Biological Science / Edition 6 available in Hardcover
Infused with the spirit of inquiry, Freeman's Biological Science helps teach readers the fundamentals while introducing them to the excitement that drives the science. By presenting unifying concepts and methods of analysis, this book helps its readers learn to think like biologists and gives them the tools they need for success in understanding more advanced subjects.A nine-part organization covers topics under the general headings of: the origin and early evolution of life, cell functions, gene structure and expression, developmental biology, evolutionary patterns and processes, the diversification of life, how plants work, how animals work, and ecology.For science enthusiasts who want to be inspired with a sense of wonder and excitement that makes learning about biology interesting and fun.
|Edition description:||New Edition|
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About the Author
Scott Freeman received his Ph.D. in Zoology from the University of Washington and was subsequently awarded an Alfred P. Sloan Postdoctoral Fellowship in Molecular Evolution at Princeton University. His current research focuses on the scholarship of teaching and learning and he recently published two papers on his work: (1) how active learning and peer teaching techniques increase student learning and improve performance in introductory biology (Freeman, S., E. O’Connor, J.W. Parks, M. Cunningham, D. Hurley, D. Haak, C. Dirks, and M.P. Wenderoth. 2007. Prescribed active learning increases performance in introductory biology. CBE—Life Sciences Education 6: 132-139.); and (2) how the levels of exam questions vary among introductory biology courses, standardized post-graduate entrance exams, and professional school courses (Zheng, A.Y., J.K. Lawhorn, T. Lumley, and S. Freeman. 2007. Applications of Bloom’s Taxonomy Debunks the “MCAT Myth.” Science 25 January 2008: 414—415).
Illustrator, Kim Quillin, combines expertise in biology and information design to create lucid visual representations of biological principles. She received her B.A. in Biology at Oberlin College and her Ph.D. in Integrative Biology from the University of California, Berkeley (as a National Science Foundation Graduate Fellow), and has taught undergraduate biology at both schools. Students and instructors alike have praised Kim’s illustration programs for Biological Science, as well as Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, by David Krogh, and Biology: Science for Life, by Colleen Belk and Virginia Borden, for their success at the visual communication of biology. Kim is a lecturer in the Department of Biological Sciences at Salisbury University.
Table of Contents1. Biology and the Tree of Life.
The Cell Theory. The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection. The Tree of Life. Biological Science.
Box 1.1: Scientific Names and Terms.
Box 1.2: Medicine, Economics and the Tree of Life.
Essay: Where Do Humans Fit on the Tree of Life?
UNIT I. THE ORIGIN AND EARLY EVOLUTION OF LIFE.
2. The Atoms and Molecules of Ancient Earth.
The Ancient Earth. The Building Blocks of Chemical Evolution. Chemical Reactions, Chemical Energy, and Chemical Evolution. The Composition of the Early Atmosphere: Redox Reactions and the importance of Carbon. The Early Oceans and the Properties of Water.
Box 2.1: Atomic Mass.
Box 2.2: Bond Types Form a Continuum.
Essay: The Search for Extraterrestrial Life.
3. Macromolecules and the RNA World.
The Start of Chemical Evolution: Experimental Simulations. The Building Blocks of Macromolecules. The First Macromolecules. The First Living Entity.
Box 3.1: How Do Biologists Define Life?
Box 3.2: Gel Electrophoresis and Autoradiography.
Box 3.3: How Proteins Catalyze Reactions.
Box 3.4: Models in Biology: The Double Helix.
Essay: Molecular Handedness and the Thalidomide Tragedy.
4. Membranes and the First Cells.
Lipid Chemistry. Phospholipid Bilayers. Why Molecules Move Across Lipid Bilayers: Diffusion and Osmosis. Membrane Proteins.
Box 4.1: The Transmission Electron Microscope.
Box 4.2: The Scanning Electron Microscope.
Box 4.3: The Fluid-Mosaic Model.
Essay: The Molecular Basis of Cystic Fibrosis.
UNIT II. CELL FUNCTIONS.
5. Cell Structure and Function.
A Tour of theCell. The Nucleus of Nuclear Transport. The Endomembrane System: Synthesis and Distribution of Cellular Products. The Cytoskeleton.
