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Applied Sport Psychology: Personal Growth to Peak Performance / Edition 5

Applied Sport Psychology: Personal Growth to Peak Performance / Edition 5

by Jean M. Williams


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Applied Sport Psychology: Personal Growth to Peak Performance / Edition 5

Applied Sport Psychology, Sixth Edition introduces the reader to the psychological strategies and techniques used by coaches and sport psychologists to cultivate peak performance and personal growth. The new four-part organization covers motivation, leadership, and social interactions; mental training; program implementation; and general health and well-being. The text bridges the gap between research and practice by clearly illustrating essential concepts and theories with case studies, anecdotes, and examples. Thorough coverage teaches students how to address issues such as injury, burnout, drug abuse, and retirement from sport while creating a physical and mental environment conducive to peak performance and personal growth.

Highlights Of The Sixth Edition:

Updated content throughout reflects the latest research, examples, and cutting-edge practices in applied sport psychology.

New exercises and case studies help students think critically and apply the book's content to diverse real-world situations.

A new chapter on gender and cultural diversity, written specifically for this text, reflects the growing importance of cultural competence to sport psychology researchers and practitioners.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 2900072843834
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The
Publication date: 08/12/2005
Edition description: REV
Pages: 704
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 1.25(h) x 9.00(d)

About the Author

Jean M. Williams is a professor emeritus at the University of Arizona where she served in the Department of Exercise and Sport Science and the Department of Psychology. She taught courses in stress and coping and psychology of excellence and consulted with intercollegiate athletes and coaches and with top amateur and professional athletes as well as supervised consulting. Dr. Williams has published nine books (seven edited) and more than 100 research articles and book chapters. Her research focused on psychology of injury, psychology of excellence, group dynamics and productivity, and exercise and mental health. She is a past president, fellow, and certified consultant in the Association of Applied Sport Psychology and a fellow in the National Academy of Kinesiology.

Table of Contents

1 Sport Psychology: Past, Present, Future Jean M. Williams William F. Straub 1

History of Sport Psychology 2

History of Sport Psychology in Eastern Europe 10

Future Directions in North American Applied Sport Psychology 11

Part One Learning, Motivation, and Social Interaction 19

2 Motor Skill Learning for Effective Coaching and Performance Cheryl A. Coker Mark G. Fischman 21

Motor Learning Defined 21

Phases of Motor Skill Learning 22

Practice Considerations 26

Teaching Several Skills: Blocked versus Random Practice 27

Teaching Several Variations of a Skill: Variable Practice 29

Whole versus Part Practice 30

Feedback: Its Functions and Use in Skill Learning and Performance 32

Diagnosing and Correcting Errors 35

3 A Positive Approach to Coaching Effectiveness and Performance Enhancement Ronald E. Smith 42

The ABCs of Behavior Control 43

Positive and Aversive Approaches to Influencing Behavior 45

Positive Reinforcement: Getting Good Things to Happen 47

Performance Feedback 52

4 Motivational Processes and the Facilitation of Quality Engagement in Sport Joan L. Duda Darren C. Treasure 59

Believing That One Can: The Construct of Self-Efficacy 60

Achievement Goals: The Importance of How We Judge Our Competence 63

Doing It for the Joy: The Determinants of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination 71

5 The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Theory: When Coaches' Expectations Become Reality Thelma Sternberg Horn Curt L. Lox Francisco Labrador 81

The Expectation-Performance Process 82

Sport Applications 90

Behavioral Recommendations for Coaches 98

6 Leadership Effectiveness and Decision Making in Coaches Mimi C. MurrayBetty L. Mann Jennifer K. Mead 106

What is Leadership? 107

Leadership Theories and Implications 107

Authentic Leadership 115

Multidimensional Models of Leadership in Sport 117

Decision Making in Coaches 118

Evaluating Leadership 120

Leading Ethically 121

Developing Leadership within the Team 122

Developing Morale within the Team 123

7 The Sport Team as an Effective Group Mark A. Eys Shauna M. Burke Albert V. Carron Paul W. Dennis 132

The Nature of Sport Groups 133

Group Cohesion 134

Developing a Team Concept: Correlates of Cohesion 135

Team Building 141

8 Communicating Effectively David P. Yukelson 149

Communication Defined 150

Communication in Sport 151

Communication and Groups 153

The Sport Psychologist as a Skilled Helper 160

Part Two Mental Training for Performance Enhancement 167

9 Psychological Characteristics of Peak Performance Vikki Krane Jean M. Williams 169

Overview of Peak Performance 170

Psychological Characteristics During Peak Experiences in Sport 170

Flow and Peak Performance 171

The Individualized Zone of Optimal Functioning 173

Psychological Attributes and Skills of Successful and Less Successful Athletes 175

A Profile of Mental Toughness 178

Team, Coach, Family, and Organizational Influences on Peak Performance 179

Conclusion: What It Takes to "Make It" 180

10 Increasing Awareness for Sport Performance Kenneth Ravizza 189

The Importance of Awareness in Athletics 190

Awareness as it Relates to Skill Development 191

Techniques for Developing Awareness 195

Appendix: Guidelines for Keeping a Sport Journal 199

11 Goal Setting for Peak Performance Daniel Gould 201

Goal-Setting Research and Theory 201

Examining Athletes' and Coaches' Uses of Goal Setting 204

Goal-Setting Guidelines 206

A Goal-Setting System for Coaches 211

Common Problems in Setting Goals 212

12 Arousal-Performance Relationships Daniel M. Landers Shawn M. Arent 221

The Nature of Arousal 222

Defining Arousal and Related Constructs 222

The Relationship between Arousal and Motor Performance 227

Estimating the Relationship between an Athlete's Optimal Arousal and Performance 237

