Atmosphere: A Scientific History of Air, Weather, and Climate

Atmosphere: A Scientific History of Air, Weather, and Climate


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Atmosphere: A Scientific History of Air, Weather, and Climate by Michael Allaby, Richard Garratt

Discovering the Earth is a fascinating seven-volume set that describes the steps by which we have reached our cumulative understanding of the way Earth functions. Each volume concentrates on a particular branch of science and area of scientific discovery through the lives and research of individuals of a specific time. Designed to complement science curricula, the books depict the challenges that scientists overcame and the obstacles presented when their contemporaries did not recognize their discoveries as relevant or significant.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780816060986
Publisher: Facts on File, Incorporated
Publication date: 03/01/2009
Series: Discovering the Earth Series
Pages: 256
Product dimensions: 7.60(w) x 9.40(h) x 1.00(d)
Age Range: 14 - 17 Years

Table of Contents

Preface ix

Acknowledgments xi

Introduction xii

Chapter 1 What Is Air? 1

Aristotle and the Beginning of Meteorology 2

Theophrastus and Weather Signs 6

Weather Lore 9

Jan Baptista van Helmont and the Discovery of Gases 10

Karl Scheele, Joseph Priestley, and Dephlogisticated Air 14

Phlogiston 16

Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier and Oxygen 19

Daniel Rutherford and Nitrogen 24

John Dalton and Water Vapor 26

Evaporation and Condensation 29

Henry Cavendish and the Constant Composition of Air 34

Lord Rayleigh, William Ramsay, Noble Gases, and Why the Sky Is Blue 36

Chapter 2 Measuring The Air 41

Galileo and the Thermometer That Failed 42

Ferdinando of Tuscany, Inventor of Instruments 46

Scientific Academies 47

Evangelista Torricelli and the First Barometer 49

Robert Hooke and the Wheel Barometer 52

The Aneroid Barometer 55

Daniel Fahrenheit and His Thermometer 59

Calibrating a Thermometer 60

Anders Celsius and His Temperature Scale 63

Chapter 3 Water In The Air 67

Guillaume Amontons and the Hygrometer 68

Humidity 69

John Frederic Daniell and the Dew-Point Hygrometer 73

Horace-Bénédict de Saussure, the Hair Hygrometer, and the Weather House 77

Measuring Rainfall 81

John Aitken and the Formation of Clouds 83

Tor Bergeron and How Raindrops Form 85

Luke Howard and the Classification of Clouds 88

Modern Cloud Classification 91

Benjamin Franklin and His Kite 93

Charge Separation in Storm Clouds 98

Chapter 4 How Gases Behave 100

Robert Boyle, Edmé Mariotte, and Their Law 101

Jacques Charles and His Law 104

Blaise Pascal and the Change of Pressure with Height 106

Joseph Black, Jean-André Deluc, andLatent Heat 109

Chapter 5 How Air Moves 113

Edmond Halley, George Hadley, and the Trade Winds 115

Francis Beaufort and His Wind Scale 118

The Beaufort Wind Scale 120

Christoph Buys Ballot and His Law 122

William Ferrel and Atmospheric Circulation 125

The Three-Cell Model 128

Gaspard de Coriolis and Why Air Moves in Circles 130

Chapter 6 Reaching The Sky 136

Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac and His Balloon Flight 138

History of Ballooning 139

Léon Teisserenc de Bort and the Stratosphere 141

Structure of the Atmosphere 144

Chapter 7 Over Continents And Oceans 148

Vilhelm Bjerknes and the Bergen School 149

Air Masses and Fronts 152

Jacob Bjerknes and Depressions 154

Gilbert Walker, Oscillations, and El Ni&ntitle;o 157

Chapter 8 Classifying Climates 162

Torrid, Temperate, and Frigid Climates 163

Wladimir Köet;ppen and His Classification 168

C. W. Thornthwaite and His Classification 171

Chapter 9 Weather Reports, Maps, and Forecasts 174

The Tower of the Winds 176

Joseph Henry, Samuel Morse, and the Telegraph 179

Cleveland Abbe, Father of the Weather Bureau 185

Robert FitzRoy and the First Newspaper Weather Forecast 188

Francis Galton and the First Weather Map 193

Lewis Fry Richardson, Forecasting by Numbers 196

Edward Lorenz, Chaos, and the Butterfly Effect 199

Chapter 10 Changing Climates 203

Louis Agassiz, Jean Charpentier, and the Ice Age 203

The Cause of Ice Ages 207

Sunspots and Climate Cycles 211

Global Warming 214

The Greenhouse Effect 215

Conclusion 220

Glossary 222

Further Resources 229

Index 234

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