Basics of Biostatistics: A Manual for Medical Practitioners

Basics of Biostatistics: A Manual for Medical Practitioners

by Jatinder Bali

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9789386150714
Publisher: Jp Medical Ltd
Publication date: 12/28/2016
Pages: 556

About the Author

Jatinder Bali is the Member-Secretary, Institutional Ethics Committee, Hindu Rao Hospital and North Delhi Municipal Corporation (NDMC) Medical College; and Scientific Research Committee, Hindu Rao Hospital, New Delhi, India. He is an ophthalmologist by training. He has been the Chief International Instructor, the World Ophthalmology Congress and an invited international Faculty for the Asia Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology and the American Academy of Ophthalmology. He has been a Faculty for the Delhi Ophthalmological Society and has chaired the sessions in seven All India Ophthalmological Society conferences on research, statistics and computer-related issues. He has been a peer-reviewer for British Journal of Ophthalmology, Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins, Canadian Medical Journal, Singapore Medical Journal, Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, Annals of Health and Medical Research, Journal of Clinical Research and Ophthalmology and Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology. As a member of the Scientific Research Committee and the Assistant DNB coordinator, he has worked closely with the students and so has a good understanding of the common problems faced by the students and practitioners in using statistics.

Anil Kant is currently the Head (Sales and Marketing), Max Speciality Films Ltd, New Delhi, India. He has a vast experience in various multinational companies such as the Director, Wifag-Polytype India, Noida; and the AVP, Sakata Inx India Ltd, Gurgaon, Haryana, India. A graduate in statistics from Kurukshetra University with an MBA in International Business from Faculty of Management Studies from Banaras Hindu University, he has widely relied on statistics in making business and the allied decisions. As a statistics enthusiast, he has always believed in demystifying the subject concepts for all and sundry. He understands the statistical need of the people with limited exposure to mathematics, especially, while conducting systematic research and in decision making.

Table of Contents

Zero Point: Approach Road to Learning 1

Statistics in a Nutshell 8

Section 1 Bioethics, Evidence-based Medicine

1 Bioethics in Clinical Research 13

Major Divisions of Ethics 13

Bioethics 14

Main Branches of Bioethics 14

Etymology, History and the Famous Nonethical Experiments 14

Dachau and Auschwitz Concentration Camp Hypothermia Experiments 15

Animal Ethics 34

Environmental Ethics 35

Anthropocentrism 36

2 Evidence-based Medicine and Levels of Evidence 38

Evidence-based Medicine 38

Fundamental Principles 38

Components of Evidence-based Practices 39

3 Introduction to Statistics 49

Etymology 49

History 49

Notable Contributors 50

India in Modern Context 51

Applications 51

Summing Up 52

Biostatistics 52

Section 2 Research Methodology and 'Back to School'

4 Research Methodology 57

Objectives of Research 57

Types of Research 58

Approaches to Research 59

Research Methods 60

Research Methodology 60

5 Inside Research Methodology: The Nuts and Bolts 63

What Constitutes a Research? 63

Research Plan 72

6 Back to School 74

Greek Alphabets 74

Common Mathematical Operators/Symbols 75

Modulus 76

Basics of Set Theory and Venn Diagrams 76

Indices 79

Progressions: Arithmetic and Geometric Progressions 79

Logarithms and Antilogarithms 80

The Exponential Function 'e' 81

Ratio 81

Proportion 82

Factorial 82

Permutations and Combinations 83

Section 3 Describing the Data

7 Frequency Distribution 87

Classification of Data 87

Variables: Discrete and Continuous 89

Frequency Distributions: Discrete and Continuous 89

Relative Frequency Distribution 93

Bivariate or Two Way Frequency Distribution 93

Marginal Distribution 94

8 Measures of Central Tendency 95

Central Value Concept 95

Measures of Central Tendency 95

Types of Measures of Central Tendency 96

Median (Md) 100

Quartiles, Deciles and Percentiles 103

Mode (M0) 105

Harmonic Mean 109

Which Measure to Use? 111

9 Measures of Dispersion (or Variation) 114

Understanding Dispersion 114

Types of Measures of Dispersion 115

Quartile Deviation 116

Percentile Deviation 116

Mean Deviation 116

Standard Deviation 117

Lorenz Curve 119

Coefficient of Dispersion and Its Measures (Also referred as a Relative Measure of Variation) 120

Which Measure of Dispersion to Use? 121

10 Skewness, Moments and Kurtosis 122

Skewness 122

Kurtosis 125

Moments 126

Significance 127

Section 4 Probability, Probability Distribution and Sampling

11 Theory of Probability 131

Terminology in Probability Theory 132

Approaches to Probability 133

Conditional Probability 137

Bayes Theorem 139

12 Theoretical Discrete Probability Distributions 142

Underlying Concepts and Terminology 142

Types of Theoretical Discrete Distributions 147

13 Theoretical Continuous Probability Distributions 163

Normal Distribution 163

Rectangular Distribution 174

Lognormal Distribution 176

Exponential Distribution 176

14 Sampling Theory 178

What is a Sample and why it is Required? 179

Types of Sampling Methods 180

Advantages and Disadvantages of Sampling 182

What should be the Sample Size? 183

Sampling Errors 185

Standard Error 186

Underlying Basis of Sampling Theory 186

Section 5 Correlation, Regression, Partial and Multiple Correlation and Regression, Theory of Attributes

