Arctic and Alpine Biodiversity: Patterns, Causes and Ecosystem Consequences

Arctic and Alpine Biodiversity: Patterns, Causes and Ecosystem Consequences

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Overview

Arctic and Alpine Biodiversity: Patterns, Causes and Ecosystem Consequences by F.Stuart III Chapin

This book provides a synthesis of the patterns, causes and consequences of biodiversity in cold-dominated ecosystems.
The first chapters document patterns and causes of genetic and species diversity of plants and animals emphasizing the interaction between historical and contemporary factors in governing biodiversity. The second section addresses how biotic diversity has changed in the past, how it is currently changing, and how it will likely respond to future changes in climate and land use. The third section treats both the conceptual basis and the evidence that biodiversity influences the functioning of arctic and alpine ecosystems. Also included are the implications of terrestrial patterns of biodiversity for landscape patterns and for patterns of diversity in aquatic ecosystems.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783642789687
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 02/26/2012
Series: Ecological Studies , #113
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1995
Pages: 332
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

I: Patterns and Causes of Diversity.- 1 Patterns and Causes of Arctic Plant Community Diversity.- 1.1 Background and Definitions.- 1.2 Arctic Species Diversity: The First Filter.- 1.3 Biogeographical Patterns Within the Arctic: The Second Set of Filters.- 1.4 Distribution of Species in Communities: The Third Set of Filters.- 1.5 Global Change and Community Dynamics.- 1.6 Conclusions.- References.- 2 Causes of Arctic Plant Diversity: Origin and Evolution.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Historical Factors of Arctic Plant Diversity.- 2.3 Evolution of Diversity.- 2.4 Breeding Mechanisms.- 2.5 Polyploidy.- 2.6 Ecotypes.- 2.7 Conclusions.- References.- 3 Patterns and Causes of Genetic Diversity in Arctic Plants.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Present Patterns of Genetic Diversity.- 3.3 Causes of Present Genetic Diversity Patterns.- 3.4 Genetic Response to Future Climate Change.- 3.5 Conclusions.- References.- 4 Alpine Plant Diversity: A Global Survey and Functional Interpretations.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 How Much Land Is Covered by Alpine Ecosystems?.- 4.3 Plant Species Diversity in the Alpine Life Zone.- 4.4 Plant Functional Groups in Alpine Ecosystems.- 4.5 Causes of Alpine Plant Diversity.- 4.6 Effects of Biodiversity on Alpine Ecosystem Functioning.- 4.7 Alpine Biodiversity and Climate Change.- 4.8 Conclusions.- References.- 5 Origin and Evolution of the Mountain Flora in Middle Asia and Neighbouring Mountain Regions.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Number of Species in the Mountains.- 5.3 Effective Factors for Evolution.- 5.4 Models for Mountain Florogenesis.- 5.5 The History of Vegetation.- 5.6 Conclusions.- References.- 6 Diversity of the Arctic Terrestrial Fauna.- 6.1 Number of Species in the Arctic Fauna.- 6.2 Patterns and Causes of Biodiversity Changes in the Arctic.- 6.3 Taxonomic Composition and Functional Groups.- 6.4 Biotagenesis.- 6.5 Species Structure of Arctic Communities.- 6.6 Intraspecies Diversity.- 6.7 Correlation Between Forms of Diversity in Arctic Biomes.- 6.8 Conclusions.- References.- 7 Animal Diversity at High Altitudes in the Austrian Central Alps.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Altitudinal Zonation of the Main Groups of Animals.- 7.3 Species Numbers of Invertebrates and Altitudinal Zonation.- 7.4 Animal Communities Above the Timberline.- 7.5 Altitude-Related Changes in Abundance and Biomass of the Soil Fauna.- 7.6 Endemism and Vicariance in the Alpine Fauna.- 7.7 Conclusions.- References.- II: Past, Present, and Future Changes in Diversity.- 8 Arctic Tundra Biodiversity: A Temporal Perspective from Late Quaternary Pollen Records.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Late Quaternary Climate History.- 8.3 What Were the Composition and Regional Patterns of Tundra During Periods of Different Late Quaternary Climate?.- 8.4 What Were the Patterns of Shrub and Tree Invasions into Tundra When Climate Warmed at the End of the Last Glacial Period?.- 8.5 What Major Changes in Ecosystem Processes Accompanied the Conversion of Tundra to Forest at the End of the Last Glacial Period?.