ISBN-10:
0321570146
ISBN-13:
2900321570146
Pub. Date:
11/14/2008
Publisher:
Pearson
Basic Laboratory Methods for Biotechnology: Textbook and Laboratory Reference / Edition 2

Basic Laboratory Methods for Biotechnology: Textbook and Laboratory Reference / Edition 2

by Lisa A. Seidman

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Overview

Basic Laboratory Methods for Biotechnology: Textbook and Laboratory Reference / Edition 2

  • Math in the laboratory
  • Preparing solutions
  • Measurements
  • Safety
  • Separations
  • Using computers in the lab
  • Quality control
  • Data analysis

Product Details

ISBN-13: 2900321570146
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 11/14/2008
Series: Symbiosis: the Pearson Custom Library for the Biological Sciences Series
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 450
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 1.25(h) x 9.00(d)

About the Author

Lisa Seidman received her Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin and has taught for more than 20 years in the Biotechnology Laboratory Technician Program at Madison Area Technical College in Madison, Wisconsin. Cynthia Moore received her Ph.D. in Microbiology from Temple University School of Medicine. She is currently an Associate Professor of Biological Sciences at Illinois State University, where she also serves as Director of Biology Teacher Education.

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

This is an exciting time to work in biotechnology. The Human Genome Project is generating fundamental genetic information at a breathtaking rate; basic research findings are being applied in medicine, agriculture, and the environment; and a variety of new biotechnology products are moving into production. Behind each of these accomplishments are teams of scientists and technicians whose everyday work makes such achievements possible.

For the past twelve years, we have been working with students who are beginning their careers as technicians and bench scientists in biotechnology laboratories. In order to best assist our students, we, and our colleagues elsewhere in the United States, have explored what entry level biotechnologists do at work and what abilities they need to perform this work. We have been impressed with the complexity and diversity of technical roles and responsibilities, and the importance of the skills that bench workers bring to their jobs. This book emerges partly from our experiences working with students and our explorations into the nature of the laboratory workplace*.

This book also results from our personal experiences in the laboratory. As graduate students we struggled to master the "laboratory lore" that was passed among "post-docs" and graduate students in a not always coherent chain. Some of what is in this book is the systematic introduction to laboratory lore that we wish we had received.

The result of our efforts is not a laboratory manual; this text contains few step-by-step procedures. Nor is it a book about molecular genetics, immunology, or cell culture—there are already many excellentspecialized texts and manuals on these topics. This book rather is a textbook/reference manual on basic laboratory methods and the principles that underlie those methods. These basics are important to every biotechnologist, regardless of whether one is cloning DNA or purifying proteins, whether one is working in an academic setting or is employed in a company.

We intend this book to assist students preparing to become biotechnology laboratory professionals, those who already work in the laboratory, and biology students who are learning to operate effectively in the laboratory. Others who may also find this book helpful include high school teachers and their advanced students, and industry trainers. We have endeavored to make this text accessible to beginning college students with a limited science and math background. Some sections, such as the math review in Unit III, could be skipped or skimmed by more experienced readers. At the same time as we tried to make this book practical and accessible, we also endeavored to provide enough background theory so that readers will understand the methods they use and will be prepared to solve the unavoidable problems that arise in any laboratory.

Although we focus on the biotechnology laboratory, the majority of topics we cover are of importance to individuals working in any biology laboratory. A few topics, such as quality regulations and standards, are included because they are important for those working in biotechnology companies. As biotechnology companies mature, their focus shifts from research into commercial production. As this maturation occurs, scientists and technicians often find that they must add terms like "GMP", "ISO 9000", and "quality systems" to their technical vocabulary. This book therefore weaves a conversation about regulations and standards into many chapters.

We are aware that the basic methods in this book (such as how to mix a solution or weigh a sample) are less glamorous than learning how to manipulate DNA, or how to clone a sheep. However, we also know that, in practice, the most sophisticated and remarkable accomplishments of biotechnology are possible only when the most basic laboratory work is done properly.

*The results of some of these discussions about the biotechnology workplace are summarized in the National Voluntary Skill Standards Documents in Agricultural Biotechnology and the Biosciences. (FFA, "National Voluntary Occupational Skill Standards: Agricultural Biotechnology Technician," National FFA Foundation, Madison, WI, 1994 and "Gateway to the Future, Skill Standards for the Bioscience Industry," Education Development Center, Newton, MA, Inc., 1995.)

