Army Diplomacy: American Military Occupation and Foreign Policy after World War II

Army Diplomacy: American Military Occupation and Foreign Policy after World War II

by Walter M. Hudson


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In the immediate aftermath of World War II, the United States Army became the principal agent of American foreign policy. The army designed, implemented, and administered the occupations of the defeated Axis powers Germany and Japan, as well as many other nations. Generals such as Lucius Clay in Germany, Douglas MacArthur in Japan, Mark Clark in Austria, and John Hodge in Korea presided over these territories as proconsuls. At the beginning of the Cold War, more than 300 million people lived under some form of U.S. military authority. The army's influence on nation-building at the time was profound, but most scholarship on foreign policy during this period concentrates on diplomacy at the highest levels of civilian government rather than the armed forces' governance at the local level.

In Army Diplomacy, Hudson explains how U.S. Army policies in the occupied nations represented the culmination of more than a century of military doctrine. Focusing on Germany, Austria, and Korea, Hudson's analysis reveals that while the post—World War II American occupations are often remembered as overwhelming successes, the actual results were mixed. His study draws on military sociology and institutional analysis as well as international relations theory to demonstrate how "bottom-up" decisions not only inform but also create higher-level policy. As the debate over post-conflict occupations continues, this fascinating work offers a valuable perspective on an important yet underexplored facet of Cold War history.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780813160979
Publisher: University Press of Kentucky
Publication date: 05/19/2015
Series: Battles and Campaigns
Pages: 420
Product dimensions: 6.20(w) x 9.10(h) x 1.40(d)

About the Author

Walter M. Hudson is an active duty judge advocate in the U.S. Army.

Table of Contents

List of Illustrations viii

Introduction 1

1 Military Government Planning prior to 1940 27

2 Military Government Doctrine, Training, and Organization, 1940-1941 61

3 FDR, Interagency Conflict, and Military Government, 1941-1942 93

4 North Africa and the Establishment of the Civil Affairs Division, 1943 129

5 Planning and Implementing Military Government in Germany, 1943-1946 157

6 Planning and Implementing Military Government in Austria, 1943-1946 201

7 Planning and Implementing Military Government in Korea, 1943-1946 229

Conclusion: The Postwar Occupation Experience and Its Lessons for the Army 261

Acknowledgments 285

Notes 287

Bibliography 351

Index 375

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