The intelligence of Self (TIOS) offers a new, dynamic and effective approach to personal development. Designed to offer readers the opportunity to use a refined typological tool to learn their current default position on their psychological roadmap, and consciously integrate disowned or undeveloped aspects of their personality, creating internal balance, peace harmony and joy for their future.
This approach enables us to:
get a snapshot of the map of our existing psyche.
better understand our routine habits and truly get to know ourselves
discover what lies hidden within each of us and integrate our disowned parts.
develop our ability to recognize and embrace our internal opposites and to manage paradox without feeling unduly stressed
make better choices going forward.
live our life fully at each of its different phases.
establish and maintain better relationships with ourselves and others
Whether undertaken in a self-coaching format, by an individual or used by human resources professionals, consultants, coaches, or therapists - this approach has proven to be effective, powerful and rewarding for individuals and corporations alike..
The case studies enclosed and the many illustrations will enable you to benefit rapidly by recognizing and developing your own strengths grounded in a solid Intelligence of Self... and Others.
In 2011 the authors received in San Francisco the "Mary McCaulley Lifetime Achievement Award", which recognizes individuals who have made a significant contribution in encouraging the constructive use of differences identified by psychological type. In 2012, the training process for consultants, using the TIOS approach, was awarded the European Quality Award from the European Mentoring and Coaching Council.
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Becoming Who You Are with the Intelligence of Self
Understanding one's psychological type and developing fully with Voice Dialogue
By Pierre Cauvin, Geneviève Cailloux
Balboa PressCopyright © 2016 Pierre Cauvin-Geneviève Cailloux
All rights reserved.
BETWEEN LIGHT AND SHADOW; THE 8 PSYCHIC FUNCTIONS
IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TYPES, CG Jung shed light on the existence of the eight functions at work in the psychic life of every individual, and how their processes differ from one individual to the next. Let us consider the two elements which have the most relevance for our approach:
the nature of the eight functions
their order of appearance in the life of the psyche.
THE 8 FUNCTIONS
For Jung, the functions are the framework of the life of the psyche. They are processes, methods – they do not imply a specific content. To use an analogy from the field of computer technology, your computer makes use of an operating system and a variety of software to write, draw, and calculate, and these are the processes; with them, you can create specific content – for example you can write a novel or a composition, do your personal accounting, or create works of art, and these are the specific content. The eight psychological functions are the tools at our disposal to:
gather information (Perceiving functions), and
process and evaluate information in order to make decisions (Judging functions).
These eight functions exist in pairs of opposites. The abbreviations in parentheses are generally used to represent each function:
Extraverted Sensing (Se) – Introverted Intuiting (Ni)
Introverted Sensing (Si) – Extraverted Intuiting (Ne)
Extraverted Thinking (Te) – Introverted Feeling (Fi)
Introverted Thinking (Ti) – Extraverted Feeling (Fe).
The idea of "opposition" is fundamental, and we will encounter it again and again. It should be understood as the difference of polarity which causes energy flow, just as electrical current needs a positive pole and a negative pole. Opposition can lead to exclusion, where one element can exist only by suppressing the other. It can also be understood as tension, creating dynamism and leading to complementarity.
If one function exists alone in the psyche, without the counterbalancing effect of its opposite, there is a risk of excess, imbalance, unilateralism. Although we make use of the eight functions differently (and we will see this in the next section), we definitely need each one of them.
Table 1.1 below summarizes the principal character of each function. Tables 1.2 to 1.9 will further explore the detailed characteristics of each function under the following headings:
Nature: the very essence of the function, the basic process
Symbol: a visual analogy representing the function; it is often used by those who use it preferentially.
Key word: a word or expression summing up the fundamental drive or impulse
Archetype: from the pantheon of Greek mythology, the god who seemingly best represents the function (The symbol indicates entries in the Index of Literary References).
Celebrities: well-known individuals or imaginary characters related to the function (The symbol indicates entries in the Index of Literary References).
Specific characteristics related to:
- professional life
Potential risks: possible problem areas if the function is used excessively, without the counterbalancing effect of the opposite pole.
ORDER OF INTEGR ATION OF THE FUNCTIONS
The eight functions do not reveal themselves in each individual's psyche in exactly the same way. They develop in a specific order which differs according to the individual's psychological type. Among the eight functions, the first two form a central core around which the others are ranked in accordance with the law of polar opposites. For this reason, we will refer to each type based on the initials of the first two functions, for example Fe/Ti to designate a person who has Extraverted Feeling as the first function and Introverted Thinking as the second function. This creates a pair of two "preferred" functions which are "preferred" not in the sense of an intentional choice, but rather as a natural predisposition or pre-existing psychic "formatting". They are like a pair of glasses which – unbeknownst to us – we are already wearing. These functions are the ones which strongly express our deepest intentions and everything that is most intrinsic to our system of values.