13 Relaxation and Energizing Techniques for Regulation of Arousal Jean M. Williams 247

Muscle-to-Mind Relaxation Skills and Strategies 251

Mind-to-Muscle Relaxation Techniques 257

Skills and Strategies for Learning How to Increase Activation and Energy 261

14 Seeing Is Believing: Understanding and Using Imagery in Sport Robin S. Vealey Christy A. Greenleaf 267

What Is Imagery? 268

Does Imagery Work to Enhance Athletes' Performance? 271

How Does Imagery Enhance Athletes' Performance? 275

How Do You Set Up an Imagery Training Program? 278

Imagery Cookbook for Coaches and Practitioners 282

Case Studies 292

Appendix A Sample Imagery Script for Competition Preparation 300

Appendix B Sport Imagery Evaluation 301

15 Cognitive Techniques for Building Confidence and Enhancing Performance Nate Zinsser Linda Bunker Emeritus Jean M. Williams 305

Key Definitions: Confidence, Mental Toughness, Optimism, Self-Efficacy 306

Common Misconceptions about Confidence 307

Prerequisites for Gaining Confidence 309

Self-Talk 311

Identifying Self-Talk 316

Techniques for Controlling Self-Talk 318

16 Concentration and Strategies for Controlling It Jean M. Williams Robert M. Nideffer Vietta E. Wilson Marc-Simon Sagal Erik Peper 336

Attention Control Training Principles 337

Increasing Awareness of Types of Attention 344

External Factors: Strategies to Minimize External Distractions 347

Internal Factors: Strategies to Stay Centered 349

Part Three Implementing Training Programs 359

17 Integrating and Implementing a Psychological Skills Training Program Robert S. Weinberg Jean M. Williams 361

Are Psychological Interventions Effective in Improving Sport Performance? 362

Who Will Benefit from Psychological Skills Training? 363

Who Should Conduct the Psychological Skills Training Program? 363

When Should You Implement a Psychological Skills Training Program? 366

When Should Athletes Practice Psychological Skills? 367

How Much Time Should Be Spent in Mental Training? 368

Setting Up a Mental Skills Training Program 369

Determining What Skills to Include 375

Evaluation of Program Effectiveness 377

Practical Pointers for Teaching Mental Skills 379

Ethical Considerations for the Coach and Sport Psychology Consultant 385

Potential Problem Areas 385

18 Conducting Psychologically Oriented Coach-Training Programs: A Social-Cognitive Approach Frank L. Smoll Ronald E. Smith 392

Developing Coach-Training Programs 393

Implementing Sport Psychology Workshops for Coaches 400

A Final Word 406

Appendix A Summary of Coaching Guidelines 414

Appendix B Coach Self-Report Form 416

19 Gender and Cultural Considerations Diane L. Gill Cindra S. Kamphoff 417

Overview and Framework 417

The Cultural Context of Sport 419

Gender and Sexuality 422

Race, Ethnicity, and Social Class 426

Cultural Competence in Sport Psychology 429

Part Four Enhancing Health and Well-Being 441

20 When to Refer Athletes for Counseling or Psychotherapy David Tod Mark B. Andersen 443

Counseling and Sport Psychology 444

Differentiating Performance Enhancement From More Problematic Personal Issues 445

How to start the Referral Process 446

When Referrals Don't Go Smoothly 448

More Specific Athlete-Related Issues 449

Professional Development Tasks for Practitioners and Students 454

21 Drug Abuse in Sport: Causes and Cures Mark H. Anshel 463

Review of Drugs Banned in Sport 465

Rationale for an Antidrug Policy in Sport 469

How Widespread Is Drug Abuse in Sport? 469

Likely Causes of Drug Abuse in Sport 472

Strategies for Controlling Drug Abuse 474

22 Burnout in Sport: Understanding the Process-From Early Warning Signs to Individualized Intervention Kate Goodger David Lavallee Trish Gorely Chris Harwood 492

Introduction 492

Burnout, Dropout, Overtraining, and Staleness 494

Signs, Symptoms, and Consequences of Burnout 495

Theories and Models of Burnout in Sport 496

Examining Burnout in Sport 499

Monitoring Burnout 502

Interventions 504

Case Study 506

23 Injury Risk and Rehabilitation: Psychological Considerations Jean M. Williams Carrie B. Scherzer 512

Factors That Predispose Athletes to Injury 513

Interventions to Reduce Injury Vulnerability 517

Athletes' Reactions to Injury 519

Reacting to Injured Athletes 526

Teaching Specific Psychological Rehabilitation Strategies 529

24 Career Transition among Athletes: Is There Life after Sports? Jim Taylor David Lavallee 542

History and Background 542

Theoretical Perspectives on Career Transition 544

Conceptual Model of Career Transition 545

Stage 1: Causes of Career Termination 545

Stage 2: Factors Related to Adaptation to Career Transition 547

Stage 3: Available Resources for Adaptation to Career Transition 550

Stage 4: Quality of Career Transition 552

Stage 5: Intervention for Career Transition 552

25 Exercise Psychology Rod K. Dishman Heather O. Chambliss 563

Exercise and Mental Health 564

Plausible Mediators or Mechanisms 568

Physical Activity Behavior Change 572

Author Index 596

Subject Index 607

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