Box 5.1: An Introduction to Centrifugation.
Essay: Organelles and Human Disease.
6. Respiration and Fermentation.
An Overview of Cellular Respiration. Glycolysis. The Krebs Cycle. Electron Transport and Chemiosmosis. Fermentation. How Does Cellular Respiration Interact with Other Metabolic Pathways.
Essay: ATP Production During Exercise.
What Is Photosynthesis? How Does Chlorophyll Capture Light Energy? The Photosynthetic Reaction Centers. The Calvin Cycle.
Box 7.1: Types of Plastids.
Box 7.2: Why Was the Oxygen Revolution Important?
Essay: Are Rising CO2 Levels in the Atmosphere Affecting Plant Productivity.
8. Cell Division.
Mitosis and the Cell Cycle. How Does Mitosis Take Place? Control of the Cell Cycle. Cancer: Out-of-Control Cell Division.
Box 8.1: Cell-Culture Methods.
Box 8.2: Cell Division in Bacteria.
Essay: Cancer Chemotherapy.
UNIT III. GENE STRUCTURE AND EXPRESSION.
How Does Meiosis Occur? The Consequences of Meiosis? Why Does Meiosis Exist? Why Sex? Mistakes in Meiosis.
Box 9.1: Karyotyping Techniques.
Box 9.2: Experimental Evidence for Physical Exchange of Chromosome Segments During Crossing Over.
Box 9.3: Recombination in Bacteria.
Essay: Seedless Fruits.
10. Mendel and the Gene.
Mendel's Experiments with a Single Trait? Mendel's Experiments with Two Traits. The Chromosome Theory of Inheritance. Testing and Extending the Chromosome Theory. Extending Mendel's Rules.
Box 10.1: Combining Probabilities.
Box 10.2: Sample Size and Chance Fluctuations.
Essay: Does “Genetic Determinism”Exist?
11. How Do Genes Work?
DNA as the Hereditary Material. What Do Genes Do? The Genetic Code? The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology.
Box 11.1: RNA Genomes: Exceptions to the Central Dogma.
Essay: How Do Viruses Work?
12. DNA Synthesis, Mutation, and Repair.
Testing Early Hypotheses About DNA Replication. A Comprehensive Model for DNA Synthesis. Analyzing DNA Sequences in the Laboratory. The Molecular Basis of Mutation. Repairing Damaged DNA.
Essay: The Genetic Basis of Cancer.
13. Transcription and Translation.
Transcription in Bacteria. Transcription in Eukaryotes. An Introduction to Translation. The of Transfer RNA. The Ribosome. Post-Transitional Events.
Box 13.1: An Introduction to X-Ray Crystallography.
Box 13.2: Prions.
Essay: Transcription, Translation, and Toxins.
14. Control of Gene Expression in Bacteria.
Gene Regulation and Information Flow. Identifying the Genes Involved in Lactose Metabolism. The Discovery of the Repressor. Catabolite Repression and Positive Control. The Operator and the Repressor—An Introduction to DNA-Binding Proteins.
Box 14.1: Gene Transfer in Bacteria.
Box 14.2: Negative Control and Attentuation in the trp Operon.
Box 14.3: DNA Footprinting.
Essay: Controlling the Expression of Disease-Causing Genes.
15. Control of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes.
Mechanisms of Gene Regulation—An Overview. Eukaryotic DNA and the Regulation of Gene Expression. Regulatory Sequences in DNA. Regulatory Proteins. Post-Transcriptional Processing. Linking Cancer with Defects in Gene Regulation.
Box 15.1: Recombinant DNA Technology.
Box 15.2: Southern Blotting.
Essay: Gene Regulation and the Green Revolution.
An Introduction to Whole-Genome Sequencing. Bacterial and Archaeal Genomes. Eukaryotic Genomes. Future Prospects.
Box 16.1: Bioinformatics.
Essay: Genomics and Issues of Privacy.
17. Genetic Engineering and its Applications.
Using Recombinant DNA Techniques to Manufacture Proteins: The Effort to Cure Pituitary Dwarfism. Gene Hunting Based on Pedigree Analysis. Can Gene Therapy Cure Inherited Diseases in Humans? Biotechnology in Agriculture.
