ISBN-10:
1259861074
ISBN-13:
9781259861079
Pub. Date:
07/07/2017
Publisher:
McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing
Basic Concepts in Pharmacology: What You Need to Know for Each Drug Class, Fifth Edition / Edition 5

Basic Concepts in Pharmacology: What You Need to Know for Each Drug Class, Fifth Edition / Edition 5

by Janet L. Stringer
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Overview

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A simple, effective, and time-proven method of learning the essential concepts of pharmacology

A MUST-READ FOR THE USMLE STEP 2

Basic Concepts in Pharmacology: What You Need to Know for Each Study Class, Fifth Edition provides you with a complete framework for studying – and understanding – the fundamental principles of drug actions. This unique resource presents drugs by classes, details exactly what you need to know about each class, and reinforces key concepts and definitions. With Basic Concepts in Pharmacology: What You Need to Know for Each Study Class you will be able to identify your strengths and weaknesses, minimize memorization, streamline your study, and build your confidence.

With this innovative text you’ll be able to:
• Recognize the concepts you truly must know before moving on to other material
• Understand the fundamental principles of drug actions
• Organize and condense the drug information you must remember
• Review key information, which is conveniently presented in boxes, tables, and illustrations
• Identify the most important drugs in each class

Seven sections specifically designed to simplify the learning process and help you gain an understanding of the most important concepts:
• General Principles
• Drugs That Affect the Autonomic Nervous System
• Drugs That Affect the Cardiovascular System
• Drugs That Act on the Central Nervous System
• Chemotherapeutic Agents
• Drugs That Affect the Endocrine System
• Miscellaneous Drugs

If you are in need of a time-saving, stress-reducing approach to learning about drug classes and their mechanisms of action, your search ends here.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781259861079
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing
Publication date: 07/07/2017
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 256
Sales rank: 590,971
Product dimensions: 7.30(w) x 9.10(h) x 0.60(d)

About the Author

Janet Stringer, MD; PH.D is Division Dean and Articulation Officer at Cañada College.

