ISBN-10:
0495808911
ISBN-13:
2900495808915
Pub. Date:
01/22/2010
Publisher:
Cengage Learning
Basic Statistics: Tales of Distributions / Edition 10

Basic Statistics: Tales of Distributions / Edition 10

by Chris Spatz

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 2900495808915
Publisher: Cengage Learning
Publication date: 01/22/2010
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 512
Product dimensions: 6.50(w) x 1.50(h) x 9.50(d)

About the Author

Chris Spatz earned a Ph.D. from Tulane University in experimental psychology. He subsequently held NSF and NIMH postdoctoral fellowships in animal behavior at the University of Michigan and the University of California, Berkeley. He is a professor of psychology at Hendrix College, Conway, Arkansas. Spatz also held positions at The University of the South and the University of Arkansas at Monticello.

Table of Contents


Preface     XV
Introduction     1
What Do You Mean, "Statistics"?     2
Clue to the future     4
What's in It for Me?     4
Some Terminology     5
Problems and Answers     8
Scales of Measurement     9
Statistics and Experimental Design     12
Experimental Design Variables     13
Statistics and Philosophy     15
Statistics: Then and Now     16
Helpful Features of This Book     16
Concluding Thoughts for This Introductory Chapter     19
Additional Help for Chapter 1     21
Key Terms     21
Transition passage to descriptive statistics     23
Frequency Distributions and Graphs     24
Simple Frequency Distributions     26
Error detection     27
Grouped Frequency Distributions     28
Graphs of Frequency Distributions     30
Describing Distributions     34
The Line Graph     36
More on Graphics     36
A Moment to Reflect     37
Additional Help for Chapter 2     38
Key Terms     39
Central Tendency and Variability     40
Measures of Central Tendency     41
Finding Central Tendency of Simple Frequency Distributions     44
Error detection     46
Error detection     47
When to Use the Mean, Median, and Mode     47
Determining Skewness from the Mean and Median     49
The Weighted Mean     50
Variability     52
The Range     53
Interquartile Range     54
The Standard Deviation     55
The Standard Deviation as a Descriptive Index of Variabiiity     56
Error detection     57
Error detection     59
Error detection     61
S as an Estimate of [sigma]     61
Error detection     64
Clue to the future     65
The Variance     65
Clue to the future     55
Estimating Answers     66
Additional Help for Chapter 3     68
Key Terms     68
Other Descriptive Statistics     69
Using z Scores to Describe Individuals     70
Clue to the future     72
Boxplots     73
Error detection     75
Effect Size Index     76
The Descriptive Statistics Report     79
Additional Help for Chapter 4     82
Key Terms     82
Transition passage to bivariate distributions     83
Correlation and Regression     84
Bivariate Distributions     86
Positive Correlation     87
Negative Correlation     89
Zero Correlation     91
Clue to the future     91
The Correlation Coefficient     92
Error detection     93
Clue to the future     96
Error detection     96
Scatterplots     97
Interpretations of r     98
Uses of r     100
Strong Relationships but Low Correlations     103
Error detection     106
Other Kinds of Correlation Coefficients     106
Linear Regression     107
Making Predictions from a Linear Equation     107
The Regression Equation-A Line of Best Fit     108
Error detection     112
Additional Help for Chapter 5     116
Key Terms     116
What Would You Recommend? Chapters 1-5     116
Transition passage to inferential statistics     118
Theoretical Distributions Including the Normal Distribution     119
Probability     120
A Rectangular Distribution     121
Clue to the future     122
A Binomial Distribution     122
Comparison of Theoretical and Empirical Distributions     124
The Normal Distribution     125
Error detection     132
Clue to the future     138
Comparison of Theoretical and Empirical Answers     138
Other Theoretical Distributions     139
Additional Help for Chapter 6     140
Key Terms     140
Samples, Sampling Distributions, and Confidence Intervals     141
Random Samples     143
Biased Samples     146
Research Samples     146
Sampling Distributions     147
Clue to the future     148
The Sampling Distribution of the Mean     148
Central Limit Theorem     149
Constructing a Sampling Distribution When [sigma] Is Not Available     155
The t Distribution     156
Confidence Interval about a Sample Mean     159
Clue to the future     159
Error detection     160
Categories of Inferential Statistics      163
Additional Help for Chapter 7     164