But everyone has all eight functions, and they all have a role to play; becoming aware of the "glasses" we are wearing is important as it will help us to change glasses when needed. The other functions, called "non-preferred functions", all establish themselves in the course of each individual's development, but they each follow a different path and begin to appear at different stages of life. As in nature, where some flowers bloom in spring or summer, so also do we observe each function grow and flourish throughout the course of our life. This occurs in the following order, and will be illustrated with two contrasting examples:
Joseph, Te/Si, Extraverted Thinking/Introverted Sensing, and
Olivia, Fi/Ne, Introverted Feeling/Extraverted Intuiting.
As we describe the developing functions, they will be indicated on the "function cross" for Joseph and for Olivia.
It is important to note that psychological type can be indicated in two different ways:
either by using the two primary functions (dominant and auxiliary), which reflects the dynamic of the type,
or by using the four letters indicating preference on the four opposing poles of the cross (E/I, S/N, T/F, J/P); this latter system is generally used for personality type indicators.
We will use the dominant/auxiliary designation, followed by the 4 -letter code equivalent in parentheses.
The functions are described as being "light" or "shadow" according to whether they are preferred by an individual or not. In fact, if I position myself where things appear to be in the light, the other functions are in shadow, blurry, inaccessible, even negative. But for another person, these same functions will be light, whereas my preferred functions may be the other's shadow. As well, I will at times be able to shed light on my shadow functions, and project this light to see what new things the shadow functions can contribute.
This is the psyche's organizing function; it is the first in several ways.
It manifests itself from the start of one's psychic life, as early as infancy. For example, with Joseph and Olivia:
Extraverted Thinking (Te), Joseph's dominant function, expresses a spontaneous tendency to organize the universe; Joseph's nickname as a child was "captain" (as a matter of fact, other individuals of this type often admit to nicknames such as "boss", "commander", or "general").
Introverted Feeling (Fi), Olivia's dominant function, is oriented towards an inner values quest; Olivia's favorite subject in elementary school was civics education, and later, ethics.
The dominant function is the one that we tend to resort to first and spontaneously to solve a problem or to deal with an unexpected situation:
At the start of an organized trip, Joseph, a participant like the others, immediately takes on a leadership role at the airport, promptly proposing a communal "kitty" for the group's minor expenses.
At the same time, Olivia begins by quietly observing the group members to get an idea of who they are; she also watches for the conclusion of the "social grooming" and the chance to form new relationships.
The dominant function is also the one used the most skillfully, or the most easily, relatively speaking. However, this doesn't mean that the dominant function is always used well. It's possible to have Thinking as the dominant function and spout nonsense; or Feeling as dominant, and have a skewed values system; or Sensing as dominant, and collect trivia; or Intuition as dominant and be out in left field!
This preference may have been encouraged by the surrounding environment from earliest infancy, and the child thus develops with great confidence. He feels loved unconditionally, for being himself. This gives the child a very solid basis for self-esteem, confidence, and healthy differentiation to develop.
The opposite can also occur and in that case, the child cannot understand why he is criticized each time his dominant function expresses itself. He is rebuked, mocked, or possibly worse, ignored. As a result, he will either have to abandon his identity, with the resultant frustrations, or resist and pay the price, or alternate between these two strategies. His self-concept will suffer from this, and he may spend a long time wondering what he did wrong until he discovers that his preferences were simply not viewed favorably in his birth family. The story of the "Ugly Duckling" exemplifies this.
Extraverted Joseph suffered enormously from not being able to go out to see his friends as often as he would have liked, but his parents brought him up to believe that it was just not acceptable to spend all his time with his friends. He suffered considerable loneliness until he moved away to university and could live the life that suited him.
Olivia, on the other hand, often felt like staying in her room, particularly as she had many siblings, but her extraverted parents constantly pushed her to participate in extracurricular activities and to be more social, which she found worrisome, until she was able to live alone and do as she liked.
The auxiliary function counterbalances the dominant function in two ways:
the auxiliary will be a Perceiving function if the dominant is Judging, and vice versa;
the auxiliary will be an introverted function ("i") if the dominant is extraverted ("e"), and vice versa;
The concept of balancing is essential, just as a sailboat must have both a rudder and sails.
If it has only a rudder (Judging function), there will be a clear direction, but the boat will not move.
If it has only sails, (Perceiving function), it will certainly move, but it will float aimlessly in all directions.
It is of utmost importance to take into consideration both our inner and outer experiences; one of the two principal functions takes charge of the outer world, and the other the inner world. The transition from reflection to action will facilitate the back -and-forth movement between Perceiving and Judging, and thus between information-gathering and decision-making.
The auxiliary function really comes into its own in the period around adolescence, and in this way it expands our psychic identity as it enables us to access a function which is in every way the complete opposite of our dominant function.
It is generally easy to use this function, as it is close to the dominant function.
Joseph, whose auxiliary function is Introverted Sensing (Si), is very practical in his approach. He is dying to take on the responsibility for the communal kitty. Moreover, proof of his organizational skills shows up in tangible results: he is an amateur photographer whose slide collection is catalogued perfectly; as well, having created a training center, he oversees the work site in such a way that no detail escapes his attention.
