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Biological Psychology / Edition 3

Biological Psychology / Edition 3

by Kalat
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Dr. James W. Kalat's BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY is the most widely used text in the course area, and for good reason: an extremely high level of scholarship, clear and occasionally humorous writing style, and precise examples. Throughout all eleven editions, Kalat's goal has been to make biological psychology accessible to psychology students, not just to biology majors and pre-meds. Another goal has been to convey the excitement of the search for biological explanations of behavior, and Kalat—a skilled teacher—delivers. Updated with new topics, examples, and recent research findings—and supported by a strong media package—this text speaks to today's students and instructors.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780534084677
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 01/26/1988
Series: Psychology Series
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 1.25(h) x 9.00(d)

About the Author

Dr. James W. Kalat received his B.A. degree from Duke University, Summa Cum Laude, and then continued his education at the University of Pennsylvania, receiving his Ph.D. in psychology under the supervision of Paul Rozin. Currently, Dr. Kalat is at North Carolina State University where he is a professor of psychology, teaching both introductory psychology and biological psychology. Besides having authored the best selling biological psychology text, Dr. Kalat is the author of INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY, 8th Edition (Wadsworth, 2008) and has published articles on a variety of diverse topics such as taste aversion learning and on the teaching of introductory psychology. With Michelle Shiota, Kalat is co-author of EMOTION (Wadsworth, 2007). A talented and frequently requested speaker, Kalat receives rave reviews wherever he presents, including the National Institute on the Teaching of Psychology and the Texas Community College Teachers Association.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1The Major Issues1
Module 1.1The Mind-Brain Relationship2
Biological Explanations of Behavior3
The Brain and Conscious Experience5
In Closing: The Biology of Experience7
Module 1.2Nature and Nurture9
The Genetics of Behavior9
Mendelian Genetics9
How Genes Affect Behavior12
The Evolution of Behavior13
Common Misunderstandings About Evolution13
In Closing: Genes and Behavior17
Module 1.3The Use of Animals in Research19
Reasons for Animal Research19
The Ethical Debate19
In Closing: Humans and Animals22
Module 1.4Prospects for Further Study24
Suggestions for Further Reading25
Web Sites to Explore25
Active Learner Link26
Chapter 2Nerve Cells and Nerve Impulses29
Module 2.1The Cells of the Nervous System30
Neurons and Glia30
The Structures of an Animal Cell30
Digression 2.1Santiago Ramon y Cajal31
The Structure of a Neuron32
Variations Among Neurons34
The Blood-Brain Barrier36
Why We Need a Blood-Brain Barrier36
How the Blood-Brain Barrier Works37
The Nourishment of Vertebrate Neurons37
In Closing: Neurons38
Module 2.2The Nerve Impulse39
The Resting Potential of the Neuron39
The Forces Behind the Resting Potential40
Why a Resting Potential?41
The Action Potential42
The Molecular Basis of the Action Potential42
The All-or-None Law44
The Refractory Period44
Propagation of the Action Potential44
The Myelin Sheath and Saltatory Conduction45
Signaling Without Action Potentials46
Digression 2.2On the Growth of Neurons and the Growth of Misconceptions47
In Closing: Neural Messages47
Suggestions for Further Reading49
Web Sites to Explore49
Active Learner Link49
Chapter 3Communication Within the Body: Synapses and Hormones51
Module 3.1The Concept of the Synapse52
The Properties of Synapses52
Speed of a Reflex and Delayed Transmission at the Synapse52
Temporal Summation52
Spatial Summation54
Inhibitory Synapses54
Relationship Among EPSP, IPSP, and Action Potential56
In Closing: The Neuron as Decision Maker56
Module 3.2Chemical Events at the Synapse58
The Discovery That Most Synaptic Transmission Is Chemical58
The Sequence of Chemical Events at a Synapse59
Types of Neurotransmitters59
Synthesis of Transmitters60
Transport of Transmitters61
Release and Diffusion of Transmitters62
Activation of Receptors of the Postsynaptic Cell62
Inactivation and Reuptake of Neurotransmitters65
In Closing: Neurotransmitters and Behavior66
Module 3.3Synapses, Abused Drugs, and Behavior68
How Drugs Affect Synapses68
Synapses, Reinforcement, and Drug Use69
Electrical Self-Stimulation of the Brain69
Effects of Stimulant Drugs on Dopamine Synapses70
Methods 3.1PET Scans72
Hallucinogenic Drugs74
Synapses, Reinforcement, and Personality75
In Closing: Drugs and Behavior76
Module 3.4Hormones and Behavior78
Mechanisms of Hormone Actions78
Control of Hormone Release81
In Closing: Hormones and the Nervous System83
Suggestions for Further Reading84
Web Sites to Explore85
Active Learner Link85
Chapter 4Anatomy of the Nervous System87
Module 4.1The Divisions of the Vertebrate Nervous System88
Some Terminology88
The Spinal Cord89
The Autonomic Nervous System91
Digression 4.1Gooseflesh93
The Hindbrain93
The Midbrain95
The Forebrain96
Pituitary Gland97