Key Terms     165
Transition passage to hypothesis testing     166
Hypothesis Testing and Effect Size: One-Sample Designs     167
The Logic of Null Hypothesis Statistical Testing (NHST)     168
Clue to the future     171
Using the t Distribution for Null Hypothesis Statistical Testing     172
A Problem and the Accepted Solution     174
The One-Sample t Test     176
An Analysis of Possible Mistakes     178
The Meaning of p in p < .05     180
One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Tests     181
Effect Size Index     184
Other Sampling Distributions     185
Using the t Distribution to Test the Significance of a Correlation Coefficient     186
Clue to the future     186
Why .05?     188
Additional Help for Chapter 8     190
Key Terms     190
Hypothesis Testing, Effect Size, and Confidence Intervals: Two-Sample Designs     191
A Short Lesson on How to Design an Experiment     192
NHST: The Two-Sample Example     194
Degrees of Freedom     196
Paired-Samples Designs and Independent-Samples Designs     197
Clue to the future     197
The t Test for Independent-Samples Designs     200
Clue to the future     203
The t Test for Paired-Samples Designs     205
Error detection     208
Significant Results and Important Results     210
Effect Size Index     211
Establishing a Confidence Interval about a Mean Difference     213
Error detection     214
Reaching Correct Conclusions     215
Statistical Power     217
Additional Help for Chapter 9     220
Key Terms     220
What Would You Recommend? Chapters 6-9     221
Transition passage to more complex designs     222
Analysis of Variance: One-Way Classification     223
Rationale of ANOVA     225
More New Terms     232
Clue to the future     232
Sums of Squares     232
Error detection     236
Mean Squares and Degrees of Freedom     237
Error detection     238
Calculation and Interpretation of F Values Using the F Distribution     238
Schedules of Reinforcement-A Lesson in Persistence     240
Comparisons among Means     242
Assumptions of the Analysis of Variance     245
Effect Size Index     246
Additional Help for Chapter 10     249
Key Terms     249
Analysis of Variance: One-Factor Repeated Measures     250
A Data Set     251
One-Factor Repeated-Measures ANOVA: The Rationale     252
An Example Problem     252
Tukey HSD Tests     256
Type I and Type II Errors     257
Some Behind-the-Scenes Information about Repeated-Measures ANOVA     258
Additional Help for Chapter 11     261
Key Terms     261
Analysis of Variance: Factorial Design     262
Factorial Design     263
Main Effects and Interaction     267
Clue to the future     272
A Simple Example of a Factorial Design     273
Error detection     277
Error detection     279
Error detection     281
Analysis of a 2 X 3 Design     282
Comparing Levels within a Factor-Tukey HSD Tests     289
Effect Size Indexes for Factorial ANOVA     290
Restrictions and Limitations     291
Additional Help for Chapter 12     292
Key Terms     292
Transition passage to nonparametric statistics     293
CHI Square Tests     294
Error detection     295
The Chi Square Distribution and the Chi Square Test     296
Chi Square as a Test of Independence     297
Error detection     299
Shortcut for Any 2 X 2 Table     300
Effect Size Index for 2 X 2 Chi Square Data     301
Chi Square as a Test for Goodness of Fit     303
Chi Square with More Than One Degree of Freedom     306
Small Expected Frequencies     310
When You May Use Chi Square     313
Error detection     313
Additional Help for Chapter 13     316
Key Terms     316
More Nonparametric Tests     317
The Rationale of Nonparametric Tests     318
Comparison of Nonparametric to Parametric Tests     319
Clue to the future     320
The Mann-Whitney U Test     321
Error detection     322
Error detection     323
Error detection     324
The Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed-Ranks T Test     327
The Wilcoxon-Wilcox Multiple-Comparisons Test     333
Correlation of Ranked Data     336
Error detection      338
My Final Word     339
Additional Help for Chapter 14     341
Key Terms     342
What Would You Recommend? Chapters 10-14     342
Choosing Tests and Writing Interpretations     344
A Review     344
Future Steps     345
Choosing Tests and Writing Interpretations     346
Additional Help for Chapter 15     356
Key Terms     356
Appendixes
Arithmetic and Algebra Review     359
Grouped Frequency Distributions and Central Tendency     373
Tables     378
Glossary of Words     399
Glossary of Symbols     403
Glossary of Formulas     405
Answers to Problems     412
References     465
Index     471

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