The theme of the present volume concerns people' s response to the natural environment, considered at scales varying from that of a house hold plant to that of vast wilderness areas. Our decision to focus on this particular segment of the physical environment was prompted in part by the intrinsic interest in this subject on the part of a diverse group of sodal scientists and professionals-and of laypersons, for that matter and in part by the relative neglect of this topic in standard treatments of the environment-behavior field. It also serves to bring out once again the interdisdplinary nature of that field, and we are pleased to have been able to inc1ude representatives from geography, sodology, soda! ecology, and natural recreation among our contributors. We believe that this volume will serve a useful purpose in helping to integrate the find ings and concepts in this presently somewhat fragmented field, scat tered as they are over a very diverse array of publications representing a similarly varied group of spedalties. It is hoped that the result will be to stimulate future development of this area and to add a measure of in creased coherence to it. Volume 7 of our series will be devoted to the theme of elderly people and the environment, with M. Powell Lawton joining us as guest co-editor. The titles of the papers comprising Volume 7 are shown on page v. Irwin Altman J oachim F. Wohlwill ix Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of Contents1 The Concept Of Nature: A Psychologist’s View.- Some Definitional Problems.- Boundary-Line Problems.- Toward a Perceptually Based Ecology of Natural Environments.- The Simulation of the Natural Realm.- Alternative Views of Nature in Psychological Terms.- Nature as a Realm of Continuous Change and Growth.- Nature as a Refuge.- Nature as a Symbol.- Conclusion: Nature as a “Natural” Category.- The Developmental Origins of the Natural/Artificial Differentiation.- A Program of Research on the Perceptual, Cognitive, and Affective Components of the Nature Concept.- A Final Comment.- References.- 2 Methodological Issues in the Assessment Of Landscape Quality.- Landscape Quality.- Landscape-Assessment Models.- Ecological Model.- Example.- Evaluation.- Formal Aesthetic Model.- Example.- Evaluation.- Psychophysical Model.- Example.- Evaluation.- Psychological Model.- Example.- Evaluation.- Phenomenological Model.- Example.- Evaluation.- Conclusion.- References.- 3 Aesthetic and Affective Response to Natural Environment.- Defining Affective and Aesthetic Response.- Toward a Theory of Affective Response to Natural Environment.- Generating Affects: Feelings Precede Thoughts.- A Psychoevolutionary Framework.- Affects and Behavior in Natural Environments.- Visual Properties Influencing Aesthetic Preference and Interest.- Complexity.- Structural Properties.- Depth.- Ground Surface Texture.- Threat/Tension.- Deflected Vistas.- Water.- Summary of Visual Properties Influencing Preference.- Extent of Agreement among Observers for Preference.- Cultural Influences on Aesthetic Preference.- Aesthetic Response to Natural versus Built Environments.- Man-Made Features in Natural Settings.- Other Affective-Arousal Responses to Natural versus Urban Visual Environment.- Visual Landscapes and Psychophysiological Restoration: A Tentative Perspective.- Summary and Directions for Research.- References.- 4 The Role of Nature in the Urban Context.- Growing Awareness of Urban Nature.- Indirect Evidence.- Preference for Urban Nature: Content and Process.- The Urban Environment: Perceptual Categories.- Content and Process as Predictors.- The View from Home.- Kinds of Nature.- Does the View Matter?.- Satisfaction from Urban Nature.- Satisfaction without Active Use.- People-Plant Relationship.- Gardening Satisfactions.- Organic versus Chemical Fertilizers.- Urban Nature and Quality of Life.- Human Needs and the Natural Environment.- Participation.- Search and Research.- References.- 5 Psychological Benefits of a Wilderness Experience.- Research on Wilderness Values.- Research on the Impacts of Wilderness Experiences.- Remaining Questions.- A Closer Look at the Wilderness Experience: The Outdoor Challenge Research Program.- Program Description and Methodology.- Questionnaire Results: Changing Reactions to Wilderness.- Analysis of Wilderness Journals: Exploring Processes, Searching for Mechanisms.- Time Course of the Experience.- Psychological Dimensions of the Wilderness Experience.- Returning to Civilization.- Areas of Theoretical Interest.- Being Away.- Fascination.- “Other Worlds” and the Concept of Coherence.- Action and Compatibility.- The Emergence of Psychological Benefits.- The Progression of Response to Wilderness.- The Contents of Contemplation.- Concluding Comments.- A Perspective on Restorative Environments.- Does the Natural Environment Make a Difference?.- Wilderness and Human Nature.- References.- 6 Recreational Needs and Behavior in Natural Settings.- Recreation, Nature, and Expected Outcomes.- The Evolution of Inquiry.- The Recreationist as a Purposive Actor.- The Actor Needs More Study.- Conclusion.- References.- 7 Affective, Cognitive, and Evaluative Perceptions of Animals.- Basic Attitudes toward Animals.- The Special Case of Hunting.- Knowledge of Animals.- Attitudes toward Animal-Related Issues and Problems.- Symbolic Perceptions of Animals.- Policy and Management Implications.- References.- 8 Social and Behavioral Aspects of the Carrying Capacity of Natural Environments.- The Multidimensioned Environment-User Relationship.- Carrying Capacity Exceeded: Two Examples.- Easter Island.- St. Matthew Island.- Differences and Similarities.- Penchant for Discounting Ecological Omens.- Conceptual Development.- Highlights of the Idea’s Emergence.- Components of Carrying Capacity.- Further Basic Considerations.- Recreational Carrying Capacity.- Anthropologists and Carrying Capacity.- Future Directions of Research.- Homo colossus: The Per Capita Impact Dimension.- Trade and Air-Conditioning: The Deficiency Dimension.- Diachronic Competition: The Time Dimension.- Avoidance of Overstocking: The Degradation Dimension.- References.- 9 Contributions of Behavioral Scientists to Recreation Resource Management.- Skills Needed by Recreation Policymakers and Managers.- An Applied Perspective.- Policy and Management Issues Related to Behavioral Research.- Producing and Measuring Use of Recreation Opportunities.- Producing and Measuring Recreation Experiences.- Producing and Measuring Recreation Benefits.- Reducing and Measuring Adverse Impacts.- References.