Artificial Intelligence and Human Institutions argues that successful applications of artificial intelligence are possible only within an understanding of human institutions and the limitations of technology. Products of artificial intelligence research are becoming widely available to non-specialists using low-cost computer systems, but there has been a lack of communication between re- searchers and community groups. Taking the "weak AI" position, the book explores the way insights and tools from artificial intelligence can be valuable in coming to terms with real world problems. Drawing on the author's extensive practical experience in AI research and research management, the book brings together case studies from the fields of education, training, business, engineering, defence, health, and community work, and suggests future directions. This book deals with advanced concepts of artificial intelligence for non-specialist readers, while providing an introduction to state-of-the-art developments. It seeks to use AI concepts to illuminate the practical and theoretical concerns of institutions and organisations, opening up possibilities for new areas of collaborative work, and revealing new sources of references and ideas. This is the latest title in the Artificial Intelligence and Society series and will be of interest to lecturers and students in AI, education, social and political sciences, and business studies.
Table of Contents
1. Approaches to Artificial Intelligence.- A Reassessment of Artificial Intelligence.- Artificial Intelligence and Human Institutions.- An Alternative Model of Artificial Intelligence.- Artificial Intelligence as Tool and Institution.- The Artificial Intelligence Debate.- Logic and Problem Solving.- Developments in Applied Artificial Intelligence.- 2 Perspectives from the Humanities.- Knowledge, Information and Data.- Interpretation and Codebreaking.- Logicist Analysis and Artificial Intelligence.- Argument in the Humanities.- Representation.- Quantification.- Modelling with Artificial Intelligence Tools.- Computational Politics: Modelling Bureaucrats.- 3. Education.- Education Before Computers.- Generations of Computer-Assisted Learning.- Mainframes: Machines.- Microcomputers: Programs.- Artificial Intelligence and Education: Tools.- Regarding the Learner as Programmer.- Presuppositions: Logic Programming and the Culture of the Classroom.- Work Should be Seen as an Environment for Learning.- The Teacher Often Learns More Than the Student.- Learning is a Collaborative Process.- Information Technology can Provide Mediating Representations.- These Representations can be Shared by a Group to Facilitate Collaborative Activity and Learning.- The Exchange of Knowledge Should be Separated from the Exchange of Money.- Technology Transfer is Often Accomplished Through People Transfer.- Our Systems will Always be Provisional.- Knowledge Should be Open and Explicable.- There will Always be a Crucial Residue of Tacit Knowledge.- Education and Training Should Adopt a “Human Centred” Perspective.- New Partnerships for CAL Researchers.- Integrated Systems: From Theory to Practice.- Evaluation of CAL.- Educational Criteria: Rationale.- Institutional and Cultural Context: Situation.- Benefits and Attitudes: Outcomes.- Knowledge Engineering and the Knowledge Society: Process and Structure.- 4. Work.- What are Skills?.- The Strategic Significance of Skills.- Transferring Skills.- Transmission.- Transfusion.- Catalysis.- Infection.- Acquisition.- Revel.- Preconditions for the Transfer of Skills.- Technology and Skills.- Artificial Intelligence and Skills.- Tacit Knowledge.- Knowledge Based Systems and Work Based Learning.- Understanding the Application Area, the Individual and the Technology.- Significant Features of ADEX and EGSPERT.- Work and Work Based Learning.- Modelling Knowledge and Work Based Learning.- Conclusions.- The Politics of Skills.- Materials Selection, Materials Science and Artificial Intelligence.- Work, Skill and Management.- 5. Computer Systems.- The Two Cultures of Artificial Intelligence and Software Engineering.- Artificial Intelligence and CASE: The Analogy of Pottery.- The New Concern for Methodology.- Current Difficulties in Introducing New Tools and Methodologies into Industrial and Commercial Use.- Reverse Engineering, Reuse and Repository.- Security, Privacy, Viruses and Hacking.- Prospects for Adding Artificial Intelligence to CASE Tools.- “New Generation Software Technology” Based on Declarative Systems.- The Logic Programming Initiative.- Problems of Knowledge and Problems of People.- 6. Social Institutions.- Changing Technology and People.- Human Centred Systems.- Commitment.- Artificial Intelligence and Voluntary Sector Groups.- Institutions and Dissent.- Institutional Truth.- Whistle Blowing.- The Artificial Intelligence for Society Club.- Why has AIFS not Achieved More?.- Social Applications for Artificial Intelligence.- Welfare Rights for Further Education Students: A Suitable Case for Treatment.- YOSSARIAN: A System that can Make Inferences About Reactions to AIDS and Stimulate Group Discussion.- “Meating” the Challenge: Attitudes to Meat in a Multi-Faith Context.- Organisational Preconditions for Collaborative Artificial Intelligence Activity.- New Technology and Human Institutions.- Representing Interpersonal Knowledge Transactions.- Why is the Capitalist Model of Knowledge Transfer Inappropriate?.- Bringing Together Industry and Society Through Education.- Case Studies in AI for Problem Finding.- 7. Human Resource Development in Information Technology.- The Human Resource Development in Information Technology Survey.- The IT Skills Crisis.- Managing the Skills Gap.- Changing IT Skills.- New Entrants.- Recruitment and Retraining.- Trends in the European IT Skills Scene.- Moving to a High Productivity, High Skill Economy.- Survey Findings.- Summary.- Collaborative Links.- The Role of Directors and Managers.- Educational Links.- Approaches to Training.- New Human Resources.- Training Needs.- IT Qualifications.- Change.- Workplace Relations and the Role of Management.- Conclusions from the HRDIT Survey.- 8. Politics.- Observing Patterns of Behaviour in Human Institutions.- Committees.- Humorous and Satirical Writing.- Non-Literal Communication.- Artificial Intelligence and Politics.- “There is no Artificial Intelligence Without Central Intelligence”.- “From Big Brother to Little Sister”.- A Case Study in Politics and Artificial Intelligence: Star Wars.- Research Management.- Approaches to Artificial Intelligence Research.- Insights from Wittgenstein.- Enabling Technologies.- Versions of Star Wars.- The Politics of Star Wars.- The Economics of Star Wars.- Trade Wars.- Science and Government.- Alternatives for Technology.- Lessons from the Star Wars Experience.- Modelling Policy and Institutions: The Case of Welfare Benefits.- Artificial Intelligence and Coping with Change.- The Virtues of Virtual Systems.- Intelligence.- Policy Perspectives.- Summary.- Towards an Alternative IT Policy.- Research and Development.- Technology Transfer.- Meeting National IT Training Needs.- IT Tools for Institutional Change.- IT and Social Justice.- IT and Education.- Conclusion.- References.- Name Index.