Pub. Date:
Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Biopsychology / Edition 4

Biopsychology / Edition 4

by Pinel


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780205289929
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Publication date: 07/10/1999
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 564
Product dimensions: 8.78(w) x 11.19(h) x 1.08(d)

About the Author

John Pinel, the author of Biopsychology, obtained his PhD from McGill University in Montreal. He worked briefly at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology before taking up his current position at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver. Professor Pinel is an award-winning teacher and the author of over 200 scientific papers; however, he feels that Biopsychology is his major career-related accomplishment. “It ties together everything that I love about my job: students, teaching, writing, and research.”


When asked about his personal interests, Professor Pinel speaks glowingly of his partner, Maggie, and son, Greg. The high quality of the illustrations in Biopsychology is largely attributable to the effort and talents of Maggie, who is an artist and technical writer. Greg is currently completing his PhD at the London School of Economics, specializing in social and educational programs for indigenous peoples.

“I get most of my exercise by rehearsing and performing West African drum rhythms,” Professor Pinel says. “For a peak mental and physical experience, a bit of Kpanlogo with my friend, Nigerian drum master Kwasi Iruoje is hard to beat.” Most of Professor Pinel’s relaxation comes from cuddling his cats, Sambala, Rastaman, and Squeak.

Table of Contents

Detailed Table of Contents


Chapter 1:  Biopsychology as a Neuroscience:  What is Biopsychology Anyway?

The Case of Jimmie G., the Man Frozen in Time

Four Major Themes of This Book

Thinking Clearly About Biopsychology

Clinical Implications

The Evolutionary Perspective


1.1      What is Biopsychology?

1.2      What is the Relation between Biopsychology and the Other Disciplines of Neuroscience?

1.3      What Types of Research Characterize the Biopsychology Approach?

Human and Nonhuman Subjects

Experiments and Nonexperiments

Quasiexperimental Studies

Pure and Applied Research

1.4      What are the Divisions of Biopsychology?

Physiological Psychology



The Case of Mr. R., the Brain-Damaged Student Who Switched to Architecture


Cognitive Neuroscience

Comparative Psychology

1.5      Converging Operations:  How Do Biopsychologists Work Together?

1.6      Scientific Inference:  How Do Biopsychologists Study the Unobservable Workings of the Brian?

1.7      Critical Thinking about Biopsychological Claims

Case 1:  Jose and the Bull

Case 2:  Becky, Moniz, and Prefrontal Lobotomy


Chapter 2:  Evolution, Genetics, and Experience:  Thinking about the Biology of Behavior

2.1      Thinking about the Biology of Behavior:  From Dichotomies to Relations and Interactions

Is It Physiological, or Is It Psychological?

Is It Inherited, or Is It Learned?

Problems with Thinking about the Biology of Behavior in Terms of Traditional Dichotomies

A Model of the Biology of Behavior

2.2      Human Evolution

Evolution and Behavior

Course of Human Evolution

Thinking about Human Evolution

Evolution of the Human Brain

Evolutionary Psychology:  Understanding Mate Bonding

Thinking about Evolutionary Psychology

2.3      Fundamental Genetics

Mendelian Genetics

Chromosomes:  Reproduction, Linkage, and Recombination

Chromosome:  Structure and Replication

Sex Chromosomes and Sex-Linked Traits

The Genetic Code and Gene Expression

Mitochondrial DNA

Modern Genetics

2.4      Behavioral Development:  The Interaction of Genetic Factors and Experience

Selective Breeding of “Maze-Bright” and “Maze-Dull”  Rats

Phenylketonuria:  A Single-Gene Metabolic Disorder

Development of Birdsong

2.5      The Genetics of Human Psychological Differences

Development of Individuals versus Development of Differences among Individuals

Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart


Chapter 3:  The Anatomy of the Nervous System:  The System, Structures, and Cells That Make Up Your Nervous System

3.1      General Layout of the Nervous System

Division of the Nervous System

Meninges, Ventricles, and Cerebrospinal Fluid

Blood-Brain Barrier

3.2      Cells of the Nervous System

Anatomy of Neurons

Glial Cells:  The Forgotten Majority

3.3      Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

Neuroanatomical Techniques

Directions in the Vertebrate Nervous System

3.4      The Spinal Cord

3.5      The Five Major Divisions of the Brain

3.6      Major Structures of the Brain







Chapter 4  Neural Conduction and Synaptic Transmission:  How Neurons Send and Receive Signals