Box 17.1: Genome Sequencing and Gene Hunting.
Box 17.2: Genetic Testing.
Essay: Controversies over Genetically Modified Foods.
UNIT IV. DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY.
18. An Introduction to Development.
Developmental Stages and Patterns. Does the Genetic Makeup of Cells Changes as Development Proceeds? What Causes Differential Gene Expression?
Essay: Human Cloning.
19. Early Development.
Gametogenesis. Fertilization. Cleavage. Gastrulation.
Box 19.1: Visualizing mRNAs by Situ Hybridization.
Essay: Treating Human Infertility.
20. What Determines a Cell's Fate?
Pattern Formation in Drosophila. Pattern Formation in Arabidopsis. Differentiation: Becoming a Specialized Cell.
Box 20.1: Maternal Effect Inheritance.
Box 20.2: Programmed Cell Death.
Essay: Human Stem Cells.
UNIT V. EVOLUTIONARY PATTERNS AND PROCESSES.
21. Darwinism and the Evidence for Evolution.
The Evidence for Evolution. How Natural Selection Works. Evolution in Action: Recent Research on Natural Selection.
Box 21.1: The Evidence for Evolution.
Box 21.2: How Natural Selection Works.
Box 21.3: Evolutionary Theory Before Darwin.
Box 21.4: Problems in Estimating the Heritability of Traits.
Essay: The Debate over “Scientific Creationism” .
22. Evolutionary Processes.
Why is Genetic Diversity Important? Analyzing Allele Frequency Change: The Hardy-Weinberg Principle. Mutation. Migration. Inbreeding. Natural Selection. Sexual Selection.
Essay: Evolutionary Theory and Human Health.
Defining and Identifying Species. Isolation and Divergence in Sympatry. Isolation and Divergence in Allopatry. Secondary Contact.
Box 23.1: How Do Researchers Estimate Phylogenetic Trees?
Essay: Human Races.
24. The History of Life.
Tools for Studying History. The Cambrian Explosion. The Genetic Mechanisms of Change. Adaptive Radiations. Mass Extinctions.
Box 24.1: The Molecular Clock.
Essay: Is a Mass Extinction Event Under Way Now?
UNIT VI. THE DIVERSIFICATION OF LIFE.
25. Bacteria and Archaea.
What Are the Bacteria and Archaea? Metabolic Diversity in Bacteria and Archaea? Bacteria, Archaea, and Global Change. Bacterial Diseases.
Box 25.1: Cultural Techniques as a Research Tool.
Essay: Antibiotics and the Evolution of Resistance.
What Are the Viruses? What Is HIV? How Does and HIV Infection Begin? How Does HIV Replicate Its Genome? How Are Viral Proteins Translated and Processed? How Are Viruses Transmitted to New Hosts?
Box 26.1: Where Did Viruses Come From?
Essay: Emerging Viruses.
What Are the Protists? Themes in the Evolution of Protists? The Origin of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts. How Do Protists Affect Human Health and Welfare?
Box 27.1: How Should We Name the Tree of Life's Major Branches?
Essay: Revolutions in Science.
28. Land Plants.
Phylogenies and the Fossil Record: origins and Diversification. The Transition to Land: Key Innovations and Trends. Strategies for Photon Capture. Food, Fuel, and Fiber: Human Use of Pants.
Essay: Genetic Diversity in Crop Plants?
What Are the Fungi? Growth, Digestion, and Absorption. Mutualism. Parasitism.
Box 29.1: The Problem of Convergence.
Box 29.2: Fungi at Work.
Essay: Why Are Frogs Dying?
Origins and Early Diversification. Feeding. Key Innovations in the Radiation of Arthropods. Key Innovations in the Radiation of Vertebrates. Human Evolution.
Essay: So Human An Animal.
UNIT VII. HOW PLANTS WORK.
31. Plant Form and Function.
The Diversity of Plant Form. Cells, Tissues, Organs, and Systems. The Anatomy of Plant Growth. Studying Adaptation.
Box 31.1: Nonvascular Plants.
