Biochemical Principles and Techniques in Neuropharmacology

Biochemical Principles and Techniques in Neuropharmacology

by Leslie Iversen (Editor)

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1975)

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It is difficult to imagine an era in which there were no selective drugs for treating anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and other mental ailments. Yet in a remarkably short time these drugs have come to occupy a position of prominence in medical practice throughout the world, and they now account for a major portion of all prescriptions. Most psychotropic drugs were discovered with little premeditation on the part of the inves~ tigator. The drugs simply "worked," often with little rationale, and psychopharmacology has been for many years an empirical discipline in search of scientific underpinnings. In the past decade, a basic science of psychopharmacology has de­ veloped and grown rapidly. Though psychotropic drugs are exceedingly "young" as drugs in medical practice go, we probably know more about their various mechanisms of action than we know about most drugs in clinical use. Advances in understanding effects of psychopharmaceuticals on the brain have been so prodigious that a new research paradigm has evolved. Instead of being concerned solely with understanding how the drugs act, many researchers now employ psychotropic drugs as tools-often the most powerful ones-to elucidate brain function. Consequently, psychophar­ macology is central to neurobiology, which in turn has emerged as an important discipline, heir to the preeminent glamor of molecular biology.

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781468431674
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 04/24/2012
Series: Handbook of Psychopharmacology , #1
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1975
Pages: 298
Product dimensions: 7.01(w) x 10.00(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

