ISBN-10:
0878934944
ISBN-13:
2900878934941
Pub. Date:
08/30/2010
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Biogeography / Edition 4

Biogeography / Edition 4

by Mark V. Lomolino
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  • Product Details

    ISBN-13: 2900878934941
    Publisher: Oxford University Press
    Publication date: 08/30/2010
    Edition description: Older Edition
    Pages: 560
    Product dimensions: 6.50(w) x 1.50(h) x 9.50(d)

    About the Author

    Mark V. Lomolino is a Professor in the Department of Environmental and Forest Biology at the SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry. His research and teaching focus on biogeography, community ecology, and conservation of biological diversity. He is a cofounder and past President of the International Biogeography Society. Dr. Lomolino received the American Society of Mammalogists Award for his dissertation studies on the ecology, evolution, and biogeography of insular mammals.

    Brett R. Riddle is a Professor in the School of Life Sciences at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. His research focuses primarily on the history of biodiversity in western North America, with ongoing projects including: historical assembly of the warm desert biotas; phylogeography of Great Basin cold desert and montane island biotas; and molecular systematics and biogeography of a diverse cadre of North American rodent groups. He is a cofounder and past President of the International Biogeography Society.

    Robert J. Whittaker is Professor of Biogeography in the School of Geography and the Environment at the University of Oxford and holds a part time Professorial position at the Centre for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate in the University of Copenhagen. He is a cofounder and past President of the International Biogeography Society. He is coauthor of Island Biogeography: Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation (OUP, 2007). His research interests span island biogeography, diversity theory, macroecology, and conservation biogeography.

    Table of Contents

    UNIT 1. INTRODUCTION TO THE DISCIPLINE

    Chapter 1. The Science of Biogeography
    What Is Biogeography?
    Integrative nature of the field
    Relationships to other sciences and an outline of this bookPhilosophy and basic principles
    Doing Contemporary Biogeography

    Chapter 2. The History and Reticulating Phylogeny of Biogeography
    Ancient Knowledge
    Globalization of the Geography of Nature
    Box 2.1. Persistent Themes of Biogeography
    Foundations of Modern Biogeography
    Theoretical Maturation during the 19th Century: A Morass before Darwin and Wallace
    Four British scientists
    Box 2.2. Biogeographic Principles Advocated by Alfred Russel Wallace
    Other contributions of the 19th Century
    Conceptual Revolutions of the 20th Century
    Synopsis

    UNIT 2. THE GEOGRAPHIC AND ECOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF BIOGEOGRAPHY

    Chapter 3. The Geographic Template: Visualization and Analysis of Biogeographic Patterns
    Definition and Components of the Geographic Template
    Climate
    Soil formation and soil types
    Chemistry and physics of aquatic environments
    Tides and the intertidal zone
    Time
    Two-Dimensional Renderings of the Geographic Template
    Early maps and cartography
    Flattening the globe: Projections and geographic coordinate systems
    Visualizing Biogeographic Patterns
    Exemplars of visualization in biogeography
    The GIS revolution
    Cartograms and strategic distortions
    Obtaining Geo-Referenced Data
    Humboldt's legacy: A global system of observatories
    Remote sensing and satellite imagery
    Interpolation over space and time
    Analyzing Biogeographic Patterns

    Chapter 4. Distributions of Species: Ecological Foundations
    The Distribution of Individuals
    The Distribution of Species and Populations
    Mapping and measuring the range
    Population growth and demography
    Hutchinson's multidimensional niche concept
    The geographic range as a reflection of the niche
    The relationship between distribution and abundance
    What Limits the Geographic Range?
    Physical limiting factors
    Disturbance, dispersal, and time
    Interactions with other organisms
    Synthesis

    Chapter 5. The Distribution and Dynamics of Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems
    Historical and Biogeographic Perspectives
    Communities and Ecosystems
    Community organization: Energetic considerations
    Distribution of ecological communities
    Temporal patterns: Ecological succession
    Mapping Communities: Compositional and Functional Approaches
    Terrestrial Biomes
    Forests
    Woodlands and savanna
    Grasslands
    Deserts
    Aquatic Communities
    Marine communities
    Freshwater communities
    A Global Comparison of Biomes and Communities
    Ecosystem Geography
    Synthesis in Community Ecology and Biogeography