Box 31.2: Monocots and Dicots.
Box 31.3: Tree-Ring Studies.
Essay: Wood as a Structural Material.
32. Water and Sugar Transport in Plants.
Water Potential and Cell-to-Cell Movement. Transpiration and Water Movement from Roots to Leaves. Translocation.
Essay: Irrigated Agriculture.
33. Plant Nutrition.
Nutritional Requirements. Soil. Nutrient Uptake. Nitrogen Fixation. Nutritional Adaptation of Plants.
Essay: Tropical Soils.
34. Sensory Systems in Plants.
Sensing Light. How Do Plants Perceive Gravity? How Do Plants Respond to Touch?
Essay: Can Plants Tell Time?
35. Communication: Chemical Signals.
Phototropism. Apical Dominance. Growth and Dormancy.
Box 35.1: Cytokinins.
36. Plant Reproduction.
An Introduction to Plant Reproduction. Reproductive Structures. Pollination and Fertilization. The Seed.
Box 36.1: Pure and Applied Science.
Essay: Why Do Wasps Try to Copulate with Hammer Orchids?
37. Plant Defense Systems.
Barriers to Entry. Plant Poisons. The Cost of Defense. Responding to Pathogens. Responding to Herbivores.
Essay: Chemical Prospecting.
UNIT VIII. HOW ANIMALS WORK.
38. Animal Form and Function.
The Nature of Natural Selection. The Nature of Adaptation. Tissues, Organs, and Systems: How Does Structure Correlate with Function? Body Size and Scaling. Homeostasis.
Essay: Is Fever Adaptive?
39. Water and Electrolyte Balance in Animals.
Osmotic Stress and Osmoregulation. Water and Electrolyte Balance in Aquatic Environments. Water and Electrolyte Balance in Terrestrial Invertebrates. Water and Electrolyte Balance in Terrestrial Vertebrates.
Essay: Life in the Desert.
40. Animal Nutrition.
Nutritional Requirements. Obtaining Food: The Structure and Function of Beaks, Teeth, and Mouthparts. Digestion. Nutritional Homeostasis—Glucose as a Case Study.
Essay: Cholesterol, Heart Disease, and Diet.
41. Gas Exchange and Circulation.
Air and Water as Respiratory Media. Organs of Gas Exchange. Blood. The Circulatory System. Homeostasis in Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry.
Box 41.1: Measuring Blood Pressure.
Essay: Smoking and Lung Function.
42. Electrical Signals in Animals.
Principles of Electrical Signaling. Dissecting the Action Potential. The Synapse. The Vertebrate Nervous System.
Box 42.1: The Nernst Equation and the Goldman Equation.
Essay: Can Brain Tissue Transplants Help People with Parkinson's Disease?
43. Animal Sensory Systems and Movement.
How Do Sensory Organs Convey Information to the Brain? Hearing? Vision? Taste and Smell. Movement.
Box 43.1: Senses that Humans Don't Have.
Box 43.2: Vertebrate Versus Cephalopod Eyes.
Essay: Sprinters and Marathoners—Born or Made?
44. Chemical Signals in Animals.
Cataloging Hormone Structure and Function. What Do Hormones Do? How Is the Production of Hormones Regulated? How Do Hormones Act on Target Cells?
Box 44.1: A Closer Look at Thyroxine and the Thyroid Gland.
Box 44.2: Oxytocin and ADH.
Essay: Do Humans Produce Pheromones?
45. Animal Reproduction.
Asexual and Sexual Reproduction. Fertilization and Egg Development. Reproductive Structures and Their Functions. The Role of Sex Hormones in Mammalian Reproduction. Human Pregnancy and Birth.
Box 45.1: Unusual Aspects of Fertilization.
Box 45.2: Abuse of Synthetic Steroids.
46. The Immune System in Animals.
Innate Immunity. The Acquired Immune Response: Recognition. The Acquired Immune Response: Activation. The Acquired Immune Response: Culmination.
Box 46.1: Producing Monoclonal Antibodies.
Box 46.2: How Does the Immune System Distinguish Self from Non-Self?
Box 46.3: The ELISA Test.
