Biological Sciences

Biological Sciences

by Facts on File




Frontiers of Science is an eight-volume set that explores notable issues at the forefront of scientific research and inquiry. The interdisciplinary set focuses on the methods and imagination of people who push the boundaries of science by investigating subjects not readily observable or shrouded in obscurity. Understanding the science behind scientific advances is critical because new knowledge and theories sometimes seem unbelievable until the underlying methods leading to their discovery become clear. Designed to complement science curricula, the set covers a broad range of complex, relevant topics that will extend the limits of knowledge and satisfy the curiosity of readers.

Biological Sciences investigates the research and discoveries made by scientists who expanded the frontiers of physiology, genetics, ecology, botany, and molecular biology. Biology is a discipline that can be challenging to define because life is so variable. The book describes the evolution of six related branches. Each chapter covers a topic and contains an introduction, a conclusion, a chronology, and a list of resources that allow the reader to focus on the topic being considered.

The volume includes information on


brain imaging

the human genome

protein structure and function


viral evolution

The book contains 40 color photographs and line illustrations, sidebars, a glossary, a detailed list of additional print and Internet resources, and an index. Frontiers of Science is essential for high school students, teachers, and general readers who wish to understand the newest areas of scientific research, from groundbreaking issues that are making headlines to ones that are not as well known.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780816074396
Publisher: Facts on File, Incorporated
Publication date: 05/01/2010
Series: Frontiers of Science Series
Pages: 240
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.10(h) x 0.70(d)
Age Range: 14 - 17 Years

Table of Contents

Preface viii

Acknowledgments xii

Introduction xiii

1 Brain Imaging: Searching for Sites of Perception and Consciousness 1

Introduction 2

Peering Inside the Skull 6

Brain Imaging and Metabolism 12

Localization of Function 14

Phrenology-"Reading" the Bumps of the Skull 15

Perceiving the World 20

Imaging the Mind: Neural Correlates of Consciousness 23

Salk Institute for Biological Studies 24

Neural Oscillations 29

Conclusion 30

Chronology 32

Further Resources 35

2 The Human Genome in Health and Disease 39

Introduction 40

Genes and DNA 41

DNA Forensics 48

Human Genome Project 50

National Institutes of Health (NIH) 52

Pharmacogenomics-Personalized Medications 57

Genes and Diseases 61

Understanding the Human Genome 64

Noncoding "Junk" DNA 67

Conclusion 69

Chronology 70

Further Resources 73

3 Protein Structure and Function 77

Introduction 78

Proteins-Cellular Machines 79

Amino Acids 80

Protein Structure and Conformation 84

X-ray Crystallography 87

Out of Shape: Protein Misfolding 94

Predicting and Modeling the Folding Process 98

Protein Design 101

Conclusion 103

Chronology 104

Further Resources 106

4 Biodiversity-The Complexity of Life 109

Introduction 111

Coexistence-Living and Interacting Together 115

Community Stability and Productivity 118

Food Chain Analysis 123

Food Chains and Isotopes 124

Virtual Ecology 127

Pacific Ecoinformatics and Computational Ecology Lab (PEaCE) 129

The Environment and Biodiversity 130

Conclusion 133

Chronology 134

Further Resources 136

5 The Biology and Evolution of Viruses 140

Introduction 142

Antibodies 146

Classification of Viruses 148

Influenza-Birds, Pigs, and Humans 152

Viral Evolution 154

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 158

AIDS Epidemic 160

Evolution and Epidemics 163

The 1918 Influenza Virus 165

Conclusion 167

Chronology 168

Further Resources 171

6 Regeneration-Healing by Regrowing 174

Introduction 175

Stem Cells 177

Planarians 180

Growing Again-Regeneration 181

Limitations of Tissue Regeneration in Humans 185

Experimental Approaches to Spark Regeneration 188

The Scripps Research Institute 190

Cardiac Tissue Regeneration 191

Neural and Spinal Cord Regeneration 193

Conclusion 197

Chronology 198

Further Resources 199

Final Thoughts 203

Glossary 207

Further Resources 212

Index 215

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