ISBN-10:
0133802914
ISBN-13:
9780133802917
Pub. Date:
02/24/2015
Publisher:
Pearson
Assessment in Early Childhood Education / Edition 7

Assessment in Early Childhood Education / Edition 7

by Sue C. Wortham, Belinda J. Hardin
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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780133802917
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 02/24/2015
Pages: 320
Sales rank: 403,684
Product dimensions: 7.90(w) x 9.80(h) x 0.70(d)

About the Author


Sue Clar Wortham is Professor Emerita of Early Childhood and Elementary Education at the University of Texas at San Antonio. Prior to beginning a teaching career in higher education in 1979, she taught prekindergarten through second grade in public schools, worked as a school district administrator, and was a consultant at an education service center. She has authored numerous texts, including Early Childhood Curriculum: Developmental Bases for Learning and Teaching (5th Ed., 2010), Pearson. She coauthored Play and Child Development (4th Ed., 2012) with Joe Frost and Stuart Reifel, also published by Pearson. Organizational publications include Childhood 1892—2002, published by the Association for Childhood Education International, and P laygrounds for Young Children: National Survey and Perspectives, coauthored with Joe Frost, published by the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance (AAHPERD). In 1992, she served as a Fulbright Scholar in Chile. She was president of the Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI) from 1995 to 1997. Since retirement, she has been very active in the development of the Global Guidelines for Early Childhood Education and Care that resulted from an international symposium held in Ruschlikon, Switzerland, in 1999. Subsequently, she has a leadership role in the development, validation, and implementation of the ACEI Global Guidelines Assessment adapted from the original guidelines. She edited Common Characteristics and Unique Qualities in Preschool Programs: Global Perspectives in Early Childhood Education for Springer in 2013, which reported on the use of the Global Guidelines Assessment in countries around the world. Dr. Wortham served as volunteer director of educational programs for World Children’s Relief and Volunteer Organization, a small nongovernmental organization (NGO), from 2001 to 2011. She engaged in training teachers and principals in Haiti, Senegal, Burkina Faso, and Sierra Leone.



Belinda J. Hardin is an Associate Professor Emerita in the Department of Specialized Education Services at The University of North Carolina at Greensboro. Dr. Hardin completed her PhD in Early Childhood, Families, and Literacy at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Prior to entering higher education in 2004, she was a public school kindergarten and special education teacher, a Head Start director, and the Director of the Special Projects Division at Chapel Hill Training-Outreach Project. Her research includes cross-cultural studies investigating the effectiveness of services for young children with and without disabilities in the United States and other countries, particularly in Latin America. She is especially interested in measures of program quality with global applicability and how they are informed by sociocultural context. She served as the Co-Principal Investigator of three national studies in the United States that investigated the reliability and validity of Learning Accomplishment Profile assessment instruments, including a dual-language sample of 2,099 children (half English speakers and a half Spanish speakers) to norm the Learning Accomplishment Profile-Diagnostic Edition. Additionally, Dr. Hardin completed studies investigating the referral, evaluation, and placement of preschool children with disabilities who are English Language Learners and is currently developing a family report questionnaire on preschool language development in English and Spanish. Dr. Hardin has conducted research and professional development activities with professionals and Spanish-speaking families in North Carolina, Guatemala, and the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. She was the Co-Principal Investigator of three international studies investigating the reliability and validity of the ACEI Global Guidelines Assessment in multiple countries across the world. Dr. Hardin has served on the Board of Directors for the Association of Childhood Education International and participated in two initiatives spearheaded by UNICEF to improve services for young children in inclusive early childhood settings worldwide.

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

Students preparing to become elementary school teachers take a course in tests and measurement as part of their undergraduate curriculum. Many textbooks for such courses describe both standardized and teacher-designed tests and how they are used to assess and evaluate students.

Students preparing to become teachers of young children—those from infancy through the primary grades—must be prepared to measure or evaluate children who are in the period of development called early childhood. Tests and other types of assessments designed for young children are different from those intended for children in later grades in elementary school. Because infants and children under age 8 have developmental limitations different from those of older children, a textbook that includes discussion of assessment in the early childhood years must be written from a developmental perspective.

This book is written especially for teachers and future teachers of young children. It includes information about standardized tests and, more important, other types of assessments that are appropriate for young children, such as observation, checklists, and rating scales. Assessments designed by teachers are explained both for preschool children and for kindergarten and primary grade children who are transitioning into literacy. With the ever-growing trend toward performance assessment, portfolios, and other methods of reporting a child's performance, chapters describing these strategies have been expanded and enhanced. The approach of this edition is the development of an assessment system that includes both traditional and authentic assessmentstrategies in a comprehensive plan. Thus, in this edition of the text, I seek to inform the reader about all types of assessments and their appropriate use.

An important factor in the assessment of young children is when and how they should be measured. This is a controversial issue. The strengths and weaknesses of each type of assessment presented are discussed, as is research on the problems surrounding testing and evaluation in early childhood. Because many sources in the literature and other textbooks do not include the limitations as well as the merits of assessment techniques, this text provides an objective perspective on issues surrounding the efficacy and effectiveness of assessment strategies.