The Lizard, a Case of Parkinson’s Disease

4.1      The Neuron’s Resting Membrane Potential

Recording the Membrane Potential

The Resting Membrane Potential

4.2      Generation and Conduction of Postsynaptic Potentials

4.3      Integration of Postsynaptic Potentials and Generation of Action Potentials

4.4      Conduction of Action Potentials

The Ionic Basis of Action Potentials

Refractory Periods

Axonal Conduction of Action Potentials

Conduction in Myelinated Axons

The Velocity of Axonal Conduction

Conduction in Neurons without Axons

The Hodgkin-Huxley Model and the Changing View of Dendritic Function

4.5      Synaptic Transmission:  Chemical Transmission of Signals from One Neuron to Another

Structure of Synapses

Synthesis, Packaging, and Transport of Neurotransmitter Molecules

Release of Neurotransmitter Molecules

Activation of Receptors by Neurotransmitter Molecules

Reuptake, Enzymatic Degradation, and Recycling

Glial Function and Synaptic Transmission

4.6      The Neurotransmitters

Amino Acid Neurotransmitters

Monoamine Neurotransmitters


Unconventional Neurotransmitters


4.7      Pharmacology of Synaptic Transmission and Behavior

How Drugs Influence Synaptic Transmission

Behavioral Pharmacology:  Three Influential Lines of Research


Chapter 5  The Research Methods of Biopsychology:  Understanding What Biopsychologists Do

The Ironic Case of Professor P.


5.1      Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Contrast X-Rays

X-Ray Computed Tomography

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Positron Emission Technology

Functional MRI


Brain-Image Archives

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

5.2      Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Scalp Electroencephalography

Muscle Tension

Eye Movement

Skin Conductance

Cardiovascular Activity

5.3      Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Stereotaxic Surgery

Lesion Methods

Electrical Stimulation

Invasive Electrophysiological Recording Methods

5.4      Pharmacological Research Methods

Routes of Drug Administration

Selective Chemical Lesions

Measuring Chemical Activity of the Brain

Location Neurotransmitters and Receptors in the Brain

5.5      Genetic Engineering

Gene Knockout Techniques

Gene Replacement Techniques

PART TWO:  Behavioral Research Methods of Biopsychology

5.6      Neuropsychological Testing

Modern Approach to Neuropsychological Testing

Tests of the Common Neuropsychological Test Battery

Tests of Specific Neuropsychological Function

Frontal Lobe Function

5.7      Behavioral Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience

5.8      Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Paradigms for Assessment of Species-Common Behaviors

Traditional Conditioning Paradigms

Seminatural Animal Learning Paradigms


Chapter 6  The Visual System:  How We See

The Case of Mrs. Richards:  Fortification Illusions and the Astronomer

6.1      Light Enters the Eye and Reaches the Retina

The Pupil and the Lens

Eye Position and Binocular Disparity

6.2      The Retina and Translation of Light into Neural Signals

Cone and Rod Vision

Spectral Sensitivity

Eye Movement

Visual Transduction:  The Conversion of Light to Neural Signals

6.3      From Retina to Primary Visual Cortex

Retinotopic Organization

The M and P Channels

6.4      Seeing Edges

Lateral Inhibition and Contrast Enhancement

Receptive Fields of Visual Neurons

Receptive Fields:  Neurons of the Retina-Geniculate-Striate System

Receptive Fields:  Simple Cortical Cells

Receptive Fields:  Complex Cortical Cells

Columnar Organization of Primary Visual Cortex

The Case of Mrs. Richards Revisited

Plasticity of Receptive Fields of Neurons in the Visual Cortex

6.5      Seeing Color

Component and Opponent Processing

Color Constancy and the Retinex Theory

6.6      Cortical Mechanisms of Vision and Conscious Awareness

Damage to Primary Visual Cortex:  Scotomas and Completion

The Case of the Physiological Psychologist Who Made Faces Disappear

Damage to Primary Visual Cortex:  Scotomas, Blindsight, and Conscious Awareness

The Case of D.B., the Man Confused by His Own Blindsight

Functional Areas of Secondary and Association Visual Cortex

Dorsal and Ventral Streams

The Case of D.F., the Woman Who Could Grasp Objects She Did Not Consciously See

The Case of A.T., the Woman Who Could Not Accurately Grasp Unfamiliar Objects That She Saw




