Automotive Diagnostic Systems

Automotive Diagnostic Systems

by Keith McCord
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Automotive Diagnostic Systems by Keith McCord

The electronic control unit and other electronic controls are connected to every major system of a car built within the past 15 years, yet when there is a problem or an error code, many enthusiasts do not know how to go about fixing the problem. With this book, an affordable hand held scanner, and other common tools, the average enthusiast can diagnose and fix most common problems, rather than bringing the vehicle to a dealership for repair at shop rates of $100 per hour or more.

Keith McCord recounts the history of automotive onboard diagnostic systems and creation of the rudimentary OBD I systems and the development as well as the evolution of OBD II. Currently, OBD-II (OnBoard Diagnostic II) is the standard of the industry, and this book provides a thorough explanation of this system. It details its main features, capabilities, and characteristics. It shows how to access the port connector on the car, the serial data protocols, and what the serial data means. To understand the diagnostic codes, the numbering system is defined and the table of common DTCs is shown. But most importantly, McCord provides a thorough process for trouble shooting problems, tracing a problem to its root, explaining why DTCs may not lead to the source of the underlying problem, and ultimately resolving the problem.

Almost anyone can hook a scanning tool up to the serial port and read the error, but the key to fixing the problems is using an effective trouble shooting process that resolves all the issues that may be contributing or creating the problem. McCord provides sound procedures, insight, and information for resolving most ECU and computer control problems at home with affordable consumer-grade scanners.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781934709061
Publisher: CarTech, Incorporated
Publication date: 07/15/2011
Series: Workbench Series
Pages: 144
Sales rank: 326,883
Product dimensions: 8.28(w) x 10.96(h) x 0.37(d)

About the Author

Keith McCord, who is located in the St. Louis area, is one of top OBD II technicians and EFI tuners in the country. He is president of McCord Consulting Group in St. Louis, Missouri. He designs products, parts, and CNC code and process improvements for various OEM and aftermarket companies. Keith also writes custom ECMs for GM and Ford vehicles. He lives in Florissant, Missouri.