1 Mass Fragmentography: A Tool for Studying Transmitter Function at Synaptic Level.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Technical Considerations.- 2.1. General Principles.- 2.2. Specific Principles.- 3. Biological Applications of Mass Fragmentography of Putative Neurotransmitters.- 3.1. Catecholamines and Metabolites.- 3.2. Indolealkylamines and Metabolites.- 3.3. Acetylcholine.- 4. Stable Isotopes and the Dynamic State of Neurotransmitters.- 5. Future Use of Mass Fragmentography.- 6. References.- 2 Notes on the Use of Gas-Liquid Chromatography Techniques for Determination of Psychotropic Drugs in Biological Samples.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Extraction of Drugs from Biological Samples.- 2.1. Liquid-Liquid Extraction.- 2.2. Solid-Liquid Extraction.- 2.3. Ion Exchange Extraction.- 2.4. Molecular Sieves.- 2.5. Purification of Extracts.- 3. Derivatization.- 3.1. Degradation.- 3.2. Silylation.- 3.3. Specific Chemical Reactions.- 4. GC Conditions.- 4.1. Column Phases.- 4.2. Gas Flow.- 4.3. Detectors.- 5. Quantitative Analysis.- 6. Artifacts.- 7. Classification and List of Psychotropic Drugs Determined by Gas-Liquid Chromatography.- 8. References.- 8.1. Standard Texts on Gas Chromatography.- 8.2. References Cited in Text.- 3 Immunochemical Techniques in Neuropharmacology.- 4 A Practical Introduction to Radiometric Enzymatic Assays in Psychopharmacology.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Extraction of Enzyme from Nervous Tissue.- 3. Assay Conditions.- 3.1. Substrate.- 3.2. Cofactors.- 3.3. Effects of pH.- 3.4. Inhibitors.- 3.5. Blank.- 4. Isolation of Radiolabeled Product.- 4.1. Quantitative Determinations.- 4.2. Specificity.- 4.3. Representative Techniques.- 5. Sensitivity.- 5.1. Radioactive Blank.- 5.2. Specific Radioactivity.- 5.3. Concentration of Radiolabeled Substrate.- 5.4. Volume.- 5.5. Scintillation Counting.- 5.6. Loss of Product.- 6. Conclusion.- 7. References.- 5 Tissue Culture of the Nervous System: Applications in Neurochemistry and Psychopharmacology.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Tissue Culture: Some Definitions and Techniques.- 3. The Tissue Culture Laboratory.- 4. Media and Supplements.- 5. Organ Culture.- 5.1. Ganglia.- 5.2. Pineal Gland.- 6. Tissue Culture.- 6.1. Spinal Cord.- 6.2. Brain.- 7. Primary Cell Culture on Monolayer Surfaces.- 7.1. Fruit Flies and Cockroaches.- 7.2. Chick Embryo.- 7.3. Mammalian Tissue.- 8. Primary Cell Culture as Aggregates.- 9. Cell Culture of Established Lines.- 9.1. Mouse Neuroblastoma.- 9.2. Glioma.- 10. Conclusions.- 11. Appendix: The Glass Shard Technique of Cloning.- 11.1 Materials and Apparatus.- 11.2 Methods.- 12. References.- 12.1. Recommended Texts on Tissue Culture.- 12.2. References Cited in Text.- 6 Chemical and Immunochemical Lesions by Specific Neurotoxic Substances and Antisera.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Peripheral Sympathectomy.- 2.1. Morphological and Biochemical Effects of Immunosympathectomy.- 2.2. Morphological and Biochemical Effects of 6-OHDA.- 2.3. Chemical Analogues of 6-OHDA.- 2.4. Consequences of Sympathectomy with NGF Antiserum or 6-OHDA.- 3. Destruction of Central Catecholamine-Containing Fibers.- 3.1. Morphological and Biochemical Changes in Brain After 6-OHDA.- 3.2. Physiological and Behavioral Alterations Following 6- OHDA Administration into Brain.- 4. Destruction of Serotonin-Containing Fibers in Brain.- 4.1. Biochemical and Morphological Effects Following Administration of 5,6-Dihydroxytryptamine.- 4.2. Biochemical and Morphological Effects of Other Indoleamine Derivatives.- 4.3. Other Actions of Dihydroxytryptamines.- 4.4. Use of Dihydroxytryptamines to Map Serotonin-Containing Fibers in Brain.- 4.5. Functional Alterations Following Administration of Dihydroxytryptamines into Brain.- 5. Conclusions.- 6. References.- 7 Isolated Nerve Terminals as an in Vitro Preparation for the Study of Dynamic Aspects of Transmitter Metabolism and Release.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Preparation of Synaptosomes.- 2.1. Tissue Dispersion.- 2.2. Differential and Density Gradient Centrifugation.- 3. Metabolic Studies with Synaptosomes: Respiration and Energy Metabolism.- 3.1. Continuity of the Synaptosome Membrane.- 3.2. Structures Contributing to Metabolic Data.- 3.3. Oxygen Consumption and Glucose Metabolism.- 4. Performance of Synaptosomes Under Depolarizing Influences.- 4.1. Techniques for Incubation and Stimulation.- 4.2. Response of Basic Metabolism.- 4.3. Defining the Origin of Transmitters Released by Stimulation.- 4.4. Release of Hypophysiotropic Substances.- 5. General Conclusions.- 6. References.- 8 Radiochemical Assay Procedures for Drugs and Transmitters.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. General Principles.- 1.2. Isotope Dilution Derivative Analysis.- 1.3. Substoichiometric Dilution Analysis.- 1.4. Other Examples of Substoichiometric Isotope Dilution Analysis.- 2. Assays Based on the Formation of Labeled Derivatives by Enzymatic Procedures.- 2.1. General Principles and Approaches in Radiochemical Enzymatic Assays.- 2.2. Enzymatic Isotope Dilution Assay of Histamine: Double-Isotope Assay.- 2.3. Single-Isotope Dilution Enzymatic Assay of Histamine.- 2.4. Assay of Serotonin by a Double-Isotope Enzymatic Procedure.- 3. Assays Based on the Formation of Labeled Derivatives by Isotopically Labeled Chemical Reagents.- 3.1. General Principles and Approaches in Assays with Labeled Chemical Reagents.- 3.2. Isotope Dilution Derivative Analysis of Desmethyl- imipramine.- 4. References.

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