The book is divided into four parts. Part I provides an introduction to assessment in early childhood in chapters 1 and 2. Part 11 is devoted to standardized tests and how they are designed, used, and reported in chapters 3 and 4. Informal assessments are discussed in part III. Observation, checklists, rating scales, and rubrics are covered in chapters 5 and 6, while teacher-designed strategies and performance-based strategies are described in chapters 7 and 8. Finally, part IV is devoted to the use of assessment systems and how all of the strategies discussed in the chapters leading to part IV can be incorporated into an assessment system or comprehensive assessment plan.

Earlier editions of this book were developed in response to the expressed needs of teachers and graduate students who must understand and use current trends in assessment and put them into perspective within the reality of public schools that are required to focus intensively on standardized tests. This edition includes current literature on early childhood assessment issues, as well as information on how to maintain a balance between emerging trends and issues related to assessment of young children.

I would like to thank the reviewers who provided valuable suggestions and feedback for this edition. The were generous with their time and included specific ideas on how the text could be improved. Those who reviewed the text before the third edition was developed are: Suzanne E. Cortez, Northern Kentucky University; Robert G. Harrington, University of Kansas; Peggy Perkins, University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Janice A Sherman, Winona State University; and Mary Ann Waldon, Texas Southern University (retired).

And, of course, I thank Ann Davis, my editor at Prentice Hall/Merrill, for helping me to conceptualize how to approach this edition, as well as her suggestions for additions and improvements.

Table of Contents

I. INTRODUCTION TO ASSESSMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD.

1. An Overview of Assessment in Early Childhood Education.
2. How Infants and Young Children Should Be Assessed.

II. STANDARDIZED TESTS.

3. Standardized Tests: How They Are Used, Designed, and Selected.
4. Standardized Tests: Using and Reporting Standardized Test Results.

III. INFORMAL ASSESSMENTS.

5. Informal Assessments: Observation.
6. Informal Assessments: Checklists, Rating Scales, and Rubrics.
7. Informal Assessments: Teacher-Designed Strategies.
8. Informal Assessments: Performance-Based Strategies.

IV. USING ASSESSMENT SYSTEMS.

9. Assessment Systems: Portfolio Assessment.
10. Assessment Systems: Communicating with Parents.

Preface

PREFACE:

Preface

Students preparing to become elementary school teachers take a course in tests and measurement as part of their undergraduate curriculum. Many textbooks for such courses describe both standardized and teacher-designed tests and how they are used to assess and evaluate students.

Students preparing to become teachers of young children—those from infancy through the primary grades—must be prepared to measure or evaluate children who are in the period of development called early childhood. Tests and other types of assessments designed for young children are different from those intended for children in later grades in elementary school. Because infants and children under age 8 have developmental limitations different from those of older children, a textbook that includes discussion of assessment in the early childhood years must be written from a developmental perspective.

This book is written especially for teachers and future teachers of young children. It includes information about standardized tests and, more important, other types of assessments that are appropriate for young children, such as observation, checklists, and rating scales. Assessments designed by teachers are explained both for preschool children and for kindergarten and primary grade children who are transitioning into literacy. With the ever-growing trend toward performance assessment, portfolios, and other methods of reporting a child's performance, chapters describing these strategies have been expanded and enhanced. The approach of this edition is the development of an assessment system that includes both traditional and authenticassessmentstrategies in a comprehensive plan. Thus, in this edition of the text, I seek to inform the reader about all types of assessments and their appropriate use.

An important factor in the assessment of young children is when and how they should be measured. This is a controversial issue. The strengths and weaknesses of each type of assessment presented are discussed, as is research on the problems surrounding testing and evaluation in early childhood. Because many sources in the literature and other textbooks do not include the limitations as well as the merits of assessment techniques, this text provides an objective perspective on issues surrounding the efficacy and effectiveness of assessment strategies.

The book is divided into four parts. Part I provides an introduction to assessment in early childhood in chapters 1 and 2. Part 11 is devoted to standardized tests and how they are designed, used, and reported in chapters 3 and 4. Informal assessments are discussed in part III. Observation, checklists, rating scales, and rubrics are covered in chapters 5 and 6, while teacher-designed strategies and performance-based strategies are described in chapters 7 and 8. Finally, part IV is devoted to the use of assessment systems and how all of the strategies discussed in the chapters leading to part IV can be incorporated into an assessment system or comprehensive assessment plan.

Earlier editions of this book were developed in response to the expressed needs of teachers and graduate students who must understand and use current trends in assessment and put them into perspective within the reality of public schools that are required to focus intensively on standardized tests. This edition includes current literature on early childhood assessment issues, as well as information on how to maintain a balance between emerging trends and issues related to assessment of young children.

I would like to thank the reviewers who provided valuable suggestions and feedback for this edition. The were generous with their time and included specific ideas on how the text could be improved. Those who reviewed the text before the third edition was developed are: Suzanne E. Cortez, Northern Kentucky University; Robert G. Harrington, University of Kansas; Peggy Perkins, University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Janice A Sherman, Winona State University; and Mary Ann Waldon, Texas Southern University (retired).

And, of course, I thank Ann Davis, my editor at Prentice Hall/Merrill, for helping me to conceptualize how to approach this edition, as well as her suggestions for additions and improvements.

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