- 8.6 Conclusion.- References.- 9 Effects of Mammals on Ecosystem Change at the Pleistocene-Holocene Boundary.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Mammahan Effects on Ecosystem Processes.- 9.3 Hypotheses for the Steppe-Tundra Transition.- 9.4 Conclusions.- References.- 10 Palaeorecords of Plant Biodiversity in the Alps.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Possibilities and Limitations of the Fossil Record.- 10.3 Temporal Changes in Biodiversity in the Alps — Three Examples.- 10.4 Needs for Future Research.- 10.5 Conclusions.- References.- 11 Implications for Changes in Arctic Plant Biodiversity from Environmental Manipulation Experiments.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Mechanisms of Change in Biodiversity.- 11.3 Responses of Soils to Environmental Manipulations: Implications for Plant Nutrition and Biodiversity.- 11.4 Direct Responses of Plants to Environmental Perturbations and Implications for Changes in Populations, Communities and Biodiversity.- 11.5 Conclusions.- References.- 12 Patterns and Current Changes in Alpine Plant Diversity.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 The Altitudinal Limits of Plant Life.- 12.3 Patterns of Diversity.- 12.4 Effects of Global Warming on Diversity.- 12.5 Conclusions.- References.- 13 Anthropogenic Impacts on Biodiversity in the Arctic.- 13.1 Proximate Causes.- 13.2 Social Drivers.- 13.3 Arctic Interactions.- 13.4 Humans as Components of Arctic Ecosystems.- 13.5 Conclusions.- References.- III: Ecosystem Consequences of Diversity.- 14 Plant Functional Diversity and Resource Control of Primary Production in Alaskan Arctic Tundras.- 14.1 Introduction.- 14.2 Resource Uptake.- 14.3 Effects on Community Productivity.- 14.4 Conclusions.- References.- 15 Direct and Indirect Effects of Plant Species on Biogeochemical Processes in Arctic Ecosystems.- 15.1 Introduction.- 15.2 Direct Influence over Biogeochemistry.- 15.3 Indirect Influence over Biogeochemistry.- 15.4 Predictions of Species’ Effects with Climate Warming.- 15.5 Approaches to Studying the Role of Species in Biogeochemistry.- 15.6 Conclusions.- References.- 16 Causes and Consequences of Plant Functional Diversity in Arctic Ecosystems.- 16.1 Introduction.- 16.2 Predicting Species Response to Global Change.- 16.3 Effects of Species on Ecosystem Processes.- 16.4 Species Diversity as Insurance Against Loss of Function.- 16.5 Conclusions.- References.- 17 Ecosystem Consequences of Microbial Diversity and Community Structure.- 17.1 Introduction.- 17.2 “Broad” Processes.- 17.3 “Narrow” Processes.- 17.4 Stress.- 17.5 Implications for Tundra.- 17.6 Overall Considerations.- 17.7 Conclusions.- References.- 18 Diversity of Biomass and Nitrogen Distribution Among Plant Species in Arctic and Alpine Tundra Ecosystems.- 18.1 Introduction.- 18.2 Concepts of Diversity.- 18.3 Patterns of Diversity of Carbon and Nitrogen Distribution.- 18.4 Experimental Tests of Controls over Diversity.- 18.5 Towards a Dynamic Model of Diversity in Tundra Ecosystems.- 18.6 Conclusions.- References.- 19 The Plant-Vertebrate Herbivore Interface in Arctic Ecosystems.- 19.1 Introduction.- 19.2 Patterns of Vegetation and Vertebrate Herbivory in Arctic Tundra.- 19.3 Vertebrate Herebivory in a Warming Climate: Implications for Tundra Biodiversity.- 19.4 Effects of Anthropogenic Disturbances on Trophic Interactions — A Potential Climatic Change Scenario.- 19.5 Conclusions.- 19.6 Summary.- References.- 20 Insect Diversity, Life History, and Trophic Dynamics in Arctic Streams, with Particular Emphasis on Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae).- 20.1 Introduction.- 20.2 Arctic Insect Diversity.- 20.3 Black Fly Life History Features.- 20.4 Trophic Dynamics.- 20.5 Organic Matter Processing by Black Flies in an Arctic Lake Outlet.- 20.6 Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 21 Land-Water Interactions: The Influence of Terrestrial Diversity on Aquatic Ecosystems.- 21.1 Introduction.- 21.2 Inputs from Land and the Regulation of Aquatic Systems.- 21.3 Terrestrial Diversity.- 21.4 Movement of Material from Land to Water.- 21.5 Conclusions.- References.- IV: A Synthesis.- 22 Patterns, Causes, Changes, and Consequences of Biodiversity in Arctic and Alpine Ecosystems.- 22.1 The Arctic and Alpine Biota.- 22.2 Past, Present, and Future Changes in Biodiversity.- 22.3 The Significance of Biodiversity for Ecosystem Function.- 22.4 Conclusions.

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