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Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Applied Scanning Probe Methods IX: Characterization / Edition 1

Applied Scanning Probe Methods IX: Characterization / Edition 1


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783540740827
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 02/19/2008
Series: NanoScience and Technology
Edition description: 2008
Pages: 387
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

Ultrathin Fullerene-Based Films via STM and STS   Luca Gavioli   Cinzia Cepek     1
Introduction     1
Basic Principles of STM and STS     2
Survey of Fullerene-Based Systems     4
Bulk Properties     4
Electronic Structure     6
Alkali-Metal-Doped C[subscript 60]     8
Interaction of C[subscript 60] with Surfaces     10
Summary     17
References     18
Quantitative Measurement of Materials Properties with the (Digital) Pulsed Force Mode   Alexander M. Gigler   Othmar Marti     23
Introduction     23
Modes of Intermittent Operation     24
Destructive Versus Nondestructive Measurements     25
The Pulsed Force Mode     26
Operating Principle of the Pulsed Force Mode     26
Analog Pulsed Force Mode     32
Digital Pulsed Force Mode     32
Contact Mechanics Relevant for Pulsed Force Mode Investigations     33
Hertz Model     33
Sneddon's Extensions to the Hertz Model     36
Models Incorporating Adhesion     37
Data Processing     39
Polymers     42
Other Applications     47
Pulsed Force Mode and Friction Measurements     47
Cell Mechanics     50
Summary     51
References     52
Advances in SPMs for Investigation and Modification of Solid-Supported Monolayers   Bruno Pignataro     55
Introduction     55
SSMs and Their Preparation     57
Self-Assembled Monolayers     57
LB Monolayers     60
Fundamental and Technological Applications of SSMs     61
Characterization and Modification of SSMs     64
Characterization of SSMs     64
Modification of SSMs     67
Latest Advances in SPMs and Applications for Imaging of SSMs     67
Dynamic SFM in the Attractive Regime     69
Dynamic SFM at Different Level of Interaction Forces     71
Nanopatterning by SPMs and SSMs     76
Addition Nanolithography     76
Elimination and Substitution Nanolithography     78
Nanoelectrochemical Lithography     79
3D Nanolithography     82
Conclusions and Perspectives     84
References     85
Atomic Force Microscopy Studies of the Mechanical Properties of Living Cells   Felix Rico   Ewa P. Wojcikiewicz   Vincent T. Moy     89
Introduction     89
Principle of Operation     90
AFM Imaging     92
Force Measurements     92
Cell Viscoelasticity     93
AFM Tip Geometries     94
Elasticity: Young's Modulus     94
Viscoelasticity: Complex Shear Modulus     96
Cell Adhesion     98
Concluding Remarks and Future Directions     104
References     105
Towards a Nanoscale View of Microbial Surfaces Using the Atomic Force Microscope   Claire Verbelen   Guillaume Andre   Xavier Haulot   Yann Gilbert   David Alsteens   Etienne Dague   Yves F. Dufrene     111
Introduction     111
Imaging     112
Sample Preparation     112
Visualizing Membrane Proteins at Subnanometer Resolution     112
Live-Cell Imaging     113
Force Spectroscopy     116
Customized Tips     116
Probing Nanoscale Elasticity and Surface Properties     117
Stretching Cell Surface Polysaccharides and Proteins     119
Nanoscale Mapping and Functional Analysis of Molecular Recognition Sites      120
Conclusions     123
References     124
Cellular Physiology of Epithelium and Endothelium   Christoph Riethmuller   Hans Oberleithner     127
Introduction     127
Epithelium     128
Transport Through a Septum     128
In the Kidney     130
Endothelium     136
Paracellular Gaps     137
Cellular Drinking     139
Wound Healing     142
Transmigration of Leukocytes     143
Technical Remarks     144
Summary     145
References     145
Application of Atomic Force Microscopy to the Study of Expressed Molecules in or on a Single Living Cell   Hyonchol Kim   Hironori Uehara   Rehana Afrin   Hiroshi Sekiguchi   Hideo Arakawa   Toshiya Osada   Atsushi Ikai     149
Introduction     150
Methods of Manipulation To Study Molecules in or on a Living Cell Using an AFM     151
AFM Tip Preparation To Manipulate Receptors on a Cell Surface     151
Analysis of Molecular Interactions Where Multiple Bonds Formed     153
Measurement of Single-Molecule Interaction Strength on Soft Materials     155
Observation of the Distribution of Specific Receptors on a Living Cell Surface     156
Distribution of Fibronectin Receptors on a Living Fibroblast Cell     156
Distribution of Vitronectin Receptors on a Living Osteoblast Cell     159
Quantification of the Number of Prostaglandin Receptors on a Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Surface     161
Further Application of the AFM to the Study of Single-Cell Biology     164
Manipulation of Expressed mRNAs in a Living Cell Using an AFM     164
