Arsenic, antimony and bismuth, three related elements of group 15,are all found in trace quantities in nature and have interestingbiological properties and uses. While arsenic is most well known asa poison - and indeed the contamination of groundwater by arsenicis becoming a major health problem in Asia - it also has uses forthe treatment of blood cancer and has long been used in traditionalchinese medicine. Antimony and bismuth compounds are used in theclinic for the treatment of parasitic and bacterial infections.
Biological Chemistry of Arsenic, Antimony and Bismuth isan essential overview of the biological chemistry of these threeelements, with contributions from an international panel ofexperts. Topics covered include:
- chemistry of As, Sb and Bi
- biological chemistry of arsenic
- biological chemistry of Sb and Bi
- arsenic and antimony speciation in environmental and biologicalsamples
- arsenic in traditional chinese medicine
- arsenic in aquifers
- biomethylation of As, Sb and Bi
- uptake of metalloids by cells
- bismuth complexes of porphyrins and their potential in medicalapplications
- Helicobacter pylori and bismuth
- metabolism of arsenic trioxide in blood of the acutepromyelocytic leukemia patients
- anticancer properties of As, Sb and Bi
- radio-Bi in cancer therapy
- genotoxicity of As, Sb and Bi
- metallomics as a new technique for As, Sb and Bi
- metalloproteomics for As, Sb and Bi
Biological Chemistry of Arsenic, Antimony and Bismuthconveys the essential aspects of the bioinorganic chemistry ofthese three elements, making this book a valuable complement tomore general bioinorganic chemistry texts and more specializedtopical reviews. It will find a place on the bookshelves ofpractitioners, researchers and students working in bioinorganicchemistry and medicinal chemistry.
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About the Author
Dr Hongzhe Sun, Department of Chemistry, The University of Hong KongDr. Sun's research interests lie in the chemistry of metals in biology and medicine. He has been invited to deliver lectures in various international conferences including the prestigious "Gordon Conference on Metals in Medicine" and "International Conference on Biological Inorganic Chemistry". He has published over 80 papers in solid chemical and biochemical journals. He serves in the Editorial Advisory Board of The Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry (Springer, 2007-2009) and The Open Medicinal Chemistry Journal (Bentham Science Publisher).
Table of Contents
List of Contributors.
1 The Chemistry of Arsenic, Antimony and Bismuth (NeilBurford, Yuen-ying Carpenter, Eamonn Conrad and Cheryl D.L.Saunders).
1.1 Properties of the Elements.
1.3 Bond Energies.
1.4 Oxidation States.
1.5 Relativistic Effects and Orbital Contraction.
1.6 Structure and Bonding.
1.7 Clusters and Extended Structures.
1.8 Hybridization and Inversion.
1.9 Coordination Chemistry.
1.10 Geological Occurrence.
1.11 Aqueous Chemistry and Speciation.
1.12 Analytical Methods and Characterization.
2 Arsenic's Interactions with Macromolecules and itsRelationship to Carcinogenesis (Kirk T. Kitchin).
2.2 Arsenic's Interactions with DNA and Proteins.
2.3 Cancer – MOA.
2.4 Arsenic's Many Connections to Carcinogenesis.
2.5 Sources of Information on Arsenic's Mode of Action,Biochemical Effects, Carcinogenesis in Animals and Man, Metabolismand Analytical Chemistry.
3 Biological Chemistry of Antimony and Bismuth (NanYang and Hongzhe Sun).
3.2 Biorelevant Coordination Chemistry of Antimony andBismuth.
3.3 Antimony and Bismuth Compounds in Medicine.
3.4 Interaction with Nucleic Acids.
3.5 Interaction with Amino Acids and Peptides.
3.6 Interaction with Proteins and Enzymes.
3.7 Conclusion and Perspectives.
4 Metallomics Research Related to Arsenic (HirokiHaraguchi).
4.1 Metallomics – Integrated Biometal Science.
4.2 Analytical Feasibility of ICP-AES and ICP-MS.
4.3 Chemical Speciation of Trace Elements in BiologicalSamples.
5 Arsenic in Traditional Chinese Medicine (Kui Wang,Siwang Yu and Tianlan Zhang).
5.1 Arsenic Bearing Minerals and their ClinicalApplications.
5.2 Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics of Arsenic BearingMinerals.
