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Biofuels Production / Edition 1

Biofuels Production / Edition 1

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The search for alternative sources of energy to offset diminishing resources of easy and cost-effective fossil fuels has become a global initiative, and fuel generated from biomass is a leading competitor in this arena. Large-scale introduction of biofuels into the energy mix could contribute to environmentally and economicaly sustainable development on a global scale. The processes and methodologies presented in this volume will offer a cutting-edge and comprehensive approach to the production of biofuels, for engineers, researchers, and students.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781118634509
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 09/30/2013
Pages: 392
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.00(d)

About the Author

Dr. Vikash Babu, PhD, is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Biotechnology, Graphic Era University, India, where he advises graduate students. He has received many professional awards, published numerous articles for journals and international conferences. His area of interest is industrial microbiology and bioenergy. Recently, he was awarded a research project from DBT, Govt. of India, for the production of bioplastics.

Dr. Ashish Thapliyal has over 15 years of research experience and completed his PhD from HNB Garhwal University with a University Grants Commission (UGC-India) fellowship. He has held positions at National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, as well as Utah State University. He has also been associated with Graphic Era University (GEU), India, and helped in the establishment of the Department of Biotechnology at GEU.

Dr. Girijesh Kumar Patel received his bachelor of science degree in chemistry and botany and master of science in biotechnology from Gorakhpur University in 2004. After completing his PhD at the Indian Institute of Techology, he joined Graphic Era University as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Biotechnology. He has contributed several international research papers and book chapters and is the official reviewer of many international journals.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii

List of Contributors xix

1 Introduction to Biofuels 1
Pramod Kumar and Vikash Babu

1.1 Global Scenario of Biofuel Production and Economy 4

References 7

2 Advances in Biofuel Production 11
M.D. Berni, I.L. Dorileo, J.M. Prado, T. Forster-Carneiro and M.A.A. Meireles

2.1 Introduction 12

2.2 Advances in the Production of First, Second and Third Generation Biofuels 16

2.3 Future Trends of Biofuels Development 44

2.3 Conclusions 54

Acknowledgements 55

References 55

3 Processing of Biofuels 59
Divya Gupta, Ajeet Singh, Ashwani Sharma and Anshul Nigam

3.1 Introduction 59

3.2 Biodiesel from Algae 61

3.3 Cellulosic Ethanol 72

3.4 Syngas 78

3.5 Conclusion 80

References 80

4 Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Bioethanol Production 85
Virendra Kumar, Purnima Dhall, Rita Kumar and Anil Kumar

4.1 Introduction 86

4.2 Bioethanol Production Process 90

4.3 Genetic Engineering for Bioethanol Production 109

4.4 Future Perspective 111

References 112

5 Recent Progress on Microbial Metabolic Engineering for the Conversion of Lignocellulose Waste for Biofuel Production 119
Shubhangini Sharma, Reena, Anil Kumar and Pallavi Mittal

5.1 Introduction 120

5.2 Role of Genetic and Metabolic Engineering in Biofuel Production 122

5.3 Problems with Different Biofuels and Areas of Improvement 124

5.4 General Process of Metabolic Engineering 127

5.5 Metabolic Engineering in Different Microorganisms 133

5.6 Conclusion 141

References 142

6 Microbial Production of Biofuels 147
Panwar AS, Jugran J and Joshi GK

6.1 Introduction 147

6.2 Types of Biofuels Produced Through Microorganisms 149

6.3 Future Prospects and Conclusion 163

References 165

7 Microalgae in Biofuel Production-Current Status and Future Prospects 167
Navneet Singh Chaudhary

7.1 Introduction 168

7.2 Microalgae in Biofuel Production 170

7.3 Comparison of Cyanobacteria with Microalgae in Biofuel Production 171

7.4 Applications of Cyanobacteria and Microalgae in Biofuel Production 172

7.5 Selection of Microalgae for Biofuel Production 177

7.6 Cultivation of Microalgae for Production of Biofuel and Co-Products 179

7.7 Harvesting and Drying of Microalgae 181

7.8 Processing, Extraction and Separation of Microalgae 182

7.9 Biofuels and Co-Products from Microalgae 184

7.10 Challenges and Hurdles in Biofuel Production 192

7.11 Genetic and Metabolic Engineering of Microalgae for Biofuel–Bioenergy Production 198

7.12 Conclusion and Future Prospectus 204

References 206

8 Bioethanol Production Processes 211
Mohammad J. Taherzadeh, Patrik R. Lennartsson, Oliver Teichert and Håkan Nordholm

8.1 Introduction 211

8.2 Global Market for Bioethanol and Future Prospects 212

8.3 Overall Process of Bioethanol Production 213

8.4 Production of Sugars from Raw Materials 213

8.5 Characterization of Lignocellulosic Materials 218

8.6 Sugar Solution from Lignocellulosic Materials 220

8.7 Basic Concepts of Fermentation 225

8.8 Conversion of Simple Sugars to Ethanol 225

8.9 Biochemical Basis for Ethanol Production from Hexoses 226

8.10 Biochemical Basis for Ethanol Production from Pentoses 228

8.11 Microorganisms Related to Ethanol Fermentation 229

8.12 Fermentation Processes 233

8.13 Ethanol Recovery 242

8.14 Distillation 243

8.15 Alternative Processes for Ethanol Recovery and Purification 245

8.16 Ethanol Dehydration 246

8.17 Distillers’ Dried Grains with Solubles 247

8.18 Sustainability of Bioethanol Production 248

8.19 Concluding Remarks and Future Prospects 249

References 249

9 Production of Butanol: A Biofuel 255
Sapna Jain, Mukesh Kumar Yadav and Ajay Kumar

9.1 Introduction 256

9.2 Butanol and its Properties 257

9.3 Butanol as Fuel 257

9.4 Industrial applications of Butanol and its Derivatives 260

9.5 Methods for Production of Butanol 261

9.6 In situ Separation Techniques for Butanol 273

9.7 Future Prospects 279

References 280

10 Production of Biodiesel from Various Sources 285
Komal Saxena, Avinash Kumar Sharma, Lalit Agrawal and Ashish Deep Gupta

10.1 Introduction 285

10.2 Sources/Feedstocks for the Production of Biodiesel 286

10.3 Various Processes of Biodiesel Production 290

10.4 Determination of Yield, Process Optimization and Biodiesel Standardization 302

10.5 Conclusion 304

References 304

11 Bio-Hydrogen Production: Current Scenarios and Future Prospects 309
Sumita Srivastav, Prashant Anthwal, Tribhuwan Chandra and Ashish Thapliyal

11.1 Introduction 310

11.2 Conventional Methods of Hydrogen Production 310

11.3 Hydrogen from Renewables Sources 312

11.4 Methods of Hydrogen Production through Bio-Routes involving Biochemical Processes 315

11.5 Recent Advancement in Production of Bio-Hydrogen 319

11.6 Status of Biohydrogen Production 329

11.7 Conclusions 329

References 331

12 Biomethane Production 333
Ruchika Goyal, Vikash Babu and Girijesh Kumar Patel

12.1 Introduction 334

12.2 Features of Biomethane 337

12.3 Global Scenario of Biomethane 339

12.4 Biomethane Production – Waste to Fuel Technology 341

12.5 Biogas Cleaning and Upgrading 343

12.6 Conclusions 354

References 354

Index 357

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