Biology of the Uterus

Biology of the Uterus

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781468455915
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 03/29/2012
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1989
Pages: 644
Product dimensions: 7.01(w) x 10.00(h) x 0.05(d)

Table of Contents

1 History.- 1. Greece.- 2. Alexandria.- 3. Rome.- 4. The “Dark Ages”.- 5. Renaissance.- 6. Seventeenth to Early Twentieth Centuries.- 7. Contemporary.- 8. References.- 2 Comparative Anatomy.- 1. Types of Uteri.- 2. Distribution and Probable Evolution of Uterine Types.- 3. Correlations of Uterine Types with Other Biological Features.- 4. Miscellaneous Aspects of the Comparative Morphology of the Uterus.- 5. Summary and Conclusions.- 6. References.- 7. Bibliography.- 3 Prenatal Human Development.- 1. Urinary Preliminaries.- 2. The Paramesonephric Ducts.- 3. The Vaginal Controversy.- 4. The Fetal Uterus.- 5. The Second Half of Prenatal Life.- 6. References.- 4 Vascular Anatomy.- 1. Basic Aspects of Architecture and Physiology of Uterine Arteries.- 1. 1. Nonpregnant.- 1. 2. Pregnant.- 2. Interaction of Trophoblast and Decidua.- 3. Contemporary Studies.- 4. References.- 5 Vascular Physiology of the Nonpregnant Uterus.- 1. Fundamental Characteristics of the Uterine Vasculature.- 1. 1. The Pressure-Flow Relationship.- 1. 2. Autonomic Influences.- 1. 3. Effects of Myometrial Contractions.- 1. 4. Endocrine Regulation.- 2. Uterine Blood Flow during the Ovarian Cycle.- 2. 1. Temporal Changes.- 2. 2. Hormonal and Other Correlates.- 3. Mediators of Estrogen-Induced Vasodilatation.- 4. Responses of the Nonplacental Uterine Vasculature during Pregnancy.- 5. Conclusion.- 6. References.- 6 Cellular Biochemistry of the Endometrium.- 1. Methodological Comments.- 2. Intracellular Constituents.- 2. 1. Cytoskeletal Proteins.- 2. 2. Oncogene Products.- 2. 3. The 24k Protein.- 3. Cell Surface.- 3. 1. Cell Polarity.- 3. 2. Cell Location.- 3. 3. Hormone-Dependent Alterations.- 3. 4. Preparation for Implantation.- 4. Extracellular Matrix.- 4. 1. Interstitial Components.- 4. 2. Basal Laminal Components.- 4. 3. Functional Significance of Matrix Reorganization.- 5. Secretory Components.- 5. 1. Uteroglobin.- 5. 2. Iron-Binding Secretory Products.- 5. 3. Prolactin.- 5. 4. Diamine Oxidase.- 5. 5.—2-PEG.- 5. 6.—1-PEG.- 5. 7. High-Molecular-Weight Components.- 5. 8. Other Glycoproteins.- 6. Concluding Remarks.- 7. References.- 7 Cell Biology of the Endometrium.- 1. Mechanism of Hormone Action.- 1. 1. General Mechanism of Hormone Action.- 1. 2. Polypeptide Hormones.- 1. 3. Steroid Hormones.- 1. 4. Estrogen Marker Proteins.- 1. 5. Progesterone Marker Proteins.- 2. Steroid Receptors.- 2. 1. Receptor Distribution.- 2. 2. Receptor Assays.- 2. 3. Nuclear Acceptor Sites.- 2. 4. Estrogen-Progestin Interactions.- 2. 5. Hamster Estrous Cycle.- 2. 6. Pregnancy.- 2. 7. Density-Shift Studies.- 2. 8. A Unifying Concept.- 3. References.- 8 The Endometrium of Delayed and Early Implantation.- 1. Marsupials.- 2. Roe Deer.- 3. Armadillos.- 4. Insectivores and Chiroptera.- 5. Carnivores.- 5. 1. Seals.- 5. 2. Bears.- 5. 3. Mustelids.- 6. Rodents.- 7. Nonhuman Primates.- 8. Discussion.- 9. References.- 9 The Implantation Reaction.- 1. Adhesion.- 1. 1. Morphological Changes in the Uterine Epithelial Cell Surface.- 1. 2. Surface Charge on Blasysts.- 1. 3. Surface Charge on the Uterine Epithelium.- 1. 4. Cell Adhesion Mechanisms.- 1. 5. Surface Glycoproteins on Blasysts.- 1. 6. Surface Glycoproteins on Uterine Epithelial Cells.- 2. Vascular Permeability.- 2. 1. Blood Vessels Responsible for Increased Vascular Permeability.- 2. 2. Role of Prostaglandins in Increased Vascular Permeability.- 2. 3. Endometrial Prostaglandins.- 2. 4. Blasyst Prostaglandins.- 3. The Decidual Cell Reaction.- 3. 