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Cengage Learning
Attacking Faulty Reasoning / Edition 7

Attacking Faulty Reasoning / Edition 7

by T. Edward Damer


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Attacking Faulty Reasoning / Edition 7

Damer's (Emory & Henry College) text is designed to help students construct and evaluate arguments, and to recognize when they have constructed or encountered a good or successful argument for a particular action or belief. The fifth edition includes the addition of a new and fifth criterion to the original four criteria of a good argument; the introduction of seven new "formal" fallacies and elimination or restructuring of seven less commonly committed "informal" fallacies; a short chapter on writing an argumentative essay; and a number of skill-building written and oral assignments. Annotation ©2004 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Product Details

ISBN-13: 2901133049981
Publisher: Cengage Learning
Publication date: 01/10/2012
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 272
Product dimensions: 11.80(w) x 8.30(h) x 0.60(d)

About the Author

T. Edward Damer received his Ph.D. from Boston University and currently teaches at Emory and Henry College.

Table of Contents

Reasons for Using Good Arguments1
Goals of the Text2
IA Code of Intellectual Conduct4
An Effective Procedural Standard4
An Important Ethical Standard4
A Code of Conduct for Effective Discussion5
1.The Fallibility Principle5
2.The Truth-Seeking Principle5
3.The Clarity Principle5
4.The Burden of Proof Principle5
5.The Principle of Charity5
6.The Structural Principle6
7.The Relevance Principle6
8.The Acceptability Principle6
9.The Sufficiency Principle6
10.The Rebuttal Principle6
11.The Resolution Principle6
12.The Suspension of Judgment Principle6
13.The Reconsideration Principle7
The Fallibility Principle7
The Truth-Seeking Principle8
The Clarity Principle9
IIWhat is an Argument?11
An Argument Is a Claim Supported by Other Claims11
Distinguishing Argument from Opinion12
The Burden of Proof Principle12
The Standard Form of an Argument14
The Principle of Charity16
Deductive Versus Inductive Strength of Arguments17
Moral Arguments Have a Moral Premise19
Making the Moral Premise Explicit21
IIIWhat is a Good Argument?23
A Good Argument Must Meet Five Criteria23
The Structural Principle23
The Relevance Principle25
The Acceptability Principle26
Criteria of Acceptability27
Conditions of Unacceptability28
The Sufficiency Principle29
The Rebuttal Principle30
Making Arguments Stronger32
Applying the Criteria to Arguments33
The Resolution Principle39
The Suspension of Judgment Principle40
The Reconsideration Principle41
IVWhat is a Fallacy?43
A Fallacy Is a Violation of a Criterion of a Good Argument43
Named Versus Unnamed Fallacies44
Organization of the Fallacies45
Attacking the Fallacy47
Rules of the Game50
VFallacies That Violate the Structural Criterion52
Begging-the-Question Fallacies53
Arguing in a Circle53
Question-Begging Language55
Complex Question57
Question-Begging Definition59
Fallacies of Inconsistency61
Incompatible Premises62
Contradiction Between Premise and Conclusion64
Fallacies of Deductive Inference66
Denying the Antecedent66
Affirming the Consequent68
False Conversion69
Undistributed Middle Term71
Illicit Distribution of an End Term73
VIFallacies that Violate the Relevance Criterion78
Fallacies of Irrelevance78
Irrelevant Authority79
Appeal to Common Opinion81
Genetic Fallacy83
Drawing the Wrong Conclusion86
Using the Wrong Reasons88
Irrelevant Emotional Appeals92
Appeal to Force or Threat92
Appeal to Tradition93
Appeal to Self-Interest95
Playing to the Gallery97
VIIFallacies that Violate the Acceptability Criterion104
Fallacies of Linguistic Confusion104
Misleading Accent109
Illicit Contrast111
Argument by Innuendo113
Misuse of a Vague Expression115
Distinction Without a Difference117
Unwarranted Assumption Fallacies119
Fallacy of the Continuum120
Fallacy of Composition123
Fallacy of Division124
False Alternatives126
Is-Ought Fallacy127
Wishful Thinking129
Misuse of a Principle130
Fallacy of the Mean132
Faulty Analogy134
VIIIFallacies that Violate the Sufficiency Criterion141
Fallacies of Missing Evidence141
Insufficient Sample142
Unrepresentative Data144
Arguing from Ignorance146
Contrary-to-Fact Hypothesis148
Fallacy of Popular Wisdom150
Special Pleading152
Omission of Key Evidence154
Causal Fallacies156
Confusion of a Necessary with a Sufficient Condition156
Causal Oversimplification158
Post Hoc Fallacy160
Confusion of Cause and Effect161
Neglect of a Common Cause163
Domino Fallacy164
Gambler's Fallacy166
IXFallacies that Violate the Rebuttal Criterion171
Fallacies of Counterevidence171
Denying the Counterevidence172
Ignoring the Counterevidence173
Ad Hominem Fallacies176
Abusive Ad Hominem176
Poisoning the Well178
Two-Wrongs Fallacy180
Fallacies of Diversion182
Attacking a Straw Man183
Trivial Objections185
Red Herring186
Resort to Humor or Ridicule188
XWriting the Argumentative Essay194
Researching the Question194
Stating Your Position195
Arguing for Your Position196
Rebutting Objections to Your Position197
Resolving the Question197
Sample Argumentative Essay198
AppendixLetter to Jim206
Glossary of Fallacies210
Answers to Selected Assignments215

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