Chapter 7  Mechanisms of Perception:  Hearing, Touch, Smell, Taste, and Attention:  How You Know the World

The Case of the Man Who Could Only Hear One Thing at a Time

7.1      Principals of Sensory System Organization

Hierarchical Organization

The Case of the Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat

Functional Segregation

Parallel Processing

The Current Model of Sensory System Organization

7.2      Auditory System

The Ear

From the Ear to the Primary Auditory Cortex

Subcortical Mechanisms of Sound Localization

Primary and Secondary Auditory Cortex

Effects of Damage to the Auditory System

7.3      Somatosensory System:  Touch and Pain

Cutaneous Receptors


The Two Major Somatosensory Pathways

Cortical Areas of Somatosensation

Effects of Damage to the Primary Somatosensory Cortex

Somatosensory System and Association Cortex

The Case of W.M., Who Reduced His Scotoma with His Hand

Somatosensory Agnosias

The Case of Aunt Betty, Who Lost Half of Her Body

The Perception of Pain

Neuropathic Path

7.4      The Chemical Senses:  Smell and Taste

The Olfactory System

The Gustatory System

Brain Damage and the Chemical Senses

7.5      Selective Attention

Change Blindness

Neural Mechanisms of Attention



Chapter 8  The Sensorimotor System:  How You Move

The Case of Rhonda, The Dexterous Cashier

8.1      The Principles of Sensorimotor Function

The Sensorimotor System Is Hierarchically Organized

Motor Output is Guided by Sensory Input

The Case of G.O., the Man with Too Little Feedback

Learning Changes the Nature and Locus of Sensorimotor Control

A General Model of Sensorimotor System Function

8.2      Sensorimotor Association Cortex

Posterior Parietal Association Cortex

The Case of Mrs. S., the Woman Who Turned in Circles

Dorsolateral Prefrontal Association Cortex

8.3       Secondary Motor Cortex

Identifying the Areas of Secondary Motor Cortex

Mirror Neurons

8.4      Primary Motor Cortex

Conventional View of Primary Motor Cortex

Current View of Primary Motor Cortex

Belle:  The Monkey That Controlled a Robot with Her Mind

Effects of Primary Motor Cortex Lesions

8.5      Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia


Basal Ganglia

8.6      Descending Motor Pathways

Dorsolateral Corticospinal Tract and Dorsolateral Corticorubrospinal Tract

Ventromedial Corticospinal Tract and Ventromedial Cortico-brainstem-spinal Tract

Comparison of the Two Dorsolateral Motor Pathways and the Two Ventromedial Motor Pathways

8.7      Sensory Spinal Circuits


Receptor Organs of Tendons and Muscles

Stretch Reflex

Withdrawal Reflex

Reciprocal Innervation

Recurrent Collateral Inhibition

Walking:  A Complex Sensorimotor Reflex

8.8      Central Sensorimotor Programs

Central Sensorimotor Programs Are Capable of Motor Equivalence

Sensory Information That Controls Central Sensorimotor Programs Is Not Necessarily Conscious

Central Sensorimotor Programs Can Develop without Practice

Practice Can Create Central Sensorimotor Programs

Functioning Brain Imaging of Sensorimotor Learning

The Case of Rhonda Revisited


Chapter 9  Development of the Nervous System:  From Fertilized Egg to You

The Case of Genie

9.1      Phases of Neurodevelopment

Induction of the Neural Plate

Neural Proliferation

Migration and Aggregation



Axon Growth and Synapse Formation

Axon Growth

Synapse Formation

Neuron Death and Synapse Rearrangement

Neuron Death

Synapse Rearrangement

9.2      Postnatal Cerebral Development in Human Infants

Postnatal Growth of the Human Brain

Development of the Prefrontal Cortex

9.3      Effects of Experience on the Early Development, Maintenance, and Reorganization of Neural Circuits

Early Studies of Experience and Neurodevelopment: Deprivation and Enrichment

Competitive Nature of Experience and Neurodevelopment: Ocular Dominance Columns

Effects of Experience on Topographic Sensory Cortex Maps

Mechanisms by Which Experience Might Influence Neurodevelopment

9.4      Neuroplasticity in Adults

Neurogenesis in Adult Mammals

Effects of Experience on the Reorganization of the Adult Cortex

9.5      Disorders of Neurodevelopment: Autism and Williams Syndrome


The Case of Alex:  Are You Ready to Rock?