UNIT IX. ECOLOGY.
The Role of Genes. How Animals Act: Neural and Hormonal Control. The Adaptive Consequences of Behavior. The Evolution of Behavior.
Box 47.1: Using Reverse Genetics to Study Behavior.
Box 47.2: Conditional Strategies and the Nature/Nurture Debate.
Box 47.3: The Importance of Observation in Behavioral Studies.
Box 47.4: Calculating the Coefficient of Relatedness.
Essay: Children at Risk.
48. Population Ecology.
Population Growth. How Do the Sizes of Populations Change over Time? Population Structure. Demography and Conservation.
Box 48.1: What's the Best Way to Clean Up an Oil Spill?
Box 48.2: Mark-Recapture Studies.
Essay: What Limits Human Population Growth?
49. Species Interactions.
Parasitism. Predation. Herbivory. Competition. Mutualism.
Essay: Predator Control.
50. Community Ecology.
Climate and the Distribution of Ecological Communities. How Predictable Are Community Assemblages? Species Diversity in Ecological Communities.
Box 50.1: Measuring Species Diversity.
Essay: Let-It-Burn Policies.
Energy Flow and Trophic Structure. Biogeochemical Cycles.
Essay: Global Warming.
52. Biodiversity and Conservation.
How Many Species Are Being Lost, and Why? Why Should We Care? Setting Conservation Priorities.
Box 52.1: Why Do Small Populations Become Inbred, and Why is Inbreeding Harmful?
Essay: Metaphors for the Future: Easter Island and Guanacaste.
Faculty who teach introductory biology may have the most exciting and difficult job on campus. The excitement springs from the breathtaking pace of advances in the biological sciences and the wide array of training and career options that are now open to prospective majors; the difficulty lies in introducing students to an already imposing and rapidly increasing number of facts and concepts.
When I took introductory biology as an undergraduate in 1975, faculty members were coping with the information explosion by extending the length of their introductory courses and using ever-larger textbooks. Today we don't have those options. Course length is capped at one year and most texts already run in excess of 1100 pages. Over the past decade in particular, presenting a fact-based, synoptic overview of what we know about biology has become increasingly untenable.
In short, the information explosion has changed our jobs. Instead of asking students to focus primarily on memorizing facts, more and more instructors are focusing their course on teaching students how to think like a biologist.
Why a New Introductory Textbook?
I wrote Biological Science to support professors who want their students to experience a more inquiry-driven approach in introductory biology. My goal was to write a book infused with the questions and the enthusiasm for learning that drive biological research. To help students understand how biologists think, each chapter is built around a series of questions that are fundamental to the topic being addressed. While exploring each question, the presentation incorporates data for students to interpret, offers evidence for competing hypotheses, introduces contemporary researchers, refers to work in progress, and highlights what researchers don't yet know. My aim was to help you teach biology the way you do biologyby asking questions and analyzing data to find answers.
At the same time, I made a strong commitment to covering the basics. We teach students who want to become doctors, researchers, science journalists, teachers, and conservationists. We have an obligation to prepare them for success in upper division courses, MCATs, and GREs, and to introduce the canon of facts and concepts that they must master to major in biology. Instead of listing these facts and concepts in an encyclopedic manner, however, Biological Science introduces them in the context of answering a question. In this textbook, facts become tools for understandingnot ends in themselves.
In addition to finding an appropriate balance between covering facts and exploring the scientific process, the level of the presentation is crafted to be appropriate for introductory Students. Sections and sub-sections in the text begin with an overview of what question is being asked and end with commentary that helps students pull the material together. Instead of getting lost in the details of how an experiment was done, the text emphasizes why it was done and what the data mean. Because beginning students are concerned about themselves and their world, most chapters explore how the topic relates to human welfare and all chapters end with an essay inspired by medical, commercial, or environmental concerns.
The Forest and the Trees: Helping Students to Synthesize and Unify
In addition to coping with an enormous amount of content in this course, instructors have to manage its diversity. In Biological Science, the emphasis on inquiry and experimentation provides ,a unifying theme from biochemistry through ecosystem ecology. In addition, the text highlights the fundamental how and why questions of biology. How does this event or process occur at the molecular level? In an evolutionary context, why does it exist?
