Indoors 37

1.3.1 Air temperatures 37

1.3.1.1 In general 37

1.3.1.2 Measured data 38

1.3.2 Relative humidity and vapour pressure 41

1.3.2.1 Vapour release indoors 41

1.3.2.2 Measured data 44

1.3.2.3 Indoor climate classes 47

1.3.3 Indoor/outdoor air pressure differentials 50

Further reading 51

2 Performance metrics and arrays 54

2.1 Definitions 54

2.2 Functional demands 54

2.3 Performance requirements 54

2.4 A short history 55

2.5 Performance arrays 56

2.5.1 Overview 56

2.5.1.1 The built environment 56

2.5.1.2 Whole buildings and building assemblies 57

2.5.2 In detail 57

2.5.2.1 Functionality 57

2.5.2.2 Structural adequacy 57

2.5.2.3 Building physics related quality 60

2.5.2.4 Fire safety 60

2.5.2.5 Durability 61

2.5.2.6 Maintenance 61

Further reading 62

3 Whole building level 63

3.1 Thermal comfort 63

3.1.1 General concepts 63

3.1.2 Physiological basis 63

3.1.2.1 Exothermic 63

3.1.2.2 Homoeothermic 65

3.1.2.3 Autonomic control system 65

3.1.3 Steady state thermal comfort, the physiology based approach 66

3.1.3.1 Clothing 66

3.1.3.2 Heat flow between body and ambient 66

3.1.3.3 Comfort equations 68

3.1.3.4 Comfort parameters and variables 69

3.1.3.5 Thermally equivalent environments and comfort temperatures 69

3.1.3.6 Comfort appreciation 71

3.1.4 Steady state thermal comfort, the adaptive model 72

3.1.5 Thermal comfort under non-uniform and under transient conditions 74

3.1.5.1 Refined body model 74

3.1.5.2 Local discomfort 76

3.1.5.3 Drifts and ramps 78

3.1.6 Standard-based comfort requirements 80

3.1.7 Comfort related enclosure performance 81

3.2 Health and indoor environmental quality 83

3.2.1 In general 83

3.2.2 Health 84

3.2.3 Definitions 85

3.2.4 Relation between pollution outdoor and indoors 85

3.2.5 Process-related contaminants 86

3.2.5.1 Dust, vapour, smoke, mist and gaseous clouds 86

3.2.5.2 Fibres 86

3.2.5.3 Ozone 87

3.2.6 Building, insulation and finishing material related contaminants 87

3.2.6.1 (Semi) volatile organic compounds ((S)VOCs) 87

3.2.6.2 Formaldehyde (HCHO) 88

3.2.6.3 Phthalates 89

3.2.6.4 Pentachlorinephenols 89

3.2.7 Soil-related radon as contaminant 89

3.2.8 Combustion related contaminants 91

3.2.8.1 Carbon monoxide 91

3.2.8.2 Nitrous dioxide (NO2) 91

3.2.9 Bio-germs 92

3.2.9.1 Viruses 92

3.2.9.2 Bacteria 92

3.2.9.3 Mould 92

3.2.9.4 Dust mites 95

3.2.9.5 Insects 95

3.2.9.6 Rodents 96

3.2.9.7 Pets 96

3.2.10 Human related contaminants 96

3.2.10.1 Carbon dioxide (CO2) 97

3.2.10.2 Water vapour 97

3.2.10.3 Bio-odours 97

3.2.10.4 Tobacco smoke 98

3.2.11 Perceived indoor air quality 99

3.2.11.1 Odour 99

3.2.11.2 Indoor air enthalpy 101

3.2.12 Sick building syndrome (SBS) 102

3.2.13 Contaminant control 103

3.2.13.1 Minimizing emission 103

3.2.13.2 Ventilation 103

3.2.13.3 Air cleaning and personal protective measures 109

3.3 Energy efficiency 110

3.3.1 In general 110

3.3.2 Some statistics 111

3.3.3 End energy use in buildings 112

3.3.3.1 Lighting and appliances 112

3.3.3.2 Domestic hot water 116

3.3.3.3 Space heating, cooling and air conditioning 116

3.3.4 Space heating 116

3.3.4.1 Terminology 116

3.3.4.2 Steady state heat balance at zone level 118

3.3.4.3 Whole building steady state heat balance 123

3.3.4.4 Heat gain utilization efficiency 123

3.3.4.5 Annual end use for heating 125

3.3.4.6 Protected volume as one zone 125

3.3.5 Residential buildings, parameters shaping the annual net heating demand 125

3.3.5.1 Overview 125

3.3.5.2 Outdoor climate 126

3.3.5.3 Building use 127

3.3.5.4 Building design and construction 135

3.3.6 Residential buildings, parameters fixing net cooling demand 144

3.3.7 Residential buildings, gross energy demand, end energy use 146

3.3.8 Residential buildings ranked in terms of energy efficiency 146

3.3.8.1 Insulated 146

3.3.8.2 Energy efficient 146

3.3.8.3 Low energy 147

3.3.8.4 Passive 147

3.3.8.5 Near zero energy 147

3.3.8.6 Net zero energy 147

3.3.8.7 Net plus energy 147

3.3.8.8 Energy autarkic 148

3.3.9 Non-residential buildings, net and gross demand, end and primary energy use 148

3.3.9.1 In general 148

3.3.9.2 School retrofits as an exemplary case 148

3.4 Durability 152

3.4.1 In general 152

3.4.2 Loads 153

3.4.3 Damage patterns 153

3.4.3.1 Decrease in thermal quality 153

3.4.3.2 Decrease in strength and stiffness 154

3.4.3.3 Stress, strain, deformation and cracking 154

3.4.3.4 Biological attack 158

3.4.3.5 Frost damage 160

3.4.3.6 Salt attack 163

3.4.3.7 Chemical attack 167

