Biophotonics: Science And Technology

Biophotonics: Science And Technology

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9789813235687
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company, Incorporated
Publication date: 08/23/2018
Pages: 292
Product dimensions: 6.50(w) x 1.50(h) x 9.50(d)

Table of Contents

Preface v

1 Introduction to Biophotonics 1

1.1 Definition of Biophotonics 1

1.2 What are Photonic Processes? 3

1.3 Fundamental Biology Studies Need Photonics 5

1.4 Applied Biology - Molecular Medicine Using Photonic Means 8

1.5 Layout of This Volume 10

2 Review of Electromagnetic Field Interaction with Matter 13

2.1 Electromagnetic Field, Intensity, and Photon Numbers 13

2.2 Classical or Quantum Mechanics Description of Interaction? 14

2.3 The Radiation Field and Its Quantum Description 16

2.4 One-photon Matter Interaction 18

2.4.1 Linear absorption 18

2.4.2 Birefringence and dichroism 22

2.4.3 Circular dichroism and rotatory dispersion 25

2.4.4 Attenuated total reflection (ATR) and totally internal reflection (TIR) spectroscopy 27

2.4.5 Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) 29

2.5 Two-photon Matter Interactions 31

2.5.1 Scattering of light - Structural determination and diffraction 31

2.5.2 Temporal studies: Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS) 34

2.5.3 Raman scattering (classical perspective) 35

2.5.4 Fluorescence spectroscopy 37

2.5.5 Fluorescence Resonant Energy Transfer (FRET) analysis 41

2.6 Nonlinear Optical Susceptibility 41

2.6.1 Second-order nonlinearities 43

2.6.2 Four-wave mixing processes 45

2.7 Gradient Radiation Pressure → Optical Trapping 47

3 Molecular and Cellular Structure 53

3.1 From Atoms to Molecules 53

3.1.1 Molecular bonding 53

3.1.2 Hybridization and the unique carbon bonding capability 57

3.1.3 Other molecular bonding mechanisms 60

3.2 Molecules of the Cell 67

3.2.1 Nucleic acids 68

3.2.2 Lipids 75

3.2.3 Proteins 81

3.2.4 Carbohydrates 91

4 The Expanse of Biology Problems in Need of Quantitative Solution 95

4.1 The Need to Measure at Increasingly Higher Spatial Resolution 95

4.1.1 X-ray diffraction and imaging 96

4.1.2 Electron microscopy 99

4.1.3 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy 99

4.1.4 Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopy (NSOM) 101

4.1.5 Optical imaging 102

4.2 Examples of How Optical Methods Are Used in Relating Structure to Function 103

4.2.1 Protection, regulation, and specification of proper functions within the cell 103

4.2.2 Muscle contractility 109

4.2.3 Genetic management: Replication, search, repair, and damage control 115

4.2.4 Helicase activity in prokaryotic cells 117

4.2.5 RNA polymerase-II 120

4.2.6 Telomere and telomerase 122

5 Optical Microscopy 129

5.1 Basics of an Optical Microscope 129

5.1.1 Summary of the needed parameters for imaging cellular or molecular parameters 131

5.2 Attempts to Meet the Needs of Higher Clarity in Microscopy 133

5.2.1 Phase contrast microscopy 133

5.2.2 Early X-ray microscopy imaging 135

5.2.3 Confocal microscopy - Beating that Abbe limit #1 137

5.2.4 Near-field microscopes - Beating Abbe limit #2 139

5.3 Using Contrast Agents, Intrinsic or Otherwise 143

5.3.1 Fluorescence or phosphorescence emission enhances contrast 143

5.3.2 Fluorescent proteins 146

5.3.3 Quantum dots 148

5.3.4 Search for better emitters 149

5.4 Ultrahigh Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy 149

5.4.1 Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED) 149

5.4.2 Photo-Activated Localization Microscopy (PALM) and STochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM) 152

5.4.3 Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM) 155

5.5 Multiphoton Excitation Fluorescence 158

5.6 Summary 162

6 Label-free High-resolution Microscopy 165

6.1 Many Faces of Nonlinear- Interaction 166

6.1.1 Second harmonic generation (SHG) and imaging 166

6.1.2 Sum frequency generation - Possibly spectral imaging 171

6.1.3 Stimulated Raman Scattering 174

6.1.4 Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) 176

6.1.5 Self-focusing and self-phase modulation 181

6.2 X-ray Microscopy 183

6.2.1 Early soft X-ray microscopes 183

6.2.2 Coherent X-ray laser sources for microscopy 184

7 Temporal Dynamics 193

7.1 Particle Tracking 193

7.1.1 Tracking motor molecule dynamics 197

7.2 Time Correlation Analysis 200

7.2.1 Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS or Dynamic Light Scattering [DLS]) 200

7.2.2 Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) 205

7.3 Progress in the Extension of the FCS Method 207

7.4 Fluorescence Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy (FCCS) 211

7.5 Combining Techniques 213

7.5.1 Multi (or Two) Photon Excited Fluorescence (M(T)PEF) FCS 213

7.5.2 Evanescent wave-FCS 214

7.6 Anti-bunching Spectroscopy 217

7.7 Imaging FCS 222

7.8 Fluorescence Resonant Energy Transfer (FRET) FCS 224

7.9 Summary 226

8 Photonics in Medicine 229

8.1 Visualization and Validation 230

8.1.1 Imaging with microscopy and endoscopy 230

8.1.2 Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) 231

8.1.3 Optical endoscope 238

8.1.4 Adaptive optics microscopy 240

8.2 Biomarkers 240

8.2.1 Use of the microRNA detectors 243

8.2.2 From antibodies to SHALs and aptamers 243

8.2.3 Multiplexed microbead assays - xMAP technology 246

8.2.4 DNA microarrays 247

8.2.5 Nanoparticles 250

8.2.6 Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) 250

8.3 Photonics Means of Medical Therapy 251

8.3.1 Photodynamic therapy (PDT) 251

8.3.2 Mechanism of PDT 252

8.3.3 Emerging areas of research in PDT 254

8.4 Controlling Molecular Gating Functions 256

8.4.1 Mechanism of action 257

8.5 Final Thoughts 260

Index 265

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