Olivia, whose auxiliary function is Extraverted Intuiting (Ne), exhibits a constant curiosity for personal development projects. Her search for meaning (Fi) is evident in the realm of personal relationships, spiritual and psychological development, and everything that "connects".
Table 1.10 shows the 16 possible combinations of the eight functions, in light of the rules described above.
This is the pole which is opposite the auxiliary in the same dimension, but with an opposite orientation.
The tertiary function develops at the beginning of adulthood, often due to environmental pressures which require us to adapt to new situations.
As he was given more important responsibilities, Joseph was required to face unforeseen circumstances. He found that he had to relax his rather strict organizational style in order to be more highly regarded. He had to incorporate more teamwork and consultation and be more willing to call on the skills and knowledge of his team members. In this way, ideas he had not considered were brought forward; they were well accepted by all team members, and this was extremely motivating, particularly for Joseph. His tertiary function, Extraverted Intuiting (Ne), was thus able to contribute in a strong way. These kinds of procedures do not slow him down any more, and he is able to get around them when necessary. A process which he viewed as a waste of time proved to be effective.
For Olivia, everything related to practical matters (schedules, administrative forms, routine daily activities) was pure torture and she often procrastinated, postponing these tasks indefinitely, until her professional or family responsibilities led her to call on her Introverted Sensing (Si) function; having done this, she learned to enjoy the resultant benefits (comfort and security).
The tertiary function is more difficult to incorporate and slower to access than the two preferred functions, and therefore, it manifests in a similar way to the inferior function, which we will now look at more closely
This is the pole opposite the dominant in the same dimension, but with an opposite orientation.
The inferior function generally develops midway through life and occasionally in an abrupt or dramatic manner, particularly if we have overlooked or suppressed its qualities for too long. It is not just a coincidence that we speak of the "midlife crisis".
The inferior function often manifests in the problems it can cause:
- through insufficiency or lack: it appears completely absent, or
- through excess: there is indiscriminate zealousness.
This is why Olivia, who has Extraverted Thinking as her inferior function, often has difficulty with aspects of pure logic. She needs time to put the concepts into writing (Si) and she doesn't like to be rushed. Caught up in sensations which are difficult to articulate, she has difficulty stating her thoughts in a clear and unemotional way. Until the moment when, her cup overflowing with unexpressed feelings, she explodes, surprising herself most of all and putting herself at odds with others around her
tactlessness, verbal awkwardness
Joseph, whose inferior function is Introverted Feeling (Fi), has difficulty expressing affection in any way other than in the form of jokes or teasing, or even mockery, which can be difficult for others to interpret
Don't try to tell Robert, Ni/Te, who has Extraverted Sensing as his inferior function, that he has once again made mistakes in taking the measurements for a construction project. He is already upset enough as it is!
The inferior function is a reservoir of untapped potential and the starting point for self-development.
Through the years, Olivia has progressively taken on a more and more important role in her company, and she is currently very pleased to find herself putting her significant talents to great effect in an executive position, which is entirely typical for Extraverted Thinking. She is able to appreciate the progress she has made.
As for Joseph, he is currently pursuing a career in the field of individual coaching, where his empathy, typical of Introverted Feeling, is every bit as sought after and effective as organizational skills.
Excerpted from Becoming Who You Are with the Intelligence of Self by Pierre Cauvin, Geneviève Cailloux. Copyright © 2016 Pierre Cauvin-Geneviève Cailloux. Excerpted by permission of Balboa Press.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Table of Contents
ContentsIntroduction: Opening the Doors of the Psyche, xvii,
PART I THE INTELLIGENCE OF SELF: FROM THE AUTO-PILOT TO THE AWARE EGO; THE PERATING PRINCIPLES OF THE PSYCHE, 1,
1. BETWEEN LIGHT AND SHADOW; THE 8 PSYCHIC FUNCTIONS, 5,
2. SPONTANEOUS EVOLUTION OF THE PSYCHE: THE AUTO-PILOT (OR OPER ATING EGO), 27,
3. SELF-DEVELOPMENT WITH INTELLIGENCE: THE AWARE EGO, 48,
4. THE INTELLIGENCE OF SELF AND OF THE OTHER, 61,
PART II PUTTING THE INTELLIGENCE OF SELF INTO PRACTICE, 75,
5. SOME TYPICAL SITUATIONS, 77,
6. INTELLIGENCE OF SELF, INTELLIGENCE OF THE OACH, 111,
7. FIVE TECHNIQUES TO HELP YOU ALONG THE PATH, 141,
8. SELF-COACHING THROUGH THE INSIGHTS OF INTELLIGENCE OF SELF, 167,
9. INTELLIGENCE OF SELF IN ACTION, 180,
Index Of Literary References, 225,
Information, Interventions, Training, 239,
Index Of Illustrations, 243,
Index Of Tables, 245,