Basic Teachings of the Great Philosophers: A Survey of Their Basic Ideas

Basic Teachings of the Great Philosophers: A Survey of Their Basic Ideas

by S.E. Frost

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Overview

Basic Teachings of the Great Philosophers: A Survey of Their Basic Ideas by S.E. Frost

A complete summary of the views of the most important philosophers since the beginning of Western civilization. Each major field of philosophic inquiry is treated in a separate chapter, so that each chapter can be read as a complete unit, without reference to the others. Includes Plato, Descartes, Spinoza, Kant, Hegel, Dewey, Sartre, and many others.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780385030076
Publisher: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group
Publication date: 09/28/1962
Edition description: REV
Pages: 320
Sales rank: 402,727
Product dimensions: 5.10(w) x 8.00(h) x 0.70(d)

About the Author

S. E. Frost, Jr. taught in the Department of Education, Brooklyn College, City University of New York. He received a Ph.D. from Columbia University and a Bachelor of Divinity degree from Yale University. He spent many years in the study and teaching of the history and philosophy of education and is the author of a number of books on philosophy, religion, and education. He died in 1978.

Table of Contents

Introduction1
IThe Nature of the Universe5
The Views of the Early Greek Philosophers6
Plato's Theory of the Universe10
Aristotle's Conception of the Universe12
The Views of the Epicureans, Stoics, and Skeptics16
The Universe According to the Greco-Religious Thinkers18
The Position of the Early Christian Thinkers19
The Positions of the Medieval Christian Thinkers20
The Views of the Forerunners of the Renaissance27
The Universe According to the Philosophers of the Renaissance29
Descartes' Conception of the Universe31
Spinoza's Theory of the Universe33
The Positions of Locke, Berkeley, and Hume35
Leibnitz' Theory of the Universe39
Kant's Conception of the Universe40
Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel41
The Views of the Later German Philosophers44
The Positions of John Stuart Mill and Herbert Spencer47
Josiah Royce, William James, and John Dewey49
The Views of Henri Bergson and George Santayana51
IIMan's Place in the Universe53
Man's Importance According to the Early Greek Philosophers54
The Positions of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle56
The Views of the Later Greek Thinkers58
Man's Importance According to the Early Christian Thinkers58
The Views of the Medieval Christian Thinkers59
As Seen by the Forerunners of the Renaissance62
The Positions of Bacon and Hobbes63
The Views of Descartes and Spinoza64
Man's Place as Seen by Locke, Berkeley, and Hume65
The Views of Leibnitz67
The Position of Rousseau68
Kant's View of Man's Importance68
Fichte, Schelling, Schleiermacher, and Hegel69
The Views of Later German Thinkers72
Man's Place According to Comte74
The Positions of Mill and Spencer75
The Views of James, Dewey, and Russell77
IIIWhat Is Good and What Is Evil?80
Good and Evil According to the Early Greek Philosophers81
The Ethical Views of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle83
Good and Evil According to the Epicureans and Stoics86
The Position of the Greco-Religious Thinkers87
The Ethical Views of the Early Christian Thinkers88
The Views of the Medieval Christian Thinkers89
Hobbes, Spinoza, Locke, and Leibnitz91
The Ethical Philosophy of Kant94
The Views of Fichte and Schopenhauer95
According to Mill, Bentham, and Spencer97
The Ethical Views of James and Dewey98
IVThe Nature of God100
The Views of the Early Greek Philosophers102
The Concept of God in the Thought of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle104
The Position of the Later Greek Thinkers106
The Greco-Religious Ideas About God107
The Early and Medieval Christian Conception of God108
Bruno, Boehme, and Other Forerunners of the Renaissance113
The Position of Bacon, Hobbes, Descartes, and Pascal114
The Nature of God According to Spinoza116