15 Correlation 191

What is Correlation? 191

Correlation Measures 192

16 Regression Analysis 205

Components of Regression Analysis 205

Types of Regression 206

Linear Regression Analysis and Line of Best Fit 207

Logistic Regression 212

17 Partial and Multiple Correlation and Regression 216

Partial Correlation 216

Multiple Correlation 217

Partial and Multiple Regression 218

Multicollinearity 221

18 Theory of Attributes 225

Terminology of Attribute Theory 225

Association of Attributes 228

Section 6 Statistical Testing

19 Hypothesis Testing 235

Basic Concepts 236

Practical Considerations in Framing and Testing Hypothesis 246

20 Tests of Significance (Z and Student's 't'-Test) 248

Large Sample Tests 249

Small Sample Tests (Student's t-tests) 256

What is P-value? 267

21 F-Test and Analysis of Variance and Covariance 269

Constants and Properties of F-Distribution 269

Applications 270

22 Chi-square Test 286

Degrees of Freedom 286

Salient Points of Chi-square 287

Chi-square Distribution 288

Applications of x2 Distribution 289

Chi-square Test of Homogeneity of Correlation Co-efficient 298

Remarks on Chi-Square 300

23 Nonparametric Tests 301

Advantages 301

Disadvantages 302

Run Test: Test for Randomness in a Series of Observations 302

The Signed-rank Test for Testing Specified Mean or Median of a Population 303

Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test for Paired data 304

Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test for One Sample 307

Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test (For Comparing Two Populations) 308

Mann-Whitney 'U' Test for Equality of Two Means 310

Wilcoxon-Wilcox Test for Comparison of Multiple Treatment on a Series 311

Kruskal-Wallis Rank Sum Test (H-Test) 313

Friedman Test (Two-way ANOVA) 314

Test of Significance of Spearman's and Kendall Rank Correlation 317

McNemar's Test for Paired Samples 317

Cochran Q Test 318

24 Which Statistical Test to Use? 321

Summary of Statistical Tests 322

25 Special Considerations about Inferential Issues in Biostatistics 327

Cause-Effect Relationship: Is it Really True? 328

Bias 329

Confounding 329

Spurious Relationship 331

Effect Modification 331

Bradford Hill Causality Criteria 332

Exposure-Disease Association 333

Odds Ratio 334

Attributable Risk 335

26 Measurement and Error Analysis 337

Measurement 337

Levels of Measurement 338

Evaluating Measurement 340

Reliability v/s Validity 343

Assessment of Validity: Specificity and Sensitivity 344

Errors in Measurement 350

Section 7 Other Statistical Concepts Frequently Used in Research

27 Vital (Demographic) Statistics and Life Tables 357

Basics of Vital Statistics 357

Life Tables 367

Survival Analysis and Kaplan-Meier Curves 374

Log-Rank Test 378

28 Time Series Analysis 381

Time Series Components 382

Measuring the Components of Time Series 384

29 Interpolation, Extrapolation and Forecasting Methods 398

Terminology 399

Methods of interpolation 400

Extrapolation and Forecasting 406

Section 8 Statistical Concepts for Medical Administration

30 Index Numbers 411

Key Decisions in Creating Index Number 412

Weighted Index Numbers 417

Quantity and Value Index Numbers 423

Chain Index Numbers 423

Base Shifting and Splicing 426

Index Number Tests 427

31 Statistical Quality Control 429

Control Charts 430

Types of Control Charts 431

Charts based on Actual Measurements 432

'C-Control Chart' for Number of Defects Per Unit 435

P-Control Chart (Fraction Defectives or Proportion of Defects) 436

Acceptance Sampling 437

32 Decision Theory 440

Notation/Terminology 441

Decisions Methods 443

Principles of Decision Making 444

Decision Tree Analysis or Ties Diagram 449

Section 9 Report Writing and Applying for Grants

33 Research Report Writing: How to do? 453

Organization of the Research Report 453

Manuscript Preparation for Journals 460

34 Applying for Grants 467

Preparing for Application Process 468

Ground Reality: The Background Check 469

Main Application: Contents and Pitfalls 470

Background and Significance or Introduction 471

Preliminary Studies/Progress Report 471

Research Design and Methods 471

Results 472

Monitoring and Evaluation 472

Protection of Human Subjects and Institutional Review Boards 473

Bibliography 474

Contracts 474

Abstracts 474

Title 474

Biographical Sketches 474

Budget 475

Formatting and Instructions to Applicants 475

Cover Letter 476

Decision Process Explained 476

Pay Lines 477

Outcomes 477

Common Problems Encountered 478

Revision of Application 479

Voila! Manna from Heaven: The Funding 480

Records and Accounting 480

Appendix 481

Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine 2011 Levels of Evidence 482

Random Number Table 484

Binomial Coefficients 485

Binomial Probabilities 486

E Values for Calculating Poisson Probabilities for (0 < λ < 1) 490

Area Under the Standard Normal Curve 491

Area Under the Standard Normal Curve 493

Area Under the Standard Normal Curve 495

Critical Values of 't' 497

Critical Values of Chi Square (x2) 498

Critical Values of F (0.05 or 5%) 500

Critical Values of F (0.01 or 1%) 503

Factors for Construction of Control Charts (Statistical Quality Control) 506

Studentized Range: Critical Values 508

Studentized Range: Critical Values 510

Pearson's Correlation Coefficient (r): Critical Values 512

Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient (p): Critical Values 513

Run Test: Acceptance Region for Values of 'R' 514

Sign Test: Critical Values of 'T' 515

Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test: Critical Values of 'D' 517

Wilcoxon-Wilcox Two-Sided Test: Critical Values 518

Mann-Whitney Test (U Test): Critical Values of 'U' 521

Critical Values of τ. Kendall Rank Correlation Significance Test 522

Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test 'W': Lower and Upper Critical Values 523

Common Logarithms (log10x) 524

Antilogarithms 530

Index 537

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