Table of Contents

Introduction 4
Chapter 1: Introduction to On-Board Diagnostics 6
Closed-Loop Feedback Systems 6
Pre-OBD Emissions Requirements 7
Automotive On-Board Diagnostics 7
Proprietary OBD: 1980–1987 8
OBD-I.5 12
Has OBD Made a Difference? 13
Chapter 2: OBD-II Standardization 14
The Power of the Microchip 14
Evolution of Automotive Networks 15
Standardized ALDL Connector 16
Standardized Scan Tool Data 16
Diagnostic Trouble Codes 17
The MIL 17
Frame-to-Frame Data 18
Real-Time Data 18
What Information Does OBD-II Provide? 19
SAE Standards versus ISO Standards 19
Chapter 3: The OBD-II Data Interface 20
Data Link Connector 20
Determining if the Vehicle is OBD-II 21
OBD-II Data Protocols 22
Serial Communications Protocols 22
Troubleshooting Common DLC Connection Problems 24
Chapter 4: Scan Tool Interfaces 29
Generic OBD-II Scan Tool 29
Manufacturer-Specific OBD-II Scan Tool 29
Reading Scan Data 30
OBD-II Trouble Code Reader 30
Entry-Level OBD-II Scan Tool 32
Professional-Level OBD-II Scan Tool 33
Personality Keys and Adapters 34
Manufacturer-Specific OBD-II Scan Tool 34
Personal-Computer-Based OBD-II Scan Tool 34
Chapter 5: OBD-II Modes 36
Mode $01 – Request Data by Specific PID 37
Mode $02 – Request Freeze-Frame Data by Specific PID 40
Mode $03 – Request Set Diagnostic Trouble Codes 40
Mode $04 – Clear Stored Diagnostic Trouble Codes and Reset MIL 41
Mode $05 – Oxygen Sensor Test Results 41
Mode $06 – Advanced Diagnostic Mode 41
Mode $07 – Request On-Board Monitor Test Results 42
Mode $08 – Control Operations of On-Board Systems 42
Mode $09 – Vehicle Information 42
Chapter 6: Diagnostic Trouble Codes 44
OBD-II Drive Cycle 44
Anatomy of a Diagnostic Trouble Code 46
Pending Diagnostic Trouble Codes 47
Diagnostic Trouble Code Types 47
Current and Historical Diagnostic Trouble Codes 48
Plan Your Work and Work Your Plan 48
Chapter 7: Freeze-Frame Data 50
Freeze-Frame Data Reports 50
Freeze-Frame Data Summary 50
Historical Freeze-Frame Data 51
Breaking Down Freeze-Frame Data 53
Using the Freeze-Frame Data Example 54
Chapter 8: Emissions Tests and System Monitors 55
Emissions Tests 55
System Monitors 55
Misfire Monitor 56
Evaporative System Monitor 57
Heated Catalyst Monitor and Catalyst Efficiency Monitor 57
Secondary Air System Monitor 58
Fuel System Monitor 58
Oxygen Sensor Monitor and Heated Oxygen Sensor Monitor 58
EGR System Monitor 59
Comprehensive Component Monitor 60
Chapter 9: Four-Stroke Engine Cycle 61
Intake Cycle 61
Compression Cycle 62
Combustion Cycle 62
Exhaust Cycle 63
Otto Cycle Pressure versus Volume 63
Chapter 10: OBD-II and the Otto Engine Model 65
Pressure and Vacuum 65
Supercharging/Turbocharging versus Normally Aspirated 66
Crank, Camshaft and Valves 67
Static versus Dynamic Compression Ratios 67
Chapter 11: Controlling Fuel Systems 69
Closed-Loop is the Key 69
Fuel Combustion and Thermal Efficiency 71
Volumetric Efficiency 74
Airflow Volume 75
What Can Go Wrong? 75
Evolution of the ECM 76
Chapter 12: Dynamic Fuel Correction 77
Fuel Requirements 77
In a Perfect World 79
Fuel-Trim Adjustments 80
Real-Time Fuel-Trim Adjustments 80
Historical Fuel-Trim Adjustments 82
DTCs Related to Fuel Trims 83
P0171 and P0174 DTC Fuel-Trim System Lean 84
P0172 and P0175 DTC Fuel-Trim System Rich 84
Chapter 13: Engine Ignition Controls 85
What is Ignition Timing? 85
Generating High Voltage 86
Distributors 87
Knowing When to Fire 88
Controlling the Timing 90
Sensors that Affect Timing 90
Detonation and Pre-Ignition 91
The ECM and Detonation 94
What Causes Detonation and Pre-Ignition? 94
Chapter 14: Misfires 97
Misfire Types 97
OBD-II Misfire Detection 97
P030x Misfire DTC 98
Diagnosing a Misfire 98
Frame-to-Frame Data 99
Blinking MIL 99
False Misfire Code 99
Chapter 15: Sensors 100
Intake Air Temperature Sensor (IAT) 100
Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor (ECT) 101
Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) 102
Camshaft Position Sensor (CMP) 104
Crankshaft Position Sensor (CKP) 105
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensor 105
Mass Air Flow (MAF) Sensor 108
Chapter 16: Oxygen Sensors 110
Oxygen Sensors Are Consumable 110
How an Oxygen Sensor Works 110
Diagnosing an Oxygen Sensor 112
Oxygen Sensor Codes 113
What Causes Oxygen Sensor Failure? 114
Replacing an Oxygen Sensor 115
Glossary 116
Appendix A: Using a Volt Ohm Meter 117
Appendix B: Generic OBD-II DTC Codes 121
Appendix C: Manufacturer-Specific OBD-II DTC Codes 139

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Automotive Diagnostic Systems 5 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 1 reviews.
Mechanixnut More than 1 year ago
Bought it for my son (a mechanic) and he loved it