Autism is a Heterogeneous Disorder  

Autistic Savants

Genetic Basis of Autism

Neural Mechanisms of Autism  

Williams Syndrome

The Case of Anne Louise McGarrah: The Uneven Abilities of Williams Syndrome


Chapter 10:  Brain Damage and Neuroplasticity:  Can the Brain Recover from Damage?

The Ironic Case of Professor P.

10.1  Causes of Brain Damage

Brain Tumors

Cerebrovascular Disorders:  Strokes

   Cerebral Hemorrhage

   Cerebral Ischemia

Closed-Head Injuries

The Case of Jerry Quarry:  Ex-Boxer

Infections of the Brain


Genetic Factors

Programmed Cell Death

10.2  Neuropsychological Diseases


The Subtlety of Complex Partial Seizures:  Two Cases

Parkinson’s Disease

Huntington’s Disease

Multiple Sclerosis

Alzheimer’s Disease           

10.3  Animal Models of Human Neuropsychological Disease

Kindling Model of Epilepsy

Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

MPTP Model of Parkinson’s Disease

The Case of the Frozen Addicts

10.4 Neuroplastic Responses to Nervous System Damage: Degeneration, Regeneration, Reorganization, and Recovery

Neural Degeneration

Neural Regeneration

Neural Reorganization

Recovery of Function after Brain Damage

10.5  Neuroplasticity and the Treatment of Nervous System Damage

Reducing Brain Damage by Blocking Neurodegeneration

Promoting Recovery from CNS Damage by Promoting Regeneration

Promoting Recovery from CNS Damage by Neurotransplantation

The Case of Roberto Garcia d’Orta: The Lizard Gets an Autotransplant

Promoting Recovery from CNS Damage by Rehabilitative Training

The Cases of Tom and Philip: Phantom Limbs and Ramachandran

The Ironic Case of Professor P.: Recovery


Chapter 11:  Learning, Memory, and Amnesia:  How Your Brain Stores Information

11.1  Amnesic Effects of Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobectomy

The Case of H.M., the Man Who Changed the Study of Memory

Formal Assessment of H.M.’s Anterograde Amnesia

Scientific Contributions of H.M.’s Case

Medial Temporal Lobe Amnesia

Semantic and Episodic Memories

The Case of K. C.: The Man Who Can’t Time Travel

The Case of the Clever Neuropsychologist: Spotting Episodic Memory Deficits

Effects of Cerebral Ischemia on the Hippocampus and Memory

The Case of R.B.: Product of a Bungled Operation

11.2  Amnesia of Korsakoff’s Syndrome

The Up-Your-Nose Case of N.A.

11.3  Amnesia of Alzheimer’s Disease

11.4 Amnesia after Concussion: Evidence for Consolidation

Posttraumatic Amnesia

Gradients of Retrograde Amnesia and Memory Consolidation


The Hippocampus and Consolidation

11.5  Neuroanatomy of Object-Recognition Memory

Monkey Model of Object-Recognition Amnesia: The Delayed Nonmatching-to-Sample Test

The Delayed Nonmatching-to-Sample Test for Rats

Neuroanatomical Basis of the Object-Recognition Deficits Resulting from Medial Temporal Lobectomy

11.6  The Hippocampus and Memory for Spatial Location

Hippocampal Lesions Disrupt Spatial Memory

Hippocampal Place Cells

Comparative Studies of the Hippocampus and Spatial Memory

Theories of Hippocampal Function

11.7  Where Are Memories Stored?

Inferotemporal Cortex


Prefrontal Cortex

The Case of the Cook Who Couldn’t

Cerebellum and Striatum

11.8  Synaptic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory

Long-Term Potentiation

Induction of LTP: Learning

Maintenance and Expression of LTP: Storage and Recall

Variability of LTP

11.9  Conclusion: Infantile Amnesia and the Biopsychologist Who Remembered H.M.

Infantile Amnesia

Posttraumatic Amnesia and Episodic Memory

The Case of R.M., the Biopsychologist Who Remembered H.M.