Manipulation of Membrane Receptors on a Living Cell Surface Using an AFM     170
References     173
What Can Atomic Force Microscopy Say About Amyloid Aggregates?   Amalisa Relini   Ornella Cavalleri   Claudio Canale   Tiziana Svaldo-Lanero   Ranieri Rolandi   Alessandra Gliozzi     177
Introduction     178
Techniques and Methods Used To Study Amyloid Aggregates     181
Optical Methods     182
Electron Microscopy     183
X-ray Diffraction     185
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance     185
Atomic Force Microscopy     186
Monitoring the Aggregation Process by AFM     188
Effect of Surfaces on the Aggregation Process     190
Interaction with Model Membranes      193
Physical Properties of Fibrils Obtained by AFM     197
References     201
Atomic Force Microscopy: Interaction Forces Measured in Phospholipid Monolayers, Bilayers and Cell Membranes   Zoya Leonenko   David Cramb   Matthias Amrein   Eric Finot     207
Introduction     207
Phase Transitions of Lipid Bilayers in Water     209
Morphology Change During Lamellar Phase Transition     210
Change in Forces During Phase Transition     212
Force Measurements on Pulmonary Surfactant Monolayers in Air     219
Adhesion Measurements: Monolayer Stiffness and Function     221
Repulsive Forces: The Interaction of Charged Airborne Particles with Surfactant     222
Interaction Forces Measured on Lung Epithelial Cells in Buffer     224
Cell Culture/Force Measurement Setup     225
Mechanical Properties     227
Conclusions     230
References     231
Self-Assembled Monolayers on Aluminum and Copper Oxide Surfaces: Surface and Interface Characteristics, Nanotribological Properties, and Chemical Stability   E. Hoque   J. A. DeRose   B. Bhushan   H. J. Mathieu     235
Introduction     236
Substrate Preparation     238
Aluminum     238
Copper     239
Phosphonic Acid and Silane Based SAMs on Al and Cu     239
SAM Preparation     239
Surface and Interface Characterization     240
Nanotribological Properties     261
Chemical Stability     268
Summary     277
References     279
High Sliding Velocity Nanotribological Investigations of Materials for Nanotechnology Applications   Nikhil S. Tambe   Bharat Bhushan     283
Bridging Science and Engineering for Nanotribological Investigations     283
Microtribology/Nanotribology     284
Historical Perspective for Velocity Dependence of Friction     284
Need for Speed: Extending the AFM Capabilities for High Sliding Velocity Studies     285
Modifications to the Commercial AFM Setup     287
Friction Investigations on the Microscale/Nanoscale at High Sliding Velocities     298
Microscale/Nanoscale Friction and Wear Studies at High Sliding Velocities     300
Nanoscale Friction Mapping: Understanding Normal Load and Velocity Dependence of Friction Force     301
Nanoscale Wear Mapping: Wear Studies at High Sliding Velocities     303
Closure      308
References     309
Measurement of the Mechanical Properties of One-Dimensional Polymer Nanostructures by AFM   Sung-Kyoung Kim   Haiwon Lee     311
Introduction     311
AFM-Based Techniques for Measuring the Mechanical Properties of 1D Polymer Nanostructures     312
Mechanical Properties of Electrospun Polymer Nanofibers     318
Test of Reliability of AFM-Based Measurements     323
References     327
Evaluating Tribological Properties of Materials for Total Joint Replacements Using Scanning Probe Microscopy   Sriram Sundararajan   Kanaga Karuppiah Kanaga Subramanian     329
Introduction     329
Total Joint Replacements     329
Social and Economic Significance     330
Problems Associated with Total Joint Replacements     330
Tribology     332
Materials     332
Lubrication in Joints-the Synovial Fluid     333
Conventional Tribological Testing of Material Pairs for Total Joint Replacements     334
Wear Tests     334
Friction Tests     334
Scanning Probe Microscopy as a Tool to Study Tribology of Total Joint Replacements     334
Nanotribology of Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene      335
Fretting Wear of Cobalt-Chromium Alloy     343
Summary and Future Outlook     347
References     348
Near-Field Optical Spectroscopy of Single Quantum Constituents   Toshiharu Saiki     351
Introduction     351
General Description of NSOM     353
NSOM Aperture Probe     354
Basic Process of Aperture Probe Fabrication     354
Tapered Structure and Optical Throughput     355
Fabrication of a Double-Tapered Aperture Probe     356
Evaluation of Transmission Efficiency and Collection Efficiency     357
Evaluation of Spatial Resolution with Single QDs     358
Single-Quantum-Constituent Spectroscopy     360
Light-Matter Interaction at the Nanoscale     361
Real-Space Mapping of an Exciton Wavefunction Confined in a QD     363
Carrier Localization in Cluster States in GaNAs     367
Perspectives     370
References     371
Subject Index     373

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