Table of Contents

I. INTRODUCTION TO THE BIOTECHNOLOGY WORK PLACE

1. The Modern Biotechnology Industry: A Broad Overview

2. The Business of Biotechnology: The Transformation of Knowledge into Products

3. Pharmaceutical/Biopharmaceutical Products

II. PRODUCT QUALITY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY

4. Introduction to Product Quality Systems

5. Biotechnology and the Regulation of Food and Medical Products

6. Documentation, the Foundation of Quality

7. Quality Systems in the Production Facility

8. Quality Systems in the Laboratory

III. SAFETY IN THE LABORATORY

9. Introduction to a Safe Workplace

10. Working Safely in the Laboratory: General Considerations and Physical Hazards

11. Working Safely with Chemicals

12. Working Safely with Biological Materials

IV. MATH IN THE BIOTECHNOLOGY LABORATORY: AN OVERVIEW

13. Basic Math Techniques

14. Proportional Relationships

15. Relationships and Graphing

16. Descriptions of Data (Descriptive Statistics)

V. LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS

17. Introduction to Quality Laboratory Measurements, Tests and Assays

18. Introduction to Instrumental Methods and Electricity

19. The Measurement of Weight

20. The Measurement of Volume

21. The Measurement of Temperature

22. The Measurement of pH, Selected Ions and Conductivity

23. Measurements Involving Light A. Basic Principles and Instrumentation

VI. QUALITY ASSAYS AND TESTS

24. Introduction to Quality Laboratory Tests and Assays

25. Measurements Involving Light B. Applications and Methods

VII. LABORATORY SOLUTIONS

26. Preparation of Laboratory Solutions A: Concentration Expressions and Calculations

27. Preparation of Laboratory Solutions B. Basic Procedures and Practical Information

28. Solutions: Associated Procedures and Information

29. Laboratory Solutions to Support the Activity of Biological Macromolecules

30. Culture Media for Intact Cells

VII. BASIC SEPARATION METHODS

30. Introduction to Filtration

31. Introduction to Centrifugation

32. Introduction to Bioseparations

IX. COMPUTERS IN THE LABORATORY

33. Computers: An Overview

34: Data Handling with Computers

35. Applications of the Internet to Biotechnology

Preface

This is an exciting time to work in biotechnology. The Human Genome Project is generating fundamental genetic information at a breathtaking rate; basic research findings are being applied in medicine, agriculture, and the environment; and a variety of new biotechnology products are moving into production. Behind each of these accomplishments are teams of scientists and technicians whose everyday work makes such achievements possible.

For the past twelve years, we have been working with students who are beginning their careers as technicians and bench scientists in biotechnology laboratories. In order to best assist our students, we, and our colleagues elsewhere in the United States, have explored what entry level biotechnologists do at work and what abilities they need to perform this work. We have been impressed with the complexity and diversity of technical roles and responsibilities, and the importance of the skills that bench workers bring to their jobs. This book emerges partly from our experiences working with students and our explorations into the nature of the laboratory workplace*.

This book also results from our personal experiences in the laboratory. As graduate students we struggled to master the "laboratory lore" that was passed among "post-docs" and graduate students in a not always coherent chain. Some of what is in this book is the systematic introduction to laboratory lore that we wish we had received.

The result of our efforts is not a laboratory manual; this text contains few step-by-step procedures. Nor is it a book about molecular genetics, immunology, or cell culture—there are already many excellent specialized texts and manuals onthese topics. This book rather is a textbook/reference manual on basic laboratory methods and the principles that underlie those methods. These basics are important to every biotechnologist, regardless of whether one is cloning DNA or purifying proteins, whether one is working in an academic setting or is employed in a company.

We intend this book to assist students preparing to become biotechnology laboratory professionals, those who already work in the laboratory, and biology students who are learning to operate effectively in the laboratory. Others who may also find this book helpful include high school teachers and their advanced students, and industry trainers. We have endeavored to make this text accessible to beginning college students with a limited science and math background. Some sections, such as the math review in Unit III, could be skipped or skimmed by more experienced readers. At the same time as we tried to make this book practical and accessible, we also endeavored to provide enough background theory so that readers will understand the methods they use and will be prepared to solve the unavoidable problems that arise in any laboratory.

Although we focus on the biotechnology laboratory, the majority of topics we cover are of importance to individuals working in any biology laboratory. A few topics, such as quality regulations and standards, are included because they are important for those working in biotechnology companies. As biotechnology companies mature, their focus shifts from research into commercial production. As this maturation occurs, scientists and technicians often find that they must add terms like "GMP", "ISO 9000", and "quality systems" to their technical vocabulary. This book therefore weaves a conversation about regulations and standards into many chapters.

We are aware that the basic methods in this book (such as how to mix a solution or weigh a sample) are less glamorous than learning how to manipulate DNA, or how to clone a sheep. However, we also know that, in practice, the most sophisticated and remarkable accomplishments of biotechnology are possible only when the most basic laboratory work is done properly.

*The results of some of these discussions about the biotechnology workplace are summarized in the National Voluntary Skill Standards Documents in Agricultural Biotechnology and the Biosciences. (FFA, "National Voluntary Occupational Skill Standards: Agricultural Biotechnology Technician," National FFA Foundation, Madison, WI, 1994 and "Gateway to the Future, Skill Standards for the Bioscience Industry," Education Development Center, Newton, MA, Inc., 1995.)

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