Chapter 12:  Hunger, Eating, and Health:  Why Do Many People Eat Too Much?

The Case of the Man Who Forgot Not to Eat

12.1  Digestion, Energy Storage, and Energy Utilization

Energy Storage in the Body

Three Phases of Energy Metabolism

12.2  Theories of Hunger and Eating: Set Points versus Positive Incentives

Set-Point Assumption

Glucostatic and Lipostatic Set-Point Theories of Hunger and Eating

Problems with Set-Point Theories of Hunger and Eating

Positive-Incentive Perspective

12.3  Factors That Determine What, When, and How Much We Eat

Factors That Determine What We Eat

Factors That Influence When We Eat

Factors That Influence How Much We Eat

12.4  Physiological Research on Hunger and Satiety

Role of Blood Glucose Levels in Hunger and Satiety

Myth of Hypothalamic Hunger and Satiety Centers

Role of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Satiety

Hunger and Satiety Peptides

Serotonin and Satiety

Prader-Willi Syndrome: The Case of Miss A.

12.5  Body Weight Regulation: Set Points versus Settling Points

Set-Point Assumptions about Body Weight and Eating

Set Points and Settling Points in Weight Control

12.6  Human Obesity: Causes, Treatments, and Mechanisms

Why Is There an Epidemic of Obesity?

Why Do Some People Become Obese While Others Do Not?

Why Are Weight-Loss Programs Typically Ineffective?

The Case of the Child with No Leptin

Serotonergic Drugs and the Treatment of Obesity

12.7  Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa

The Relation Between Anorexia and Bulimia

Anorexia and Positive Incentives

The Case of the Anorexic Student


Chapter 13:  Hormones and Sex:  What’s Wrong with the Mamawawa?

The Developmental and Activational Effects of Sex Hormones

The Men-Are-Men-and-Women-Are-Women Assumption

13.1  The Neuroendocrine System


Classes of Hormones


Sex Steroids

Hormones of the Pituitary

Female Gonadal Hormone Levels Are Cyclic; Male Gonadal Hormone Levels Are Steady

Neural Control of the Pituitary

Control of the Anterior and Posterior Pituitary by the Hypothalamus

Discovery of Hypothalamic Releasing Hormones

Regulation of Hormone Levels

Pulsatile Hormone Release

A Summary Model of Gonadal Endocrine Regulation

13.2  Hormones and Sexual Development

Fetal Hormones and the Development of Reproductive Organs

Sex Differences in the Brain

Perinatal Hormones and Behavioral Development

Puberty: Hormones and the Development of Secondary Sex Characteristics

13.3  Three Cases of Exceptional Human Sexual Development

The Case of Anne S., the Woman Who Wasn’t

The Case of the Little Girl Who Grew into a Boy

The Case of the Twin Who Lost His Penis

Do the Exceptional Cases Prove the Rule?

13.4  Effects of Gonadal Hormones on Adults

Male Reproduction-Related Behavior and Testosterone

The Case of the Man Who Lost and Regained His Manhood

Female Reproduction-Related Behavior and Gonadal Hormones

Anabolic Steroid Abuse

The Neuroprotective Effects of Estradiol

13.5  Neural Mechanisms of Sexual Behavior

Structural Differences between the Male Hypothalamus and the Female Hypothalamus

The Hypothalamus and Male Sexual Behavior

The Hypothalamus and Female Sexual Behavior

13.6  Sexual Orientation, Hormones, and the Brain

Sexual Orientation and Genes

Sexual Orientation and Early Hormones

What Triggers the Development of Sexual Attraction?

Is There a Difference in the Brains of Homosexuals and Heterosexuals?


The Independence of Sexual Orientation and Sexual Identity


Chapter 14:  Sleep, Dreaming, and Circadian Rhythms:  How Much Do You Need to Sleep?

