Pub. Date:
Elsevier Science
Bioscience and Bioengineering of Titanium Materials

Bioscience and Bioengineering of Titanium Materials

by Yoshiki Oshida


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Bioscience and Bioengineering of Titanium Materials

The second edition of Bioscience and Bioengineering of Titanium Materials is an essential resource for anyone researching titanium in its fundamental aspects and in medical/dental applications. The book organizes and processes the findings from over 2,000 published articles and studies into a coherent and easily accessible volume, deftly weaving together older and newer technologies to give a clear overview. Bridging the gap between medical/dental and engineering/technology areas, the book covers material classification, fabrication and modification, as well as applications and biological reactions to titanium implants.

The author, with extensive work in academics and industry, helps medical practitioners and students answer many practical questions, including: What is titanium? What type of titanium materials should I use in this case? How can I fabricate my design using titanium? Are there any alternative materials or methods? In the second edition, macro-, micro-, and nano-texturing of titanium surfaces, tissue engineering-related materials including scaffolds, and functionally graded materials and structures are extensively included and analyzed.

  • Provides quick access to the primary literature in this field
  • Up-to-date information on nanoscience and nanotechnology developments
  • Helps answer questions about the most appropriate materials to use and when to use them

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780080451428
Publisher: Elsevier Science
Publication date: 12/28/2006
Pages: 448
Product dimensions: 1.00(w) x 9.21(h) x 6.14(d)

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Bioscience and Bioengineering of Titanium Materials

By Yoshiki Oshida


Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
All right reserved.

ISBN: 978-0-444-62626-4

Chapter One


In Greek mythology, the giant god Titan, who was the son of Uranos (Father Heaven) and Gaia (Mother Earth), had lost several wars against the gods of Olympus, which resulted in his being confined in the underworld. The element Titanium was discovered by German chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth, who confirmed it as a new element; in 1795, he named it for the Latin word for Earth (also the name for the Titans of Greek myth).

Because of the unique properties of titanium materials, including their lightweight and high specific strength (which is also referred to as high strength-to-weight ratio), low modulus of elasticity, and excellent corrosion resistance, they (both unalloyed and alloyed) have been important materials for the aerospace industry since the early 1950s. It was hard to predict, at that time, that titanium materials would have such importance not only for industrial/engineering applications but also for dental and medical applications.

Nowadays, the medical device industry increasingly relies on knowledge of materials science and engineering to develop sophisticated replacements for natural tissues. For example, the $3.2 billion cardiac stent market has expanded over the past decade (2000 through 2010) due to the development of flexible polymer balloon catheters that expand obstructed blood vessels; metallic wire meshes that provide structural support to blood vessels; and biodegradable polymers that release antiproliferative pharmacologic agents in order to minimize closure (restenosis) of blood vessels. Estimates of the numbers of biomedical devices in the US incorporating biomaterials in 2002 include 448,000 for total hip joint replacements, 452,000 for knee joint replacements, 24,000 for shoulder joint replacements, 854,000 for dental implants, 1,204,000 for coronary stents, and 1,328,000 for coronary catheters. Novel biomaterials, including biologically derived materials and nanoscale materials, are being developed for advanced prostheses and functional medical devices. These biomaterials will provide integration of multiple functions, miniaturization of devices, an increase in stability, and a decrease in cost. It is anticipated that novel medical devices and prostheses will play a significant role in improving the quality of health care for patients. However, the difficulty of precisely determining biomaterial behavior during longer periods of time and under different human-related environments makes it necessary to investigate implant materials, taking into account the influence of the large number of system parameters. The complex nature and numerous applications of biomaterials require knowledge about different variables in regard to biocompatibility, corrosion behavior, mechanical characteristics, stability and durability in aggressive environments including wear and friction activities.

The choice of materials used for designing a medical implant is governed by biocompatibility, bioadhesion, biofunctionality, corrosion resistance, etc. Understanding liquid–solid interactions through the behavior of the liquid–solid interface is very important in biomedical implants. Liquid–solid interaction may or may not include chemical reactions, and the degree of liquid spreading over the solid surface (wetting) may vary based on the chemical properties of the materials involved (surface free energy) and the topography of the solid surface (roughness). The wetting of solid surfaces by biological fluids is often necessary for a chain of biological events to unfurl (expand) so that a foreign material may be accepted in vivo and thus become bioactive.

