Malaria prevention and control are major foreign assistance objectives of the U.S. Government (USG). In May 2009, President Barack Obama announced the Global Health Initiative (GHI) to reduce the burden of disease and promote healthy communities and families around the world. The President's Malaria Initiative (PMI) is a core component of the GHI, along with HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, maternal and child health, family planning and reproductive health, nutrition, and neglected tropical diseases. PMI was launched in June 2005 as a 5-year, $1.2 billion initiative to rapidly scale up malaria prevention and treatment interventions and reduce malaria-related mortality by 50% in 15 high-burden countries in sub-Saharan Africa. With passage of the 2008 Lantos-Hyde Act, funding for PMI was extended and, as part of the GHI, the goal of PMI was adjusted to reduce malaria-related mortality by 70% in the original 15 countries by the end of 2015. Programming of PMI activities follows the core principles of GHI: encouraging country ownership and investing in country-led plans and health systems; increasing impact and efficiency through strategic coordination and programmatic integration; strengthening and leveraging key partnerships, multilateral organizations, and private contributions; implementing a woman- and girl-centered approach; improving monitoring and evaluation; and promoting research and innovation. In December 2006, Benin was selected to receive funding during the third year of PMI. In Benin, malaria is endemic nationwide and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. It is reported to account for 40% of outpatient consultations and 25% of all hospital admissions. With 37% of the population living below the poverty line and a per capita annual income of only $750, malaria places an enormous economic strain on Benin's development. According to the World Bank, households in Benin spend approximately one quarter of their annual income on the prevention and treatment of malaria. The most recent Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), conducted from December 2011 to March 2012, showed significant improvements in several key indicators compared to the last DHS of 2006. These indicators included net ownership and usage, and uptake of intermittent preventive threatement of pregnant women (IPTp), to name a few.