3.4.3.8 Corrosion 168

3.5 Economics 170

3.5.1 Total and net present value 170

3.5.2 Optimum insulation thickness 171

3.5.3 Whole building optimum 173

3.5.3.1 Methodology 173

3.5.3.2 Example 174

3.6 Sustainability 178

3.6.1 In general 178

3.6.2 Life cycle inventory and analysis 179

3.6.2.1 Definition 179

3.6.2.2 Some criteria 181

3.6.2.3 Whole energy use and minimal environmental load 181

3.6.2.4 Recycling 182

3.6.3 High performance buildings 182

Further reading 186

4 Envelope and fabric: heat, air and moisture metrics 195

4.1 Introduction 195

4.2 Airtightness 195

4.2.1 Air flow patterns 195

4.2.2 Performance requirements 197

4.2.2.1 Air infiltration and exfiltration 197

4.2.2.2 Inside air washing, wind washing and air looping 197

4.3 Thermal transmittance 198

4.3.1 Definitions 198

4.3.1.1 Opaque envelope assemblies above grade 198

4.3.1.2 Whole envelope 199

4.3.2 Basis for requirements 199

4.3.2.1 Envelope parts 199

4.3.2.2 Whole envelope 200

4.3.3 Examples of requirements 200

4.3.3.1 Envelope parts 200

4.3.3.2 Whole envelopes 200

4.4 Transient thermal response 204

4.4.1 Properties of importance 204

4.4.2 Performance requirements 206

4.4.3 Consequences for the building fabric 206

4.5 Moisture tolerance 208

4.5.1 In general 208

4.5.2 Construction moisture 208

4.5.2.1 Definition 208

4.5.2.2 Performance requirements 208

4.5.2.3 Consequences for the building fabric 209

4.5.3 Rain 210

4.5.3.1 The problem 210

4.5.3.2 Performance requirements 212

4.5.3.3 Modelling 213

4.5.3.4 Consequences for the building envelope 215

4.5.4 Rising damp 217

4.5.4.1 Definition 217

4.5.4.2 Performance requirements 217

4.5.4.3 Modelling 218

4.5.4.4 Avoiding or curing rising damp 221

4.5.5 Pressure heads 222

4.5.5.1 Definition 222

4.5.5.2 Performance requirements 223

4.5.5.3 Modelling 223

4.5.5.4 Protecting the building fabric 223

4.5.6 Accidental leaks 224

4.5.7 Hygroscopic moisture 224

4.5.7.1 Definition 224

4.5.7.2 Performance requirements 226

4.5.7.3 Modelling 226

4.5.7.4 Consequences for the building fabric 226

4.5.8 Surface condensation 226

4.5.8.1 Definition 226

4.5.8.2 Performance requirements 226

4.5.8.3 Modelling 227

4.5.8.4 Consequences for the envelope 228

4.5.9 Interstitial condensation 228

4.5.9.1 Definition 228

4.5.9.2 Modelling 229

4.5.9.3 Performance requirements 232

4.5.9.4 Consequences for the building envelope 233

4.5.9.5 Remark 234

4.5.10 All moisture sources combined 234

4.5.10.1 Modelling 234

4.5.10.2 Performance requirements 234

4.5.10.3 Why models still have limitations 236

4.5.10.4 Three examples where full models were hardly of any help 240

4.6 Thermal bridges 244

4.6.1 Definition 244

4.6.2 Performance requirements 245

4.6.3 Consequences for the envelope 245

4.7 Contact coefficients 245

4.8 Hygrothermal stress and strain 246

4.9 Transparent parts: solar transmittance 247

4.9.1 Definition 247

4.9.2 Performance requirements 247

4.9.3 Consequences for the envelope 248

Further reading 248

5 Timber-framed outer wall as an exemplary case 253

5.1 In general 253

5.2 Assembly 253

5.3 Heat, air, moisture performances 253

5.3.1 Airtightness 253

5.3.2 Thermal transmittance. 255

5.3.3 Transient response 257

5.3.4 Moisture tolerance 257

5.3.4.1 Construction moisture 257

5.3.4.2 Rain control 257

5.3.4.3 Rising damp 258

5.3.4.4 Hygroscopic moisture and surface condensation 258

5.3.4.5 Interstitial condensation 258

5.3.4.6 More advanced modelling 264

5.3.4.7 Thermal bridging 265

6 Heat-air-moisture material properties 266

6.1 Introduction 266

6.2 Dry air and water 267

6.3 Materials, thermal properties 268

6.3.1 Definitions 268

6.3.2 Design values 268

6.3.2.1 Non-certified materials (ISO 10456) 268

6.3.2.2 Design values (NBN B62-002 (2001)) 272

6.3.3 Measured data 281

6.3.3.1 Building materials 281

6.3.3.2 Insulation materials 287

6.4 Materials, air-related properties 290

6.4.1 Design values 290

6.4.1.1 Measured values 291

6.5 Materials, moisture properties 304

6.5.1 Design values for the vapour resistance factor (ISO 10456) 304

6.5.1.1 Building and finishing materials 304

6.5.1.2 Insulation materials 309

6.5.2 Measured values 309

6.5.2.1 Building materials 310

6.5.2.2 Insulation materials 323

6.5.2.3 Finishes 324

6.5.2.4 Miscellaneous 326

6.5.2.5 Vapour retarders 327

6.6 Surfaces, radiant properties 328

Further reading 329

Appendix A: Solar radiation for Uccle, Belgium, 50° 51á north, 4° 21á east 331

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