Table of Contents

Preface ix

1 Where to Start 1

Part I General Principles

2 Receptor Theory 5

Agonists 5

Efficacy and Potency 6

Therapeutic Index 7

Antagonists 7

Inverse Agonists 9

3 Absorption, Distribution, and Clearance 11

First-Pass Effect 11

How Drugs Cross Membranes 11

Bioavailability 13

Total Body Clearance 14

4 Pharmacokinetics 16

Volume of Distribution 16

First-Order Kinetics 17

Zero-Order Kinetics 19

Steady-State Concentration 20

Time Needed to Reach Steady State 21

Loading Dose 22

5 Drug Metabolism and Renal Elimination 24

Liver Metabolism 24

Renal Excretion 25

Part II Drugs that Affect the Autonomic Nervous System

6 Review of the Autonomic Nervous System 29

Why Include Tins Material? 29

Relevant Anatomy 29

Synthesis, Storage, Release, and Removal of Transmitters 31

Receptors 33

General Rules of Innervation 34

Presynaptic Receptors 36

7 Cholinergic Agonists 37

Organization of Class 37

Cholinergic Agonists 38

Cholinesterase Inhibitors 39

8 Cholinergic Antagonists 42

Organization of Class 42

Muscarinic Antagonists 42

Ganglionic Blockers 44

Neuromuscular Blockers 44

9 Adrenergic Agonists 46

Organization of Class 46

Direct-Acting Agonists 47

Dopamine 48

Indirect-Acting Agents 48

Cardiovascular Effects of Norepinephrine, Epinephrine, and Isoproterenol 49

10 Adrenergic Antagonists 51

Organization of Class 51

Central Blockers 51

α-Blockers 52

β-Blockers 53

Mixed α- and β-Blockers 55

Part III Drugs that Affect the Cardiovascular System

11 Antihypertensive Drugs 59

Organization of Class 59

Diuretics 60

Drugs That Interfere With the Renin-Angiotensin System 62

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors 62

Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers 63

Selective Aldosterone Receptor Antagonists 64

Direct Renin Inhibitor (DRI) 64

Calcium Channel Blockers 64

Nitrates 65

Other Direct Vasodilators 66

α- and β-Blockers 66

Clonidine 67

12 Drugs Used in Ischemic Heart Disease and Congestive Heart Failure 69

Ischemic Heart Disease 69

Congestive Heart Failure 70

Reduction of Cardiac Workload 70

Control of Excessive Fluid 70

Enhancement of Contractility 71

Cardiac Glycosides 71

Sympathomimetics 72

Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors 72

Ranolazine 72

13 Antiarrhythmic Drugs 73

Organization of Class 73

Class I Drugs (Sodium Channel Blockers) 74

Class II Drugs (β-Blockers) 75

Class III Drugs (Potassium Channel Blockers) 76

Class IV Drugs (Calcium Channel Blockers) 77

Other Antiarrhythmic Drugs 77

Drugs That Increase Heart Rate 78

14 Drugs that Affect Blood 79

Organization of Class 79

Antiplatelet Agents 80

Anticoagulants 81

Thrombolytic Drugs 83

Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors 84

Drugs Used in the Treatment of Anemia 84

15 Lipid-Lowering Drugs 86

Organization of Class 86

Additional Explanation of Mechanisms 87

Part IV Drugs that Act on the Central Nervous System

16 Drugs Used in Dementia 91

Organization of Class 91

Cholinesterase Inhibitors 91

NMDA Blocker 92

17 Anxiolytic and Hypnotic Drugs 93

Tolerance and Dependence 93

Organization of Class 94

Barbiturates 95

Benzodiazepines 96

Buspirone 98

Drugs for Insomnia 98

Benzodiazepine Receptor Agonists 98

Melatonin Receptor Agonist 99

Orexin Recptor Antagonist 99

18 Drugs Used in Mood Disorders 100

Organization of Class 100

Serotonin-Specific Reuptake Inhibitors 101

Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors 102

Heterocyclics/TCAs 102

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors 103

Other Antidepressants 104

Drugs Used in Bipolar Disorder 105

19 Antipsychotics or Neuroleptics 106

Organization of Class 106

Typical Antipsychotics (First Generation) 107

Serotonin-Dopamine Antagonists (Second Generation) 108

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome 109

20 Drugs Used in Parkinson Disease 110

Organization of Class 110

Dopamine Replacement Therapy 111

Dopamine Agonist Therapy 112

Anticholinergic Therapy 112

21 Antiepileptic Drugs 113

Organization of Class 113

Important Details About the Most Important Drugs 114

Other Drugs to Consider 115

22 Narcotics (Opiates) 117

Organization of Class 117

Actions of Morphine and the Other Agonists 118

Distinguishing Features of Some Agonists 119

Opioid Antagonists 120

Opioid Agonist-Antagonists 121

23 General Anesthetics 122

Organization of Class 122