1. The Primary Decidual Zone.- 3. 2. Antimesometrial Decidua.- 3. 3. Mesometrial Decidua.- 3. 4. The Role of Prostaglandins in Initiating Decidualization.- 3. 5. Mechanisms of Prostaglandin Effects on Vascular Permeability and Decidualization.- 3. 6. Decidual Cell Metabolism.- 3. 7. Functions of Decidual Tissue.- 4. Epithelial Cell Loss.- 4. 1. The Uterine Epithelium Adjacent to the Trophoblast.- 4. 2. Apoptosis as the Mode of Cell Death in Uterine Epithelium.- 4. 3. Effects of Trophoblast on Uterine Epithelium.- 4. 4. Effects of Decidual Tissue on Uterine Epithelium.- 5. References.- 10 Regeneration in the Primate Uterus: The Role of Stem Cells.- 1. Endometriectomy and the Location of the Endometrial Stem Cells.- 2. Compartmentalization of the Primate Endometrium.- 3. Zonation of the Primate Endometrium.- 4. Cyclic Changes in Endometrial Zonal Uptake of [3H]Thymidine.- 4. 1. Epithelial Mitotic Activity in the Transient Compartment during Estrogen Dominance.- 4. 2. Germinal Mechanisms in the Endometrial Basalis.- 5. Hypothesis: Cyclic Endometrial Renewal in Menstruating Primates.- 6. References.- 11 The Human Endometrium: Cyclic and Gestational Changes.- 1. Histology.- 2. Ultrastructure.- 2. 1. The Normal Menstrual Cycle.- 2. 2. The Nucleolar Channel System.- 2. 3. TheDecidua.- 2. 4. The Arias-Stella Reaction.- 2. 5. Scanning Electron Microscopy.- 2. 6. Ultrastructural Localization of Enzymes.- 3. Clinical Correlations.- 3. 1. Effects of Contraceptive Agents.- 3. 2. Menstruation.- 4. Structural Vascular Changes in Normal and Hypertensive Pregnancies.- 5. References.- 12 Endometrial Hyperplasia and Neoplasia.- 1. Laboratory Evidence.- 1. 1. Histology.- 1. 2. Electron Microscopy.- 1. 3. Morphometry, DNA-Feulgen Microspectrophotometry, and Flow Cytometry.- 1. 4. In Vitro DNA Histoautoradiography.- 1. 5. Immunohishemistry.- 2 Clinical Evidence.- 3. Coexistent Association.- 4. Clinical Implications of the Two-Disease Concept.- 5. References.- 13 Biochemistry of the Myometrium and Cervix.- 1. The Structure of the Myometrium.- 1. 1. Cellular Organization.- 1. 2. Filament Structure and Function.- 2. Calcium and Contractile Regulation.- 2. 1. The Importance of Ca2+ Ions.- 2. 2. The Source of Activating Calcium.- 2. 3. Measurements of Cellular Ca2+ Transients.- 3. Regulation of Transmembrane Ca2+ Fluxes.- 3. 1. Mechanisms of Ca2+ Efflux.- 3. 2. The Ca2+ Transport System of the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum.- 3. 3. Mechanisms of Ca2+ Influx.- 4. Contractile Proteins of the Myometrium.- 4. 1. Myosin.- 4. 2. Thin Filament Proteins.- 5. Regulation of Myometrial Contractility.- 5. 1. Calmodulin.- 5. 2. Calmodulin-Dependent Myosin Light Chain Kinase.- 5. 3. The Mechanism of MLCK Action.- 5. 4. Modulation of Smooth Muscle Contractility by MLCK.- 5. 5. Myosin Light Chain Phosphatase.- 5. 6. Phosphorylation of Myosin Light Chain and Heavy Chains by Other Kinases.- 5. 7. Second-Site Phosphorylation of Myosin.- 6. Mechanisms of Smooth Muscle Regulation Other Than MLCK.- 6. 1. Thin Filament Regulation: Caldesmon.- 6. 2. Regulation of Smooth Muscle Contraction by Cyclic Nucleotides.- 6. 3. Endocrine Regulation of Myometrial Contractility.- 7. Integrated Model for Regulation of Smooth Muscle Contractility.- 8. Preterm Birth and Tocolytic Therapy.- 8. 1. Calcium Channel-Blocking Agents.- 8. 2. Prostaglandin Synthesis Inhibitors.- 8. 3. Calmodulin-Inhibiting Drugs.- 8. 4. Functional Peptides.- 8. 5. The Efficacy of ß-Adrenergic Agents.- 9. Cervix.- 9. 1. Biochemistry of Cervical Maturation.- 9. 2. Hormonal Control of Cervical Maturation.- 9. 3. Relationship between Myometrial Contractility and Cervical Maturation.- 10. References.- 14 Electrophysiological Properties of Uterine Smooth Muscle.- 1. Review of Methodology.- 1. 