Archaeomineralogy

Archaeomineralogy

by George Rapp

Paperback(Softcover reprint of hardcover 2nd ed. 2009)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783642097324
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 12/15/2010
Series: Natural Science in Archaeology
Edition description: Softcover reprint of hardcover 2nd ed. 2009
Pages: 336
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.36(d)

Table of Contents

1 Introduction and History 1

1.1 Prologue 1

1.2 Organization of the Book 2

1.3 The Ancient Authors 4

1.3.1 Classical Authors 6

1.3.2 Medieval Authors 10

1.3.3 Arab Authors 14

1.3.4 Chinese and Indian Authors 15

2 Properties of Minerals 17

2.1 Mineral Chemistry 17

2.2 Mineral Structure 17

2.3 Mineral Identification Methods 21

2.3.1 Element Analyses 21

2.3.2 Petrographic Analyses 23

2.3.3 Physical Methods of Identification 25

2.4 Color of Minerals 27

3 Exploitation of Mineral and Rock Raw Materials 45

3.1 Introduction 45

3.2 Rock Classification and Properties 46

3.3 Igneous Rocks 46

3.3.1 Extrusive Igneous Rocks 48

3.3.2 Intrusive Igneous Rocks 51

3.4 Sedimentary Rocks 53

3.4.1 Carbonate Sedimentary Rocks 55

3.4.2 Terrigenous Sedimentary Rocks 56

3.4.3 Pyroclastic Sedimentary Rocks 58

3.5 Metamorphic Rocks 58

3.6 Unconsolidated Deposits 62

3.6.1 Surface Deposits 62

3.6.2 Placer Deposits 63

3.6.3 Residual Deposits 64

3.7 Outcrops, Mining, and Quarrying 65

4 Lithic Materials 69

4.1 Introduction 69

4.2 Microcrystalline Quartz 76

4.3 Other Siliceous Rocks 82

4.3.1 Quartzite 82

4.3.2 Opal 83

4.3.3 Felsite 84

4.3.4 Rhyolite/Andesite 84

4.3.5 Siliceous Shale/Slate/Schist 84

4.4 Obsidian 85

4.5 Other Minerals and Rocks 88

5 Gemstones, Seal Stones, and Ceremonial Stones 91

5.1 Introduction 91

5.2 Quartz Minerals (<$$$>) 94

5.2.1 Crystalline Varieties 94

5.2.2 Cryptocrystalline Varieties 96

5.3 Non-Quartz Silicates and Minerals 100

5.3.1 Coarse-Grained 100

5.3.2 Fine-Grained 106

5.3.3 Glassy 111

5.4 Carbonate and Sulfate Minerals 111

5.4.1 Coarse-Grained 111

5.4.2 Fine-Grained 112

5.5Oxide Minerals 113

5.6 Organic Gems 116

5.7 Other Gem Minerals 119

5.7.1 Sulfide Minerals 120

6 Soft Stones and Other Carvable Materials 121

6.1 Introduction 121

6.2 Serpentinite 122

6.3 Steatite and Soapstone 125

6.3.1 Asbestos 128

6.4 Alabaster and Gypsum 128

6.5 Limestone and Marble 132

6.6 Catlinite 135

6.7 Other Carved Stone 136

6.8 Sedimentary Rocks 137

6.9 Volcanic Rocks 140

6.10 Miscellaneous Rocks 141

7 Metals and Related Minerals and Ores 143

7.1 Introduction 143

7.2 Gold (Au) 146

7.3 Silver (Ag) 152

7.4 Native Copper (Cu) 154

7.5 Other Copper Minerals 158

7.5.1 The Copper Ore Minerals 164

7.6 Iron (Fe) 166

7.7 Iron Minerals 169

7.8 Tin (Sn) Minerals 171

7.9 Lead (Pb) Minerals 176

7.10 Zinc (Zn) Minerals 178

7.11 Other Ore Minerals and Metals 180

7.12 Oxidation of Metallic Ores 181

8 Ceramic Raw Materials 183

8.1 Introduction 183

8.2 Clays 184

8.3 Pottery 188

8.4 Tempers 189

8.5 Glazes 191

8.6 Porcelain 193

8.7 Glass 194

8.8 Faience 197

8.9 Fired-Brick, Tile, and Terracotta 198

8.10 Refractory Ceramics 200

9 Pigments and Colorants 201

9.1 The Nature of Pigments and Colorants 201

9.2 Historical Background 203

9.3 Iron Oxide Compounds 207

9.4 Manganese Compounds 212

9.5 Copper Compounds 212

9.6 Lead Compounds 213

9.7 Carbon Compounds 215

9.8 Sulfide Compounds 215

9.9 Carbonates 216

9.10 Silicates 217

9.11 Gold and Silver 220

9.12 Tin Compounds 220

9.13 Cobalt 221

10 Abrasives, Salt, Shells, and Miscellaneous Geologic Raw Materials 223

10.1 Introduction 223

10.2 Abrasives 223

10.3 Salt (Halite) 224

10.4 Natron 228

10.5 Alum 230

10.6 Shells, Coral, Fossils, and Fossil Bone 232

10.7 Other Geologic Raw Materials 238

10.7.1 Mica 238

10.7.2 Petroleum Products - Asphalt, Bitumen, and Pitch 239

10.7.3 Sulfur (S) 241

10.7.4 Mercury (Hg) 242

10.7.5 Saltpeter, Niter 243

10.7.6 Epsomite (<$$$>, Epsom Salt) 244

10.7.7 Nitric Acid 245

10.7.8 Tutty/Cadmea 245

10.7.9 Fuller's Earth 245

10.7.10 Stone Money 246

11 Building, Monumental, and Statuary Materials 247

11.1 Introduction 247

11.2 Building Stone 247

11.2.1 Granite/Diorite 251

11.2.2 Porphyry 253

11.2.3 Basalt/Andesite/Dolerite 253

11.2.4 Limestone/Sandstone 255

11.2.5 Marble 257

11.2.6 Slate/Schist/Quartzite 259

11.2.7 Gypsum 260

11.3 Cements and Mortars 261

11.3.1 Lime 261

11.3.2 Gypsum 263

11.3.3 Aggregates 264

11.3.4 Hydraulic Reactions 265

11.3.5 Natural Pozzolana 266

11.3.6 Artificial "Pozzolana" 267

11.3.7 Modern Portland Cement 268

11.4 Masonry 268

11.5 Mud Brick, Terracotta, and Other Earthen Architectural Materials 269

11.6 Weathering and Decomposition 273

References 281

Glossary 319

Appendix A Pigments Used in Antiquity 327

Minerals, Rocks, and Metals Index 333

Geographic Index 339

General Index 345

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