5.3 Pharmacological Activities and Mechanisms of Actions ofABMs.
6 Microbial Transformations of Arsenic inAquifers (Jonathan R. Lloyd).
6.1 An Introduction to the Microbial Cycling of Arsenic.
6.2 The Biochemistry of Microbial Arsenic Transformations.
6.3 Microbially Driven Mobilization of Arsenic in Aquifers: aHumanitarian Disaster.
6.4 Conclusions and Future Directions.
7 Biomethylation of Arsenic, Antimony andBismuth (Richard O. Jenkins).
7.2 Biomethylation of Arsenic.
7.3 Biomethylation of Antimony.
7.4 Biomethylation of Bismuth.
8 Metalloid Transport Systems (Hsueh-Liang Fu, XuanJiang and Barry P. Rosen).
8.2 Metalloid Uptake Systems.
8.3 Metalloid Efflux Systems.
8.4 Summary and Conclusions.
9 Bismuth Complexes of Porphyrins and their Potential inMedical Applications (Bernard Boitrel).
9.2 Early Work (1969-1994).
9.3 Bismuth Complexes of Unfunctionalized Porphyrins.
9.4 Bismuth Complexes of Functionalized Porphyrins.
9.5 Future Strategies Towards Bifunctional Chelates (BFC)– Conclusions.
10 Helicobacter pylori and Bismuth (Aruni H.W. Mendisand Barry J. Marshall).
10.2 Helicobacter pylori.
10.3 Bismuth as an Antimicrobial Agent.
10.4 Mechanism of Action of Bismuth Citrate and CBS on H. pyloriand Ulcer Healing.
10.5 In Vitro Susceptibility of H. pylori and other Bacteria toBismuth Compounds and Antibiotics.
10.6 The Effect of pH on Bactericidal Activity of BismuthCompounds.
10.7 Novel Preparations of Bismuth Compounds.
10.8 Novel Delivery Systems for Bismuth Compounds and OtherAntibiotics.
10.9 The Biochemical Targets of Bismuth.
10.10 Binding of Bismuth Compounds to Plasma Proteins.
11 Application of Arsenic Trioxide Therapy for Patients withLeukaemia (Bo Yuan, Yuta Yoshino, Toshikazu Kaise and HirooToyoda).
11.2 Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of ATO Actions.
11.3 Pharmacokinetics of ATO in APL Patients.
11.4 Potential Combination Therapies with ATO.
11.5 Potential ATO Application to Other Leukaemias.
12 Anticancer Activity of Molecular Compounds of Arsenic,Antimony and Bismuth (Edward R.T. Tiekink).
12.2 Arsenic Compounds.
12.3 Antimony Compounds.
12.4 Bismuth Compounds.
13 Radiobismuth for Therapy (Martin W. Brechbiel andEkaterina Dadachova).
13.2 Targeting Vectors.
13.3 α-Emitters versus β--Emitters.
13.5 Radiolabeling – Chemistry.
13.6 Preclinical Studies.
13.7 Targeted α-Therapy versus Targeted β-Therapy.
13.8 Clinical Studies.
13.9 Alternate Delivery Methods and Uses.
13.10 Prospects and Conclusions.
14 Genetic Toxicology of Arsenic and Antimony (Toby G.Rossman and Catherine B. Klein).
14.2 DNA Damage in Cells Treated with Arsenicals.
14.3 Mutagenesis in Cells Treated with Arsenicals.
14.4 Other Genotoxic Events in Cells Treated withArsenicals.
14.5 Effects of Arsenicals on DNA Repair.
14.6 Indirect Mechanisms of Mutagenicity and Comutagenicity byArsenicals.
14.7 Mutagenesis and Transformation as Secondary Effects ofGenomic Instability.
15 Metalloproteomics of Arsenic, Antimony and Bismuth BasedDrugs (Cheuk-Nam Tsang, Ruiguang Ge and HongzheSun).
15.2 Chemical Speciation of Arsenic Based Drugs and theirMetallometabolism.
15.3 Metalloproteomics and its Applications to As-, Sb- andBi-Based Metallodrugs.
15.4 Biological Regulation of Arsenic and Antimony.