The Views of Locke, Berkeley, Hume, and Leibnitz117
The Concept of God in the Thought of Kant120
Fichte, Schelling, Schleiermacher, Hegel, and Later German Thinkers121
The Position of Comte, Spencer, and Bradley124
The Views of James and Dewey124
VFate versus Free Will127
The Idea of Fate Among the Early Greek Thinkers129
According to Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle130
The Views of the Later Greek Philosophers132
The Position of the Greco-Religious Thinkers134
Early and Medieval Christian Thinkers135
The Views of Bacon, Hobbes, Descartes, and Spinoza139
The Position of Locke, of Hume, and of Leibnitz142
Fate and Free Will According to Voltaire and to Rousseau145
Kant, Fichte, Schelling, Schopenhauer, and Other German Thinkers146
The Position of Mill and of Green150
The Views of James and Dewey151
VIThe Soul and Immortality153
The Soul as Viewed by the Early Greek Philosophers155
The Soul and Immortality According to Plato and Aristotle157
The Position of the Later Greek Thinkers159
The Views of Plotinus160
The Early and Medieval Christian Conception of the Soul160
The Soul According to the Forerunners of the Renaissance162
The Views of Bacon and Hobbes163
The Views of Descartes and Spinoza163
Locke, Berkeley, Hume, and Leibnitz165
The Soul and Immortality According to Kant167
Fichte, Schleiermacher, Herbart, and Schopenhauer168
Recent and Present-Day Conceptions of the Soul and Immortality170
VIIMan and the State175
The State as Viewed by the Early Greek Philosophers178
The State According to Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle181
The Positions of the Later Greek Thinkers184
The Views of the Early Christian Thinkers186
The Views of the Medieval Christian Thinkers188
The State as Viewed by the Forerunners of the Renaissance192
Machiavelli's Conception of the State193
Grotius, Hobbes, and Other Thinkers of the Renaissance194
The Views of Spinoza, Locke, and Adam Smith196
The Position of Voltaire and of Rousseau198
The State According to Hegel, Marx, and Lassalle199
De Maistre, Saint-Simon, and Comte200
The Views of Mill and Spencer202
Nietzsche's Conception of the State204
The Views of Dewey and Recent Thinkers205
VIIIMan and Education207
Education as Viewed by the Early Greek Philosophers209
According to Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle210
The Roman Conception of Education212
Early Christian Conception of Education213
St. Benedict and the Monastic Way of Life214
Education in the Middle Ages and Early Renaissance215
Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation217
The Views of Bacon and Hobbes218
Comenius' Philosophy of Education218
Locke and Rousseau219
Pestalozzi's Conception of Education221
Herbart's View of Education222
Froebel's Conception of Education223
IXMind and Matter226
Mind and Matter as Contrasted by the Early Greek Thinkers228
Plato, Aristotle, and the Later Greek Philosophers230
The Positions of Philo and St. Augustine233
According to the Medieval Christian Thinkers234
Roger Bacon and Paracelsus235
Francis Bacon and Hobbes236
Descartes and Spinoza238
Locke, Berkeley, and Hume240
The Views of Leibnitz241
Kant and Later German Philosophers241
Bradley, Royce, and Bergson244
Comte, James, Dewey, Santayana244
XIdeas and Thinking246
What Thinking Meant to the Early Greek Philosophers247
According to Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle249
The Views of the Later Greek Philosophers250
The Medieval Christian View251
Galileo and the Beginning of the Scientific Attitude253
Bacon, Descartes, Spinoza254
Locke, Berkeley, Hume, and Leibnitz256
Kant, Fichte, Hegel257
Comte, Mill, Spencer260
James and Dewey260
XISome Recent Approaches to Philosophy263
Kierkegaard and the Beginnings of Existentialism264
The Views of Heidegger, Jaspers, and Sartre265
Three Philosophers of Science: Whitehead, Russell, and Moore266
Logical Positivism268
Two Philosophers of the Spirit269
Some Current Philosophers in the Religious Tradition270
Conclusion272
Biographical Notes275
Index297

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