During the past decade there has been a dramatic expansion of our knowledge on phospholipases in general, and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in particular. Progress in this field has been evident on many fronts, with novel information rapidly accumulating in the literature regarding the chemistry and molecular biology of this enzyme and its role in many important physiological processes. These include cellular signal transduction via the G-protein cycle, and in the generation of many cellular mediators, such as the platelet activating factor (PAF) and the eicosanoids that participate in the initiation and propagation of inflammation, to mention a few. This symposium was organized to obtain an overview of current investigations on this enzyme from the standpoint of its chemistry, molecular biology and physiology. Another important focus of this symposium concerns the regulation of PLA2, including endogenous and synthetic inhibitors and activators of this enzyme. To review these important areas in PLA2 research we invited scientists who made significant contributions in this field. The papers in this volume are organized to emphasize the recent advances in several areas of investigation, including: (I) the structure and mechanism of action of PLA2, (2) mechanism of activation of PLA2, (3) molecular biology, physiology and endogenous inhibitors of this enzyme and finally, (4) clinical investigations emphasizing the pathophysiological role of this enzyme in human diseases. The first article in this volume is by Dr.
Table of ContentsPhospholipases, Enzymes That Share a Substrate Class.- Comparative Anatomy of Phospholipase A2 Structures.- A Novel Bifunctional Mechanism of Surface Recognition Phospholipase A2.- Activation, Aggregation, Inhibition and the Mechanism of Phospholipase A2.- Probing the Mechanism of Pancreatic Phospholipase A2 With the Aid of Recombinant DNA Techniques.- Molecular Aspects of Phospholipase A2 Activation.- Stimulation of Phospholipases A2 by Transglutaminases.- Functional Consequences of Phospholipase A2 Activation in Human Monocytes.- Inhibition of Phospholipase A2 by Uteroglobin and Antiflammin Peptides.- Antiflammins Inhibit Synthesis of Platelet-Activating Factor and Intradermal Inflammatory Reactions.- Isolation and Characterization of cDNA Clones from Human Placenta Coding for Phospholipase A2.- G-Protein Regulation of Phospholipase A2: Partial Reconstitution of the System in Cells.- Lipocortins as Antiphospholipase A2 and Antiinflammatory Proteins.- Biology of Phospholipase Inhibitory Proteins.- Inhibition of Human Phospholipase A2 by Cis-Unsaturated Fatty Acids and Oligomers of Prostaglandin B1.- Activation of Phospholipase A2 in Rheumatoid Arthritis.- Soluble Phospholipase A2 in Human Pathology: Clinical Laboratory Interface.- List of Contributors.