Behavioral, Social, and Emotional Assessment of Children and Adolescents

Behavioral, Social, and Emotional Assessment of Children and Adolescents

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Overview

Behavioral, Social, and Emotional Assessment of Children and Adolescents by Sara A. Whitcomb, Kenneth W. Merrell

Generally recognized as the standard work in its field, Behavioral, Social, and Emotional Assessment of Children and Adolescents is a comprehensive guide for conducting conceptually sound, culturally responsive, and ecologically oriented assessments of students’social and emotional behavior. Written for graduate students, practitioners, and researchers in the fields of school psychology, child clinical psychology, and special education, it will also be of interest to those in related disciplines. Building on the previous editions, this fifth edition includes updated references to DSM-5 and federal standards as well as an integrated approach to culturally competent assessment throughout the text.

In Part I, Foundations and Methods of Assessment, the author provides a general foundation for assessment practice and outlines basic professional and ethical issues, cultural considerations, and classification and diagnostic problems. Part II, Assessment of Specific Problems, Competencies, and Populations, includes material on assessing specific social–emotional behavior domains, including externalizing problems, internalizing problems, social skills and social–emotional strengths, and the unique needs of young children. A chapter on school-wide screening methods was also added with this edition. By weaving together the most recent research evidence and common application issues in a scholarly yet practical matter, Behavioral, Social, and Emotional Assessment of Children and Adolescents continues to be the pre-eminent foundation for assessment courses.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781138814387
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Publication date: 09/08/2017
Edition description: Revised
Pages: 536
Product dimensions: 7.00(w) x 10.00(h) x (d)

About the Author

Sara A. Whitcomb is Associate Professor in the College of Education at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

List of Tables

List of Figures

Preface

Acknowledgments

Part I Foundations and Methods of Assessment

Chapter 1. Foundations of Assessment

Theoretical Foundations of Social and Emotional Behavior Social Cognitive Theory: An Integrated Orientation

Components of Social Cognitive Theory

Triadic Reciprocality: Understanding the Determinants

of Behavior

Observational Learning: A Multiprocess Analysis

The Importance of Context: Ecological Systems Theory

Finding Your Own Theoretical Foundation

Philosophical Foundations of Assessment Nomothetic and Idiographic: Definitions and Historical Development Nomothetic and Idiographic Approaches in Practice Empirical Approach to Assessment

Understanding and Clarifying Assessment Referrals

Assessment as a Problem-Solving Process

A Model for Assessment as a Problem-Solving Process

Phase I: Identification and Clarification

Phase II: Data Collection

Phase III: Analysis

Phase IV: Solution and Evaluation

Designing a Multimethod, Multisource, Multisetting Assessment

Response to Intervention (RTI): A Public Health Approach to

Assessment and Intervention

Legal and Ethical Issues in Assessment

Basis for Legal Constraints on Assessment

Specific Assessment Practices Affected by Ethics and Law

Informed Consent

Validity of Assessment Procedures

Right to Privacy/Confidentiality

Some Concluding Comments on Legal and Ethical Issues

Criteria for Inclusion of Assessment Methods and Instruments

Conclusions

Review and Application Questions

Chapter 2. Social–emotional Assessment and Cultural Diversity

Test and Assessment Bias in Professional Practice

Test and Assessment Bias

Professional Ethics and Culturally Appropriate Assessment

Professional Practice

Acculturation and Identity Development

Factors That Influence Acculturation

Determining Acculturation and Cultural Orientation

Development of Racial/Cultural Identity

Stage 1: Conformity

Stage 2: Dissonance

Stage 3: Resistance and Immersion

Stage 4: Introspection

Stage 5: Integrative Awareness

Problems with Categories and Group Emphasis

Cultural Diversity in the United States: Description of Major

Racial/Ethnic Groups

African Americans

Asian Americans

Hispanic Americans

Native Americans

Some General Characteristics of the Majority Culture

Assessment Methods and Cultural Diversity: Special Considerations

Behavioral Observation

Behavior Rating Scales

Interviewing

Learn About the Interviewees’ Culture

Learn About the Interviewees’ Language

Establish Rapport

Identify Stereotypes

Promote Clear Communication

Identify Family Needs

Identify Attitudes toward Health and Illness

Recognize the Extent of Acculturation

Accept the Interviewees’ Perspectives

Sociometric Techniques

Self-Report Instruments

Projective–expressive Techniques

Recommendations for Culturally Competent Assessment

Conclusions

Review and Application Questions

Chapter 3. Assessment and Classification

Why Classify?