1. Comparison of Uterine, Cardiac, and Skeletal Muscles.- 1. 2. A Brief Statement of the Ionic Theory of Excitation.- 1. 3. Methods of Studying Electrical Activities of Smooth Muscles.- 2. Ionic Distribution as the Basis of Electrophysiological Phenomena.- 2. 1. Studies in Ionic Contents and Distribution.- 2. 2. Ionic Contents and Intracellular Concentrations.- 2. 3. Hormonal and Gestational Influences on Ionic Distribution.- 3. Electrical Activity of the Myometrium and Other Mammalian Smooth Muscles.- 3. 1. Descriptive Phenomena.- 3. 2. Ionic Basis of Electrical Activity.- 3. 3. Tissue Phenomena.- 3. 4. Actions of Some Drugs on the Myometrium.- 4. Summary and Concluding Remarks.- 5. References.- 15 Ultrastructure of the Myometrium.- 1. Cellular Organization of the Myometrium.- 2. Ultrastructure of Myometrial Smooth Muscle Cells.- 2. 1. Size and Shape.- 2. 2. Organelles.- 2. 3. The Plasma Membrane.- 2. 4. Effects of Hormones and Pregnancy.- 3. Gap Junctions and Cell-to-Cell Communication in the Myometrium.- 3. 1. Gap Junction Structure.- 3. 2. Gap Junctions in the Myometrium.- 3. 3. Function of Gap Junctions.- 3. 4. Control of Myometrial Junctional Communication.- 3. 5. significance of Gap Junctions and Their Modulation to Pregnancy and Parturition.- 4. Contractile Mechanism of Myometrial Smooth Muscle Cells.- 4. 1. Thin Filaments.- 4. 2. Thick Filaments.- 4. 3. Cytoplasmic and Membrane-Associated Dense Bodies.- 4. 4. Intermediate Filaments.- 4. 5. Structural Organization of the Contractile Apparatus and Its Possible Association with the Cytoskeleton.- 4. 6. Mechanical Transmission in a Multicellular Tissue.- 5. Conclusion.- 6. References.- 16 Uterine Control of Ovarian Function.- 1. Ovarian Function.- 1. 1. Corpus Luteum in Rodentia and Lagomorpha.- 1. 2. Corpus Luteum in Artiodactyla.- 1. 3. Corpus Luteum in Primates.- 2. Uterine Function.- 2. 1. Development and Regression of Endometrium and Myometrium.- 2. 2. Role of the Uterus in Cyclic Periodicity.- 3. Uterine-Ovarian and Conceptus Interaction in Regulation of Ovarian Function.- 3. 1. Uterine-Ovarian Function during Pregnancy.- 3. 2. The Role of Uterine-Conceptus Interactions on Ovarian Function.- 3. 3. Uterine-Ovarian Microcirculation and Ovarian Function.- 4. Luteolytic Actions of the Uterus: Effects of Hysterectomy on Ovarian Function.- 4. 1. The Uterus and Luteal Function in Rodentia and Lagomorpha.- 4. 2. The Uterus and Luteal Function in Artiodactyla.- 4. 3. The Uterus and Luteal Function in Primates.- 5. Uterine-Ovarian Hormones and Ovarian Function.- 5. 1. Prostanoids and Leukotrienes.- 5. 2. Relaxin.- 5. 3. Oxyin.- 5. 4. Other Hormones Affecting Uterine Function: ACTH.- 6. Mechanisms of Uterine-Ovarian Interactions in Regulating Ovarian Function.- 6. 1. Morphology and Function of Placental and Luteal Cells.- 6. 2. Cellular and Biochemical Basis of Uterine-Ovarian Interactions.- 7. References.- 17 Endocrine Control of Parturition.- 1. Problems in Understanding Basic Mechanisms of Parturition.- 2. Preparation of the Uterus for Labor: Estrogen.- 2. 1. Possible Regulation of Estrogen Action at the Receptor Level.- 2. 2. The Role of Estrogens in Humans.- 2. 3. Identification of Active Estrogens in Humans.- 2. 4. Control of Estrogen Levels.- 3. Uterine Quiescence.- 3. 1. Progesterone.- 3. 2. Relaxin.- 3. 3. Adrenergic Agents.- 4. Activators of Uterine Activity.- 4. 1. Prostaglandins.- 4. 2. Oxyin.- 4. 3. Relaxin.- 5. Cervical Distensibility.- 5. 1. Hormonal Control of Cervical Maturation.- 5. 2. Relationship between Cervical Maturation and Myometrial Contractions.- 6. A General Model for Parturition.- 7. Unification of Mechanisms Proposed for Spontaneous Labor Induction.- 7. 1. Prostaglandins.- 7. 2. Estrogen/Progesterone.- 7. 3. Fetal ACTH.- 8. References.

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