The Case of the Woman Who Wouldn’t Sleep

14.1  The Measures and Stages of Sleep

The Three Standard Psychophysiological Measures of Sleep

Four Stages of Sleep EEG

14.2  REM Sleep and Dreaming

Testing Common Beliefs about Dreaming

The Interpretation of Dreams

14.3  Why Do We Sleep, and Why Do We Sleep When We Do?

14.4  Comparative Analysis of Sleep

14.5  Circadian Sleep Cycles

Free-Running Circadian Sleep-Wake Cycles

Jet Lag and Shift Work

14.6  Effects of Sleep Deprivation

Personal Experience of Sleep Deprivation: A Cautionary Note

Two Classic Sleep-Deprivation Case Studies

The Case of the Sleep-Deprived Students

The Case of Randy Gardner

Experimental Studies of Sleep Deprivation in Humans

Sleep-Deprivation Studies with Laboratory Animals

REM-Sleep Deprivation

Sleep Deprivation Increases the Efficiency of Sleep

14.7  Four Areas of the Brain Involved in Sleep

Two Areas of the Hypothalamus Involved in Sleep

The Case of Constantin von Economo, the Insightful Neurologist

Reticular Activating System and Sleep

Reticular REM-Sleep Nuclei

14.8  The Circadian Clock: Neural and Molecular Mechanisms

Location of the Circadian Clock in the Suprachiasmatic Nuclei

Mechanisms of Entrainment

Genetics of Circadian Rhythms

14.9  Drugs That Affect Sleep

Hypnotic Drugs

Antihypnotic Drugs


14.10  Sleep Disorders


Mr. B., the Case of Iatrogenic Insomnia


REM-Sleep-Related Disorders

The Case of the Sleeper Who Ran Over Tackle

14.11 The Effects of Long-Term Sleep Reduction

Long-Term Reduction of Nightly Sleep

Long-Term Sleep Reduction by Napping

Long-Term Sleep Reduction: A Personal Case Study

The Case of the Author Who Reduced His Sleep 

Effects of Short Sleep Times on Health






Chapter 15:  Drug Addiction and the Brain’s Reward Circuits

Chemicals That Harm with Pleasure

Case of the Drugged High School Teachers

15.1  Basic Principles of Drug Action

Drug Administration and Absorption

Drug Penetration of the Central Nervous System

Mechanisms of Drug Action

Drug Metabolism and Elimination

Drug Tolerance

Drug Withdrawal Effects and Physical Dependence

Addiction: What Is It?

15.2  Role of Learning in Drug Tolerance

Contingent Drug Tolerance

Conditioned Drug Tolerance

Thinking about Drug Conditioning

15.3  Five Commonly Abused Drugs




Cocaine and Other Stimulants

The Opiates: Heroin and Morphine

Comparison of the Hazards of Tobacco, Alcohol, Marijuana, Cocaine, and Heroin

The Drug Dilemmas: Striking the Right Balance

15.4  Biopsychological Approaches to Theories of Addiction

Physical-Dependence and Positive-Incentive Perspectives of Addiction

From Pleasure to Compulsion: Incentive-Sensitization Theory

Relapse and Its Causes

15.5  Intracranial Self-Stimulation and the Pleasure Centers of the Brain

Fundamental Characteristics of Intracranial Self-Stimulation

Mesotelencephalic Dopamine System and Intracranial Self-Stimulation

15.6  Early Studies of Brain Mechanisms of Addiction: Dopamine

Two Key Methods for Measuring Drug-Produced Reinforcement in Laboratory Animals

Early Evidence of the Involvement of Dopamine in Drug Addiction

Nucleus Accumbens and Drug Addiction

Support for the Involvement of Dopamine in Addiction: Evidence from Imaging Human Brains

Dopamine Release in the Nucleus Accumbens: Reward or Expectation of Reward

15.7  Current Approaches to Brain Mechanisms of Addiction

Brain Mechanisms of Addiction: Recent Developments

Structures that Mediate Addiction: The Current View

15.8  A Noteworthy Case of Addiction

The Case of Sigmund Freud





Chapter 16:  Lateralization, Language, and the Split Brain:  The Left Brain and the Right Brain of Language

16.1  Cerebral Lateralization of Function: Introduction

Discovery of the Special Contributions of Left-Hemisphere Damage to Aphasia and Apraxia

Tests of Cerebral Lateralization

Discovery of the Relation between Speech Laterality and Handedness

Sex Differences in Brain Lateralization

16.2  The Split Brain

Groundbreaking Experiment of Myers and Sperry

Commissurotomy in Human Epileptics

Evidence That the Hemispheres of Split-Brain Patients Can Function Independently


Doing Two Things at Once

The Z Lens

    Dual Mental Functioning and Conflict in Split-Brain Patients

The Case of Peter, the Split-Brain Patient Tormented by Conflict

Independence of Split Hemispheres: Current Perspective

16.3  Differences between the Left and Right Hemispheres

Slight Biases versus All-or-None Hemispheric Differences

Examples of Cerebral Lateralization of Function

What Is Lateralized--Broad Clusters of Abilities or Individual Cognitive Processes?