Differential Diagnosis and Classification Error

Current Classification Systems

DSM System

Assumptions and Structure of DSM

Using the DSM System in Assessment

Improvements and Changes in DSM

Classification under Special Education Law

General Assessment Guidelines in the IDEIA

IDEIA Definition of Emotionally Disturbed

ED versus SM Issue

State Adaptations of the Federal Definition

New Directions

Behavioral Dimensions: An Alternative Approach to

Classification

Behavioral Dimensions and the ASEBA System

Example of Behavioral Dimensions Approaches to

Specific Classes of Behavior

Additional Comments on the Behavioral

Dimensions Approach

Multiple-Gating Approaches to Assessment and

Classification

Community- and Clinic-Based Multiple-Gating

Procedure

SSBD: A School-Based Multiple-Gating Procedure

SARS: Classification of Behavioral Problems Using

Existing School Records

Concluding Comments on Assessment and Classification

Conclusions

Review and Application Questions

Chapter 4. Direct Behavioral Observation

Behavioral Observation: Basic Principles and Concepts

Direct Behavioral Observation and Ecological Assessment

General Methods of Behavioral Observation

Naturalistic Observation

Analogue Observation

Self-Monitoring

Observational Coding Procedures

Event Recording

Interval Recording

Whole-Interval or Partial-Interval

Recording?

Time-Sample Recording

Duration and Latency Recording

Duration Recording

Latency Recording

Examples of Observational Coding Systems

School-Based Observation Systems

Direct Observation Form

Behavior Observation of Students in

Schools

Behavior Coding System

Home-Based Observation Systems

Social Interaction Coding System

Family Interaction Code

Clinic-Based Observation Systems

The Coder’s Impression Measure

Child’s Game/Parent’s Game

Teacher Behavior Code

Technology Advances in Behavioral Observation

BehaviorSnap

BOSS

!Observe

iObserve

Reliability and Validity Issues in Direct Behavioral Observation

Defining the Observation Domain

Observer Training and Reliability

Use of Social Comparison Data

Observer Reactivity

Situational Specificity

Inappropriate Recording Techniques

Biased Expectations and Outside Influence

Behavioral Observation and Functional Behavior Assessment

How Many Observations Are Needed?

Direct Behavioral Observation and Decision Making

Conclusions

Review and Application Questions

Scenarios

Chapter 5. Behavior Rating Scales

Characteristics of Behavior Rating Scales

Definitions and Foundations

Rating Scales versus Checklists

Advantages of Behavior Rating Scales

Problems Associated with Using Behavior

Rating Scales

Measurement and Technical Issues

Review of Selected General Purpose Behavior

Rating Scales and Systems

ASEBA: Child Behavior Checklist and

Teacher’s Report Form for Ages 6 to 18

Description

Scoring System and Scale Structure

Development and Standardization

Psychometric Properties

Additional Comments

Behavior Assessment System for Children,

Third Edition

Description

Scoring System and Scale Structure

Development and Standardization

Psychometric Properties

Additional Comments

Conners’ Rating Scales and Conners’

Rating Scales–Revised, The Conners’ 3, and the

Conners’ Comprehensive Behavior Rating Scales

1997 Conners’ Rating Scales-Revised

Description of the Conners’ 3

Scoring System and Scale Structure

Development and Standardization

Psychometric Properties

The Conners’ Comprehensive Behavior

Rating Scales

Additional Comments

Best Practices in Using Behavior Rating Scales

Behavior Rating Scales and Decision Making

Conclusions

Review and Application Questions

Chapter 6. Interviewing Techniques

Role of Interviews in Assessing Children and Adolescents

Developmental Issues in Interviewing

Preschool-Age and Primary-Age Children

Elementary-Age Children

Adolescents

Factors That May Affect the Quality of the Interview

Interpersonal Context

Ethnocultural Context

Behavioral Context

The Truth Context: Dealing with Lying

Physical Context

Selecting an Appropriate Interview Method

Traditional Interviewing Techniques

Gathering Relevant Background Information

from Parents and Teachers

Developing the Interview with Children

and Adolescents

Areas for Observation

Areas for Questioning

Behavioral Interviewing

Implementing Behavioral Interviews with

Parents and Teachers

Problem Identification Interview

Problem Analysis Interview

Implementing Behavioral Interviews with

Children and Adolescents

Structured and Semistructured Interview Tools

Schedule for Affective Disorders and

Schizophrenia, School-Age Children

Semistructured Clinical Interview for Children and

Adolescents

Concluding Comments on Formal Interview

Schedules

Clinical Interviewing and Suicidal Ideation/Behavior

Facts Regarding Suicidal Behavior among Children

And Adolescents

Recommendations for Clinical Interviewing

Thinking about Suicide

Suicide Plan

Means and Preparations for Suicide

Intended Place or Setting

Immediate Protective Action

Suicidal Safety Planning

Interviews and Decision Making

Conclusions

Review and Application Questions

Chapter 7. Sociometric Techniques

Sociometrics: Importance, History, and Empirical Base

Why Assess Social Status?