The majority of chapters include at least one case history of an analysis done at the molecular level. Natural selection is introduced by exploring the evolution of antibiotic resistance via point mutations in. the RNA polymerase gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In the diversity unit, students learn about extracellular digestion in fungi by exploring experiments on the regulation of cellulase genes. A section of the behavior chapter features research on a gene involved in fruit fly foraging behavior. These are just three of many examples.
Similarly, evolutionary analyses do not begin and end with the evolution unit. Concepts like adaptation, homology, natural selection, and tree thinking are found in virtually every chapter. Unit 1, for example, presents traditional content in biochemistryranging from covalent bonding to the structure and function of macromoleculesin the context of chemical evolution and the origin of life. Meiosis is analyzed in terms of its consequences for generating genetic variation and making natural selection possible. Shared mechanisms of DNA repair and pattern formation are explained in the context of gene homologies. The overriding idea is that molecular and evolutionary analyses can help unify introductory biology courses, just as molecular tools and evolutionary questions are helping to unify many formerly disparate research fields within biology.
Supporting Visual Learners
Clear, attractive, and extensive graphics are critical to our success in the classroom. To emphasize the importance of analyzing figures in biology and to support students who learn particularly well visually, the book's art program is both extensive and closely interwoven with the manuscript. Each figure originated with rough sketches that I made while working on the first draft manuscript, which Dr. Kim Quillin then revised to increase clarity and improve appearance.
Throughout this process, our intent was to build an 4rt program that is easy to read and that supports the book's focus on thinking like a biologist. A quick glance through the book should convince you that the art is as distinctive as the text. Color is used judiciously to highlight the main teaching points. Layouts flow from top to bottom and left to right, and extensive labeling lets students work through each figure in a step-by-step manner. Questions and exercises in the captions challenge students to actively interpret the graphics. The overall look and feel of the art is clean, clear, and inviting.
Serving a Community of Teachers
By de-emphasizing the encyclopedic approach to learning biology and focusing more on the questions and experimental tools that make biology come alive, our hope was to offer a book that is more readable and attractive to students and teachers alike. Embarking on an introductory course that launches a career in biology should be exciting, not anxiety-ridden. Learning concepts well enough to apply them to new examples and datasets may be more challenging for some students than memorizing facts, but it is also more compelling. By motivating the presentation with questions, and then using facts as tools to find answers, students of biology may come to think and feel more like the people who actually do biology.
I've always viewed working on this project as a gift, because it was a chance to serve the community of bright, enthusiastic, and dedicated people who teach this course. Thank you for your devotion to biology, for your commitment to your students, and for considering Biological Science. Teachers change lives.
It's difficult to imagine a more exciting time to launch a career related to biology. The advent of whole-genome sequencing and a rising interest in conservation biology are giving new momentum to a knowledge explosion that began several decades ago. From biochemistry, cell biology, and genetics to physiology, ecology, and evolution, the pace of discovery in the biological sciences is nothing short of astonishing. Your instructors are introducing you to what may currently be the most dynamic of all human endeavors.
Delving into biology through this introductory course should help you further two important goals. The first involves personal growth. The topics you'll be learning about pervade your life. Biology is about the food you eat and the air you breathe. It's about the history of life on Earth and the organisms that share the planet with us now. You'll be learning why we get sick, how we reproduce, how plants make food from sunlight. Biology is so basic that understanding it is a fundamental part of becoming an educated person. Taking this course can open your eyes, help you see and think about life in a new way, and fuel a lifelong curiosity about the natural world.
The second goal of a course like this involves a potential career path. By preparing you for more advanced classes and a major in the biological sciences, this introductory course will be a crucial first step in acquiring the background you'll need to enter a biology-related profession and help solve pressing problems in health, conservation, or agriculture. Many of the great challenges facing us todayfrom climate change and species extinctions to antibiotic resistance and emerging virusesdemand expertise in biology.