    UNIT 3. BIOGEOGRAPHIC PROCESSES AND EARTH HISTORY

    Chapter 6. Dispersal and Immigration
    Box 6.1. The Fundamental, Unifying Principles of Biogeography
    What Is Dispersal?
    Dispersal as an ecological process
    Dispersal as a historical biogeographic event
    Dispersal and Range Expansion
    Jump dispersal
    Diffusion
    Secular migration
    Mechanisms of Movement
    Active dispersal
    Passive dispersal
    The Nature of Barriers
    Physiological barriers
    Ecological and psychological barriers
    Biotic Exchange and Dispersal Routes
    Corridors
    Filters
    Sweepstakes routes
    Other means of biotic exchange
    Dispersal curves within and among species
    Establishing a Colony
    Influence of habitat selection
    What constitutes a propagule?
    Survival in a new ecosystem
    Advances in the Study of Dispersal

    Chapter 7. Speciation and Extinction
    Box 7.1. Some Terms Used by Systematists and Evolutionary Biologists
    What Are Species?
    The evolution of species concepts
    Units below the species level
    Higher Classifications
    How Do New Species Arise?
    Mechanisms of genetic differentiation
    Allopatric speciation
    Sympatric and parapatric speciation
    Diversification
    Ecological differentiation
    Adaptive radiation
    Extinction
    Ecological processes
    Recent extinctions
    Extinctions in the fossil record
    Macroevolution
    The punctuated equilibrium concept and evolution in the fossil record
    Species selection
    The role of historical contingency
    Micro- and Macroevolution: Toward a Synthesis

    Chapter 8. The Changing Earth
    The Geological Timescale
    Estimating time
    The Theory of Continental Drift
    Wegener's theory
    Early opposition to continental drift
    Evidence for continental drift
    Box 8.1. Discoveries That Contributed to the Acceptance of the Theory of Continental Drift
    The Current Model: Plate Tectonic Theory
    Earth's Tectonic History
    Tectonic History of the Continents
    Gondwana, Laurasia, and the formation of Pangaea
    The breakup of Pangaea
    The breakup of Laurasia and its rifting from Gondwana
    The breakup of Gondwana
    Cenozoic Tectonics
    The Indo-Australian Region and Wallacea
    Central America and the Antilles
    Tectonic Development of Marine Basins and Island Chains
    Epeiric seas
    Formation of the Mediterranean and Red Seas
    Dynamics of the Pacific Ocean
    Paleoclimates and paleocirculations
    Climatic and Biogeographic Consequences of Plate Tectonics

    Chapter 9. Glaciation and Biogeographic Dynamics of the Pleistocene
    The Record and Drivers of Pleistocene Glaciation
    Extent of Pleistocene Glaciation
    Effects of Climatic Cycles on Non-Glaciated Areas
    Temperature
    Geographic shifts in climatic zones
    Sea level changes during the Pleistocene
    Biogeographic Responses to Climatic Cycles of the Pleistocene
    Biogeographic responses of terrestrial biotas
    Box 9.1. Biogeographic Responses to Climatic Cycles of the Pleistocene
    Dynamics of plant communities in the aridlands of North and South America
    Aquatic systems
    Biotic Exchange and Glacial Cycles
    Pleistocene Refugia
    Extinctions of the Pleistocene Megafauna

    UNIT 4. EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF LINEAGES AND BIOTAS

    Chapter 10. The Geography of Diversification and Regionalization
    Fundamental Geographic Patterns
    Endemism and Cosmopolitanism
    The origins of endemics
    Provincialism
    Terrestrial and freshwater regions
    Box 10.1. How Have Big Data Sets, Quantitative Approaches, and Evolutionary Affinities Changed How We Define Terrestrial Biogeographic Regions?
    Subdividing the terrestrial regions
    Distributional congruence reflects a shared history of diversification
    Marine regions and provinces
    Quantifying Similarity among Biotas
    Disjunction
    Patterns
    Processes
    Maintaining Distinct Biotas
    Barriers between biogeographic regions
    Resistance to invasion
    Avian migration and provincialism
    Biotic Interchange
    The Great American Biotic Interchange
    Box 10.2. Old versus Young Isthmus: Geology, Fossils, Ecology, and Molecular Phylogenies
    The Lessepsian exchange: The Suez Canal
    Biotic interchange: A final point
    The Convergence of Isolated Lineages and Biotas
    Convergence at the species level
    Convergence of entire assemblages
    Overview

    Chapter 11. Reconstructing the Evolutionary History of Lineages
    Classifying Biological Diversity and Inferring Evolutionary Relationships
    Systematics
    Evolutionary systematics
    Numerical phenetics
    Phylogenetic systematics
    Box 11.1. The Principles and Rules of Hennigian Logic
    Box 11.2. The Basis of Hennig's Paradigm: A Hypothetical Example of Cladogenesis and Cladogram Construction
    Molecular Systematics
    Evolution of methods in molecular systematics
    Molecular characters and properties of molecular evolution
    Molecular versus morphological characters
    The Fossil Record
    Limitations of the fossil record
    Biogeographic implications of fossils
    Molecular Clocks and Estimating Times of Divergence
    An Emerging Synthesis of Molecular Systematics and Paleontology