Historical Development of Sociometric Assessment

Validity of Sociometric Assessment

Dimensions of Social Status

Technical Adequacy of Sociometric

Procedures

Predictive Validity of Sociometric

Assessment

Overview of Sociometric Assessment Procedures

Peer Nomination Procedures

Peer Rating Procedures

Sociometric Ranking Procedures

Alternative Sociometric Procedures

Picture Sociometrics

Class Play

"Guess Who" Measures

Ethical Concerns in Using Sociometric Procedures

Sociometric Procedures and Decision Making

Conclusions

Review and Application Questions

Chapter 8. Self-Report Assessment

Foundations of Self-Report Assessment

Historical Foundations of Personality Testing

Psychometric Foundations of Objective Test

Construction

Three Approaches to Developing Objective

Self-Report Tests

Rational–Theoretical Approach

Factor Analytic Approach

Empirical Criterion Keying Approach

Response Bias and Error Variance

Reviews of Selected General Purpose Self-Report Tests

Adolescent Psychopathology Scale

Description

Technical Characteristics

APS Short Form

Evaluation

Behavior Assessment System for Children,

Third Edition: Child and Adolescent Self-Reports

Description

Technical Characteristics

Evaluation

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–

Adolescent Version and Restructured Form

Description

Technical Characteristics

MMPI-A-RF

Evaluation

Conners 3 Self-Report

Description

Technical Characteristics

Evaluation

Conners 3 Comprehensive Behavior Ratings

Scale Self-Report

Description

Technical Characteristics

Evaluation

Youth Self-Report

Description

Technical Characteristics

Evaluation

Self-Report Tests and Decision Making

Conclusions

Review and Application Questions

Chapter 9. Projective–expressive Assessment Techniques

Projective Assessment: An Introduction

Thematic Approaches

Thematic Apperception Test

Children’s Apperception Test

Roberts Apperception Test for Children

Reliability and Validity

Concluding Comments on Thematic Approaches

Drawing Techniques

Draw-A-Person Technique

Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation

Reliability and Validity

Additional Comments

Kinetic Family Drawing Technique

Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation

Reliability and Validity

Kinetic School Drawing

Additional Comments

Bender–Gestalt Test as a Measure of Social–emotional

Status

Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation

Reliability and Validity

Additional Comments

Concluding Comments on Drawing Techniques

Sentence Completion Tasks

Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation

Reliability and Validity

Hart Sentence Completion Test for Children

Washington University Sentence Completion Test

Concluding Comments on Sentence Completion Tasks

Best Practices

Conclusions

Review and Application Questions

Part II Assessment of Specific Problems, Competencies, and Populations

Chapter 10. Assessing Externalizing Problems

Externalizing Disorders: An Overview

Behavioral Dimensions Approach to Classifying

Externalizing Disorders

Undersocialized Aggressive Conduct

Disorder

Socialized Aggressive Conduct Disorder

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

DSM Approach to Classifying Externalizing

Disorders

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Conduct Disorder

Oppositional Defiant Disorder

Intermittent Explosive Disorder

Subdimensions of Externalizing Problems:

Classification Studies

Prevalence, Development, and Prognosis of Externalizing

Disorders

Prevalence

Comorbidity

Etiology and Development

Developmental Course and Prognosis

Methods of Assessing Externalizing Problems

Behavioral Observation

Dyadic Parent–child Interaction Coding System

Behavior Rating Scales

Narrow-Band Rating Scales for Attention Deficit

Hyperactivity Disorders

ADHD Rating Scale–5

Attention Deficit Disorders Evaluation Scales

Conners 3 ADHD Index (Conners 3AI)

Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive

Function, Second Edition

Interviewing Techniques

Sociometric Techniques

Self-Report Instruments

Jesness Inventory–Revised

Linking Assessment to Intervention

Conclusions

Review and Application Questions

Chapter 11. Assessing Internalizing Problems

Internalizing Problems: An Overview

Behavioral Dimensions Classification

DSM Classification

Prevalence

Gender Issues in Prevalence

Symptoms of Major Internalizing Disorders: Depression,

Anxiety, and Related Problems

Depression

Depression as a Symptom

Depression as a Syndrome

Depression as a Disorder

Causal Factors

Anxiety

Causal Factors

Related Internalizing Disorders

Social Withdrawal

Somatic Problems

Fears and Phobias

Other Problems

Implications of Internalizing Disorders

Positive and Negative Affectivity: A Model for Understanding

Internalizing Problems

Internalizing Problems and Self-Concept

Methods of Assessing Internalizing Problems

Behavioral Observation

Functional Assessment and Internalizing Problems

Behavior Rating Scales

Interviewing

Sociometric Techniques

Narrow-Band Self-Report Instruments

Children’s Depression Inventory and Children’s Depression Inventory-2

Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale

and Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale,

Second Edition

Reynolds Child Depression Scale and Reynolds

Child Depression Scale, Second Edition

Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale,

Second Edition

Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children

2nd Edition

State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children

Concluding Comments on Internalizing Symptoms

Self-Report Measures

Self-Report Instruments for Assessing Multidimensional

Self-Concept

Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale

Self-Description Questionnaire I

Self-Description Questionnaire II

Self-Perception Profile for Children

Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents

Linking Assessment to Intervention

Conclusions

Review and Application Questions

Chapter 12. Assessing Other Behavioral, Social, and Emotional Problems xxx

Classification and Taxonomy

Behavioral Dimensions Classification

DSM Classification

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Description

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Asperger’s Disorder

Rett’s Disorder

Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

Assessment

Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule

Childhood Autism Rating Scale, Second Edition

Gilliam Autism Rating Scale, Third Edition

Assessment of Basic Learning and Language

Skills-Revised

Schizoid Disorders

Description

Assessment

TIC Disorders

Description of Tourette’s Disorder/Tourette Syndrome

Assessment

Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders

Description

Assessment

Behavioral Observation

Behavior Rating Scales

Clinical Interviews

Sociometric Techniques

Self-Report Instruments

Eating Disorders

Description

Anorexia Nervosa

Bulimia Nervosa

Binge Eating Disorder xxx

Assessment xxx

Linking Assessment to Intervention

Conclusions

Review and Application Questions

Chapter 13. Assessing Social Skills and Social-Emotional Strengths

Social Competence: A Complex Construct

Adaptive Behavior

Social Skills

Peer Relations

Theoretical Model

Dimensions of Social Skills

Importance of Social (and Emotional) Skills

Methods of Assessing Social and Emotional Skills

Direct Behavioral Observation

The Student Interactions in Specific

Settings Tool

Peer Social Behavior Code

Target/Peer Interaction Code

Comments on Direct Observation of

Child Social Behavior

Behavior Rating Scales

Social Skills Improvement System—

Parent and Teacher Forms

School Social Behavior Scales/Home

and Community Social Behavior Scales

Social Emotional Assets and Resilience

Scale—Teacher and Parent Forms

The Devereux Student Strengths

Assessment (DESSA)

Interviewing Techniques xxx

Sociometric Approaches

Assessment with Self-Reports

Social Skills Improvement System—

Student Forms

Social Emotional Assets and Resilience

Scale—Child and Adolescent Forms

Linking Assessment to Intervention

Conclusions

Reviews and Application Questions

Chapter 14. Assessing Social and Emotional Behavior of Young Children

Alternative Diagnostic Classification System

Methods for Assessing Young Children

Direct Behavioral Observation

Example: ESP Social Behavior

Observations

Behavior Rating Scales

Ages and Stages Questionnaires:

Social–emotional, Second Edition

Social Emotional Assessment Measure

Devereux Early Childhood Assessments

Behavior Assessment System for Children,

Third Edition

Early Childhood Rating Forms of the

ASEBA System

Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior

Scales, Second Edition

Social Skills Improvement System

Interviewing Techniques

Sociometric Approaches

Self-Report Tests

Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence

and Acceptance for Young Children

Berkeley Puppet Interview

Best Practices

Conclusions

Review and Application Questions

Chapter 15. Universal Screening in Schools (With Kayla Gordon)

Context for Universal Social-Emotional Screening

Social-Emotional Screening

School-Wide Screening Measures

Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders,

Second Edition

Behaviors Targeted

Technical Adequacy

Feasibility

Student Risk Screening Scale—Internalizing and

Externalizing (SRSS-IE)

Behaviors Targeted

Technical Adequacy

Feasibility

Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)

Behaviors Targeted

Technical Adequacy

Feasibility

Social, Academic, & Emotional Behavior Risk

Screener (SAEBRS)

Behaviors Targeted

Technical Adequacy

Feasibility

Behavior Intervention Monitoring Assessment

System (BIMAS)

Behaviors Targeted

Technical Adequacy

Feasibility

Behavioral Assessment System for Children 3rd

Edition: Behavioral and Emotional Screening

System (BASC 3: BESS

Behaviors Targeted

Technical Adequacy

Feasibility

BASC 3 Flex Monitor

Social Skills Improvement System—Performance

Screening Guide (SSIS-PSG)

Behaviors Targeted

Technical Adequacy

Feasibility

Additional Promising Tool

Strengths and Importance of School-Wide Screening

Implementation Challenges Associated with School-Wide

Screening

Conclusions

Review Questions

References

Author Index

Subject Index

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