The purpose of this text is to help you make that important first step toward majoring in the biological sciences andtpursuing a career related to biology. Its goal is not only to be a valuable reference for the fundamentals but also to introduce you to the excitement that drives this science. The presentation focuses on the questions that biologists ask about the natural world and how they go about answering them. Its objective is to introduce the core ideas that biologists use to make sense of the massive amount of information emerging from laboratories around the world.
The overall theme in this text is to help you learn how to think like a biologist. No matter what path your career takes, it is virtually certain that you will need to evaluate new hypotheses, analyze new types of data, and draw conclusions that change the direction of your work almost daily. Many of the facts you learn as an introductory student will change, but the analytical skills you learn in this course will serve you for life. Learning to think like a biologist will prepare you for upper-level courses and make you a better professionalwhether you end up as a physician, pharmacist, educator, conservationist, or researcher.
If you approach this book with an open and inquiring mind, ready to challenge knowledge even as you absorb it, then you will have done your job. If this book communicates a sense of excitement about biological science and inspires you to keep learning more, it will have done its job. Thank you for joining a great adventure.
University of Washington
Print and Media Resources for Instructors and Students
For the Instructor
Lecture Presentation Tools
INSTRUCTOR RESOURCE CD-ROM (IRCD)
The Instructor Resource CD-ROM for Biological Science simplifies your life by placing powerful, customizable tools at your fingertips. This comprehensive, easy-to-use electronic resource provides everything you need to both prepare for and present a lecture. It features all of the illustrations and and photographs from the bookboth as exportable images and as prepared PowerPoint slides. The PowerPoint slides are fully editable, allowing you complete customization capabilities. The Instructor Resource CD-ROM also features hundreds of animations and activities that can be incorporated into your lecture presentation. These same animations and activities are part of a series of more comprehensive, chapter-specific animations and activities located on the Student CD-ROM. Each animation and activity can be presented either with or without text, audio narration, and self-grading quizzes. Imagine being able to put together a presentation using art from the textbook, video clips, and animations from the Student CD. Students are motivated to explore and use the media provided with their text when they see it presented to them in the classroom. This tool gives you the power to visually present and highlight a key concept from the text and then assign it as homework. All of the answers to the activities, end-of-chapter material, and website quizzes are included on the Instructor Resource CD-ROM.
TRANSPARENCY PACKAGE AND INSTRUCTOR RESOURCE KIT
Transparencies are an effective way to visually reinforce your lecture presentation. Every illustration from the textincluding art, photographs, and tablesis available on four-color transparency acetates. We've put a lot of thought into how to deliver such a large number of acetates to you in a way that is easy for you to use and organize for lecture. The transparency set is three-hole-punched and organized by chapter in manila folders, which are stored in an Instructor Resource Kit file box along with the printed lecture tools from the Instructor Resource Guide. Some labels and all of the hand pointers in the test illustrations have been deleted from these transparencies to enhance projection. Labels and images have been enlarged and modifed to ensure optimal readability in a large lecture hall.
Edited by Julie Palmer, University of Texas at Austin Contributors: Carole Kelley, Cabrillo College; Judith Heady, University of Michigan at Dearborn; David Pindel, Corning Community College; Susan Rouse, Emory University.
The Instructor Guide for Biological Science includes not only the traditional instructor support toolslecture outlines and student objectivesbut it also provides additional, more contemporary resources for today's teaching challengesmotivating students, reinforcing their understanding of the material, and helping them to develop critical thinking skills. These resources include chapter-by-chapter suggestions for inquiry-based classroom activities, simple demonstrations, and problems involving the data presented in a given chapter. Answers to all of the activities and problemsincluding answers to the figure caption questions and exercises and the end-of-chapter questionsare included in this Instructor Guide, making it easier to assign them to students. All content in the Instructor Guide is available in a printed volume or included electronically on the Instructor Resource CD-ROM.
TEST QUESTIONS (OVER 2600 QUESTIONS) AND TESTGEN EQ
The Test Questions for Biological Science have been written and edited by the author, Scott Freeman, and a team of talented instructors, to ensure the quality and accuracy of this important resource as well as its tight integration with the text. It contains a variety of questions compiled from our reviewers, top educators, and the author's own teaching experience. The Test Questions contain multiple choice questions in the following formats: factual recall, conceptual, and application/data interpretation questions that are 'in keeping with the most recent MCAT and GRE standards. The Test Questions are available as a printed volume and as part of the TestGen EQ Computerized Testing Software, a text-specific testing program that is networkable for administering tests. It allows instructors to view and edit electronic questions, export the questions as tests, and print them in a variety of formats.