Anatomical Asymmetries of the Brain

Theories of Cerebral  Lateralization of Function: Why Did Cerebral Lateralization Evolve?

The Case of W.L., the Man Who Experienced Aphasia for Sign Language

16.4  Cortical Localization of Language: The Wernicke-Geschwind Model

Historical Antecedents of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model

The Wernicke-Geschwind Model

16.5  Evaluation of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model

Effects of Damage to Various Areas of Cortex on Language-Related Abilities

Electrical Stimulation of the Cortex and Localization of Language

Current Status of the Wernicke-Geschwind Model

16.6  Cognitive Neuroscience Approach to Language

Functional Brain Imaging and the Localization of Language

16.7  Cognitive Neuroscience Approach to Dyslexia

Developmental Dyslexia: Causes and Neural Mechanisms

Developmental Dyslexia: Cultural Diversity and Biological Unity

Cognitive Neuroscience Analysis of Reading Aloud: Deep and Surface Dyslexia

The Case of N.I., the Woman Who Read with Her Right Hemisphere





Chapter 17:  Biopsychology of Emotion, Stress, and Health:  Fear, the Dark Side of Emotion

17.1  Biopsychology of Emotion: Introduction

Early Landmarks in the Biopsychological Investigation of Emotion

The Mind-Blowing Case of Phineas Gage

A Human Case of Kluver-Bucy Syndrome

Emotions and the Autonomic Nervous System

Emotions and Facial Expression

17.2  Fear, Defense, and Aggression

Types of Aggressive and Defensive Behaviors

Aggression and Testosterone

17.3  Neural Mechanisms of Fear Conditioning

Amygdala and Fear Conditioning

Contextual Fear Conditioning and the Hippocampus

Lateral Nucleus of the Amygdala and Fear Conditioning

17.4  Stress and Health

The Stress Response

Animal Models of Stress

Stress and Gastric Ulcers

Psychoneuroimmunology: Stress, the Immune System, and the Brain

Early Experience of Stress

Stress and the Hippocampus

17.5  Brain Mechanisms of Human Emotion

Specific Role of the Amygdala in Human Emotion

The Case of S.P., the Woman Who Couldn’t Perceive Fear

Specific Role of the Medial Prefrontal Lobes in Human Emotion

Lateralization of Emotion

Individual Differences in the Neural Mechanisms of Emotion

The Case of Charles Whitman, the Texas Tower Sniper





Chapter 18:  Biopsychology of Psychiatric Disorders:  The Brain Unhinged

18.1  Schizophrenia

The Case of Lena, the Catatonic Schizophrenic

What Is Schizophrenia?

Causal Factors in Schizophrenia

Discovery of the First Antischizophrenic Drugs

Dopamine Theory of Schizophrenia

Current Research on the Neural Basis of Schizophrenia

18.2  Affective Disorders: Depression and Mania

The Case of P.S., the Weeping Widow

Major Categories of Affective Disorders

Causal Factors in Affective Disorders

Discovery of Antidepressant Drugs

Brain Pathology and Affective Disorders

Theories of Depression

Antidepressant Effect of Sleep Deprivation and Exercise

18.3  Anxiety Disorders

The Case of M.R., the Woman Who Was Afraid To Go Out

Five Classes of Anxiety Disorders

Etiology of Anxiety Disorders

Pharmacological Treatment of Anxiety Disorders

Antidepressant Drugs

Animal Models of Anxiety

Neural Bases of Anxiety Disorders

18.4  Tourette Syndrome

The Case of R.G.--Barking Mad

What Is Tourette Syndrome?

Study of the Neuropathology of Tourette Syndrome

Brain Mechanisms of Tourette Syndrome

Treatment of Tourette Syndrome

The Case of P.H., the Neuroscientist with Tourette Syndrome

18.5  Clinical Trials: Development of New Psychotherapeutic Drugs

Clinical Trials: The Three Phases

Controversial Aspects of Clinical Trials

Effectiveness of Clinical Trials

The Case of S.B., the Biopsychology Student Who Took Control





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