Basal Ganglia97
Basal Forebrain99
The Ventricles99
In Closing: Structures of the Nervous System100
Module 4.2The Cerebral Cortex102
Organization of the Cerebral Cortex102
The Occipital Lobe103
The Parietal Lobe103
The Temporal Lobe105
Digression 4.2The Rise and Fall of Prefrontal Lobotomies106
The Frontal Lobe106
How Do the Pieces Work Together?107
Does the Brain Operate as a Whole or as
A Collection of Parts?108
The Binding Problem108
In Closing: Functions of the Cerebral Cortex111
Suggestions for Further Reading113
Web Sites to Explore113
Active Learner Link113
Chapter 5Development and Plasticity of the Brain115
Module 5.1Development of the Brain116
Growth and Differentiation of the Vertebrate Brain116
Growth and Development of Neurons117
Determinants of Neuron Survival118
Pathfinding by Axons120
Chemical Pathfinding by Axons120
Competition Among Axons as a General Principle122
Fine-Tuning by Experience122
Effects of Experience on Dendritic Branching123
Methods 5.1Magnetoencephalography (MEG)124
Generation of New Neurons124
Effects of Experience on Human Brain Structures125
Combinations of Chemical and Experiential Effects126
Proportional Growth of Brain Areas126
Methods 5.2MRI Scans128
The Vulnerable Developing Brain128
Digression 5.1Attention-Deficit Disorder: Mixed Abnormalities of Brain Development129
In Closing: Brain Development130
Module 5.2Recovery of Function After Brain Damage132
Causes of Human Brain Damage132
Digression 5.2Why Don't Woodpeckers Get Concussions?133
Adjustments and Potential Recovery After Brain Damage135
Learned Adjustments in Behavior135
Methods 5.3Lesions136
The Regrowth of Axons137
Denervation Supersensitivity138
Methods 5.4Autoradiography139
Reorganized Sensory Representations and the Phantom Limb140
Methods 5.5Histochemistry142
Effects of Age143
Behavioral Interventions145
Brain Grafts146
In Closing: Brain Damage and Recovery146
Suggestions for Further Reading148
Web Sites to Explore148
Active Learner Link148
Chapter 6Vision151
Module 6.1Visual Coding and the Retinal Receptors152
Reception, Transduction, and Coding152
From Neuronal Activity to Perception152
General Principles of Sensory Coding153
The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain153
The Fovea153
The Route Within the Retina155
Visual Receptors: Rods and Cones156
Color Vision157
The Trichromatic (Young-Helmholtz) Theory158
The Opponent-Process Theory159
The Retinex Theory159
Color Vision Deficiency161
In Closing: Visual Receptors161
Module 6.2The Neural Basis of Visual Perception163
An Overview of the Mammalian Visual System163
Mechanisms of Processing in the Visual System163
Receptive Fields163
Lateral Inhibition166
Concurrent Pathways in the Visual System167
In the Retina and Lateral Geniculate168
In the Cerebral Cortex168
The Cerebral Cortex: The Shape Pathway170
Hubel and Wiesel's Cell Types in the Primary Visual Cortex170
Methods 6.1Microelectrode Recordings171
The Columnar Organization of the Visual Cortex171
Are Visual Cortex Cells Feature Detectors?172
Shape Analysis Beyond Areas V1 and V2173
Disorders of Object Recognition174
Methods 6.2fMRI Scans175
The Cerebral Cortex: The Color Pathway176
The Cerebral Cortex: The Motion and Depth Pathways176
Structures Important for Motion Perception176
Motion Blindness177
Visual Attention177
The Binding Problem Revisited: Visual Consciousness178
Digression 6.1Suppressed Vision During Eye Movements179
In Closing: Coordinating Separate Visual Pathways179
Module 6.3Development of the Visual System181
Infant Vision181
Effects of Experience on Visual Development181
Effects of Early Lack of Stimulation of One Eye182
Effects of Early Lack of Stimulation of Both Eyes182
Restoration of Response After Early Deprivation of Vision183
Uncorrelated Stimulation in Both Eyes184
Early Exposure to a Limited Array of Patterns184
Lack of Seeing Objects in Motion185
Effects of Blindness on the Cortex185
In Closing: Developing Vision186
Suggestions for Further Reading187
Web Sites to Explore187
Active Learner Link188
Chapter 7The Nonvisual Sensory Systems191
Module 7.1Audition192
Sound and the Ear192
Physical and Psychological Dimensions of Sound192
Structures of the Ear192
Pitch Perception194
Frequency Theory and Place Theory194
Pitch Perception in the Cerebral Cortex196
Hearing Loss197
Localization of Sounds198
In Closing: Functions of Hearing199
Module 7.2The Mechanical Senses201
Vestibular Sensation201
Somatosensory Receptors201
Input to the Spinal Cord and the Brain202
Digression 7.1Tickle203
Pain Neurons and Their Neurotransmitters205
Digression 7.2Headaches206
Pain and the Brain206
Events That Limit Pain207
Stimuli That Produce Analgesia208
The Pros and Cons of Morphine Analgesia208
Sensitization of Pain209
In Closing: The Mechanical Senses210
Module 7.3The Chemical Senses211
General Issues About Chemical Coding211
Taste Receptors212
How Many Kinds of Taste Receptors?213
Mechanisms of Taste Receptors213
Individual Differences in Taste213
Digression 7.3Miracle Berries and the Modification of Taste Receptors214
How Do We Perceive Tastes?214
Taste Coding in the Brain214
Olfactory Receptors216
Behavioral Methods of Identifying Olfactory Receptors217
Biochemical Identification of Receptor Types217
Implications for Coding217
Vomeronasal Sensation and Pheromones

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