    Chapter 12. Reconstructing the Geographic History of Lineages and Biotas
    Shifting Paradigms in Historical Biogeography
    Determining centers of origin and directions of dispersal on a stable Earth
    From center of origin-dispersal to vicariance
    Box 12.1. Sea Snakes: Illustrating the Logic and Flaws of a Center of Origin-Dispersal Paradigm
    Beyond Vicariance Biogeography and Simple Vicariance
    Box 12.2. Defining and Delineating Areas of Endemism
    Box 12.3. Processes That Reduce the Generality of the General Area Cladogram
    Different approaches to the same question, or different questions?
    Which approach to use?
    Phylogeography
    The dual nature of phylogeography
    Combining phylogeography and ecological niche modeling
    Reconstructing shallow histories of lineages and biotas
    The impact of phylogeography on biogeography and other disciplines
    Box 12.4. Statistical Phylogeography
    A Brief Overview of Lineage and Biotic Histories
    Histories in Gondwana
    Histories in Laurasia
    Connections between Gondwana and Laurasia
    Histories in the marine realm
    Continental histories in, and just before, the ice ages
    A Few Final Thoughts on Historical Reconstruction of Lineages and Biotas

    UNIT 5. ECOLOGICAL BIOGEOGRAPHY

    Chapter 13. Island Biogeography
    The Nature of Islands
    Patterns in Species Richness and Models of Diversity Dynamics
    The species-area relationship
    Box 13.1. Interpretations and Comparisons of Parameters in the Species-Area Relationship: An Additional Caution
    The species-isolation relationship
    The equilibrium model of island biogeography
    Advancing island biogeography theory
    Box 13.2. Empirical Studies Test the Equilibrium Model
    Patterns in Species Composition
    Forces assembling insular biotas
    Release, displacement, and the ecological assembly of insular communities
    Distributions of particular species
    Box 13.3. New Zealand's Moas: Four Times Anomalous
    The Evolutionary Marvels of Island Life
    Dispersal denied: Sticking to the wreck
    Transformations of life's most fundamental characteristic—size
    Evolving ecologies
    The Perils of Island Life
    Taxon cycles and evolutionary traps

    Chapter 14. Areography, Ecogeography, and Macroecology of Continental and Oceanic Biotas
    The Macroecological Approach
    The Geographic Range: Areography
    Patterns in range shape and size
    The frequency distribution of range size
    Geographic gradients in range size
    Geographic range size as a function of body size
    Temporal dynamics of range size
    Shapes of ranges
    The internal structure of geographic ranges
    Ecogeographic Rules: The Terrestrial Realm
    Body size and Bergmann's rule
    Appendages and Allen's rule
    Pelage color and Gloger's rule
    Lack's rule and the geography of life history traits
    Ecogeographic Rules: The Marine Realm
    Thorson's rule of larval development
    Temperature, diversity, and Jordan's rule of vertebrae
    Geographic gradients in ecological interactions and morphological defenses
    The Geography of Biological Diversity
    Diversity measures and terminology
    Latitudinal Gradients in Biological Diversity
    The nature and complexity of the pattern
    An ancient but not primordial pattern
    Topographic and Oceanic Modifiers
    The peninsula effect
    Elevational gradients in diversity
    Depth and diversity in the aquatic realm
    Explanations for the Geography of Biological Diversity
    Coda

    Unit 6. Conservation and the Frontiers of Biogeography

    Chapter 15. Biogeography of Humanity, Biological Diversity, and Conservation Biogeography
    Box 15.1. The Geography of Life before Man
    The Dynamic Biogeography of Humanity
    Migrations out of Africa
    Colonizing the Pacific: Indonesia, Sahul, and Oceania
    Conquering the cold: Expansions across the Palearctic region
    Invasions of the New World
    Ecogeography and Island Biogeography of Humanity
    The Biodiversity Crisis and Conservation Biogeography
    Biological diversity and the Linnaean shortfall
    Box 15.2. Challenges and Successes in Addressing the Linnaean Shortfall
    Conservation biogeography and the Wallacean shortfall
    The geography of recent extinctions and endangerment
    Geographic range collapse
    The dynamic geography of extinction forces

    Chapter 16. From the Foundations to the Frontiers of Biogeography

    Glossary
    Bibliography
    Index

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