Uptake and Distribution of Inhalational Anesthetics 123

Elimination of Inhalational Anesthetics 124

Potency of Genera) Anesthetics 124

Specific Gases and Volatile Liquids 124

Specific Intravenous Agents 125

24 Local Anesthetics 126

Organization of Class 126

Mechanism of Action 127

Special Features About Individual Agents 127

Part V Chemotherapeutic Agents

25 Introduction to Chemotherapy 131

Approach to the Antimicrobials 131

General Principles of Therapy 131

Definitions 132

Important Concepts to Understand 132

Classification of Antimicrobials 134

26 Inhibitors of Cell Wall Synthesis 135

General Features 135

β-Lactams 135

Penicillins 137

Cephalosporins 138

Carbapenems 139

Monobactams (Aztreonam) 139

Other Inhibitors of Cell Wall Synthesis 140

Glycopeptides 140

Bacitracin 140

Fosfomycin 140

Daptomycin 140

27 Protein Synthesis Inhibitors 141

General Features 141

Aminoglycosides 141

Tetracyclines 142

Macrolides 143

Streptogramins and Oxazolidinones 144

Chloramphenicol 145

Clindamycin 145

28 Folate Antagonists 146

Mechanism or Action 146

Selected Features 147

29 Quinolones and Urinary Tract Antiseptics 148

Drugs in This Group 148

Quinolones 148

Methenamine 149

30 Drugs Used in Tuberculosis and Leprosy 150

Organization of Class 150

Isoniazid 151

Rifampin 152

Pyrazinamide 152

Ethambutol 152

Dapsone 153

31 Antifungal Drugs 154

Organization of Class 154

Azole Antifungals 155

Polyene Antifungals 156

Echinocandins 157

Fungal Protein Inhibitors 157

32 Anthelmintic Drugs 158

Organization of Class 158

Drugs Used Against Cestodes and Trematodes 158

Drugs Used Against Nematodes 159

Drugs Used Against Filaria 159

33 Antiviral Drugs 161

Organization of Class 161

Anti-HIV Drugs 162

Drugs Used in Influenza 163

Drugs Used in Hepatitis B and C 164

Other Antivirals 165

34 Antiprotozoal Drugs 166

Organization of Class 166

Metronidazole 167

Antimalarial Agents 167

Therapeutic Considerations 168

Special Features 169

35 Anticancer Drugs 170

Organization of Class 170

Terminology and General Principles of Therapy 171

Adverse Effects 172

Cytotoxic Drugs 174

Alkylating Agents 174

Antimetabolites 175

Antibiotics and Other Natural Products 176

Antibodies 178

Other Cytotoxic Drugs 179

Hormonal Agents 179

Signal Transduction Inhibitors 180

Miscellaneous Agents 181

Part VI Drugs that Affect the Endocrine System

36 Adrenocortical Hormones 185

Organization of Class 185

Glucocorticoids 187

Mineralocorticoids 188

Inhibitors of Adrenocorticoid Synthesis 188

37 Sex Steroids 189

Organization of Class 189

Estrogens 191

Antiestrogens 191

Progestins 192

Antiprogestins 192

Oral Contraceptives 192

Androgens 193

Antiandrogens 194

GnRH Agonists and Antagonists 194

PDE5 Inhibitors 195

38 Thyroid and Parathyroid Drugs 196

Organization of Class 196

Thyroid Replacement Therapy 197

Drugs That are Thyroid Downers 197

Parathyroid Drugs 197

39 Insulin, Glucagon, and Oral Hypoglycemic Drugs 199

Organization of Class 199

Insulins 200

Oral Hypoglycemic Agents 201

Part VII Miscellaneous Drugs

40 Histamine and Antihistamines 205

Organization of Class 205

H1 Receptor Antagonists 205

41 Respiratory Drugs 207

Organization of Class 207

β-Agonists 208

Leukotriene Modifiers 208

Methylxanthines 209

Cholinergic Antagonists 209

Cromolyn and Omalizumab 209

Pulmonary Hypertension 210

Cystic Fibrosis 211

42 Drugs that affect the GI Tract 211

Organization of Class 211

Drugs That Act in the Upper GI Tract 211

Drugs That Act in the Lower GI Tract 212

Inflammatory Bowel Disease 214

43 Nonnarcotic Analgesics and Anti-Inflammatory Drugs 215

Organization of Class 215

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs 215

COX-2 Inhibitors 217

Salicylates, Including Aspirin 217

Acetaminophen 218

Other Drugs for Arthritis 219

Antigout Agents 220

Drugs Used in the Treatment of Headaches 221

44 Immunosuppressives 222

Organization of Class 222

Calcineurin Inhibitors 222

Mycophenolate Mofetil and Azathioprine 223

Monoclonal Antibodies 223

45 Drugs Used in Osteoporosis 224

Organization of Class 224

Bisphosphonates 225

Denosumab 225

Parathyroid Hormone 225

Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators 225

Estrogens 226

Calcitonin 226

46 Toxicology and Poisoning 227

Principles of Toxicology 227

General Principles in the Treatment of Poisoning 227

Specific Antidotes 228

Index 231

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