SYMBIOSIS: THE PRENTICE HALL CUSTOM LABORATORY PROGRAM FOR BIOLOGY
With Symbiosis, you can custom-build a lab manual that exactly matches your teaching style, your content needs, and your course organization. You choose the labs you want from our extensive list of Prentice Hall publications or Pearson Custom Publishing's own library of biology labs. You choose the sequence. Using the template tools provided in our unique Lab Ordering and Authoring Kit, you can create your own custom-written labs and then incorporate graphics from our biology graphics library. You can even add your course notes, syllabi, or other favorite materials. The result is a cleanly designed, well-integrated lab manual to share with your students.
Course Management Tools
Blackboard is a comprehensive and flexible eLearning software platform that delivers a course management system, customizable institution-wide portals, online communities, and an advanced architecture that allows for web-based integration of multiple administrative systems.
WebCT provides you with high-quality, class-tested material pre-programmed and fully functional in the WebCT environment. Whether used as an online supplement to either a campus-based or a distance-learning course, our pre-assembled course content gives you a tremendous headstart in developing your own online courses.
Course Compass is a dynamic, interactive eLearning program. Its flexible, easy-to-use course management tools allow you to combine Pearson Higher Education content with your own.
Instructors 1st For qualified adopters, Prentice Hall is proud to introduce Instructors 1stthe first integrated service committed to meeting your customization, support, and training needs for your course.
For the Student
The Student CD-ROM for Biological Science provides resources to help students visualize difficult concepts, explore complex biological processes, and review their understanding of the most challenging material presented in this course. This comprehensive, easy-to-use electronic resource is integrated with the textbook, providing students either with rapid access to extended learning opportunities while reading the chapter or with detailed textbook references while working through an activity on the CD. These activities include animations to visualize elaborate biological concepts or processes and animated tutorials that allow students to explore more complex topics. The Student CD has an intuitive interface, a familiar chapter-based organization, and a powerful search engine, all designed to help students expertly navigate this resource. Each activity includes full audio narration, an integrated glossary, and an audio pronunciation guide. In addition, the CD also serves as a portal to the review and research tools provided on the Student Website, bringing together all of the resources to help students succeed in their course.
The Student Website for Biological Science provides students with the self-assessment, current research, and communication tools needed to help them succeed in their introductory biology course. Within each chapter on the Website, self-grading quizzes allow students to assess their understanding of the chapter material as well as providing an explanation should a student choose an incorrect answer to a question. Further, the Website includes a broad collection of science and research links for the subject areas described in each chapter. These links are outstanding tools for students wishing to explore a chapter's concepts or to extend their knowledge beyond the scope of the text. In combination with the Student CD, the Student Website provides a valuable set of resources to help students develop the skills that will help them in both their introductory biology course as well as in upper-division courses.
STUDENT STUDY GUIDE
Edited by Warren Burggren, University of North Texas.
Contributors: Jay Brewster, Pepperdine University; Laurel Hester, South Carolina Governor's School for Science and Mathematics; Brian Bagatto, University of Akron.
The Student Study Guide helps students focus on the fundamentals chapter-by-chapter and contains additional resources to help students prepare for a career in the biological sciences. Each chapter presents a breakdown of chapter themes, key biological concepts, exercises, self-assessment activities, and quizzes. Additionally, the Study Guide features four introductory, stand-alone chapters: Introduction to Experimentation and Research in the Biological Sciences, Presenting Biological Data, Understanding Patterns in Biology and Improving Study Techniques, and Reading and Writing to Understand Biology.
SCIENCE ON THE INTERNET
Andrew Stull, Prentice Hall and Harry Nickla, Creighton University.
This free, practical resource provides straightforward step-by-step directions for accessing regularly updated biology resource areas online as well as an overview of general online navigation strategies. This booklet is a helpful companion to the Student Website for Biological Science.