The integration of biology into materials science and engineering can be complicated by the lack of a common framework and common language among otherwise disparate disciplines. The integration of metallurgy, ceramics, and polymers into materials science and engineering is based upon processing–structure–property relationships that are now well accepted. The author has taught "Materials and Processes in Manufacturing" (MFE636) at the Syracuse University College of Engineering Graduate School (Syracuse NY, USA) for years, and a whole course scenario and class presentation has been prepared based on the processing–structure–property concept. Therefore, a common paradigm might also help unify the vast array of perspectives and challenges present in the interdisciplinary study of biomaterials, biological materials, and biomimetic materials. The traditional Materials Science and Engineering paradigm was modified to account for the adaptive and hierarchical nature of biological materials.

Research and development in materials design, manufacturing technologies, characterization, and evaluation methods involved in titanium materials are some of the best examples of interdisciplinary science and technology; such disciplines might include physics, chemistry, metallurgy, mechanics, and surface and interface sciences, as well as biological science, engineering, and technology (see Figure 12.1). One of the typical examples can be seen in dental and orthopedic implant systems, which have been developed by integrating industrial engineering, bioengineering, and supportive advanced techniques.

Although empiricism and trial and error played a major role in the early stage of research and development on titanium materials, in the last 30 years progress has been made toward a multidisciplinary scientific approach to the study of titanium materials and the development of materials with better performance and properties. The research and development of titanium materials has been heavily dependent on the aerospace industries, and this area will continue to be a significant percentage of total consumption of titanium materials in the coming years. Titanium usage on Boeing aircraft has continuously increased from 1% on the 727 (1963) to 3% on the 747 (1969), 5% on the 757 (1983), and 9% on the 777 (1994). Over the last decade, the focus of titanium alloy development has shifted from aerospace to industrial applications. Different industrial sectors have been looking for different types of development in new titanium alloys. They include Ti-5.8Al-4Sn-3.5Zr-0.7Nb-0.5Mo-0.35Si-0.06C, Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo, and Ti-4Al4Mo-2Sn-0.5Si for gas turbine engine materials; Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al, Ti-15V-3Cr3Sn-3Al, and Ti-15Mo-2.8Al-3Nb-0.2Si for airframe materials; Ti-6Al-1.8Fe-0.2Si for ballistic armor; Ti-6.8Mo-4.5Fe-1.5Al for geothermal and offshore tubular materials; Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al (having higher strength and lower modulus) for sporting goods; V-free Ti-6Al-4V equivalent alloys for medical and dental applications; and NiTi–Cu alloys for medical orthopedic devices.

Not only materials but also the technologies developed and successfully used in industry can be transferred to medical and dental areas. The computer-aided design and machining (CAD/CAM) process is an excellent example of a technology currently used to design and fabricate dental restorations. Investigators are also combining CAD and artificial intelligence (AI) to design complex prosthetic devices such as partial dentures. Computers have also been used to analyze the stress levels and stress distribution on dental restorations, dental implants, and orthopedic implants. They can simulate internal stress distributions under different conditions and loading situations, and the results can be used to optimize the CAD process (e.g., two- or three-dimensional finite element modeling and stress analyses). The application of lasers to dentistry is another good example of technology transfer. Various methods of laser application for surface modifications of metals have also been introduced, and include cutting, welding, surface hardening, laser surface alloying, and forming. Superplastic forming (SPF) of denture bases, and superplastic forming with diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) for modification and roughening of implant surfaces, are other excellent examples of the technical transfer. These transferred technologies are not necessary to be limited to technology itself, but they can also include technical concepts such as composites, as well as gradually functional structures, which can be frequently seen in the surface modification of implant systems to promote bone ingrowth.

The popularity of titanium and its alloys in dental and medical fields can be recognized by counting the manuscripts published in different journals, most of which will be cited in this review. Referring to Figure 1.1, there are three straight lines in semilog plot for demonstrating the total accumulated number of published articles for every 5 years. The first top line represents accumulated numbers of all articles listed in Chemical Abstract. Therefore, the counted articles are scattered in wider areas such as refining, metallurgy, medicine, dentistry, bioengineering, engineering, industries, pure chemistry, and chemical engineering. The second straight line is obtained when the search area is limited to materials and science in both the engineering and medical/dentistry fields. If our search is defined within only medicine/ dentistry, we still have an exponential increase in publications. From the third straight line, only eight papers (not shown in the figure) were published in the time period from 1960 to 1965, followed by 156 papers in 1966–1970, 352 in 1971–1975, 309 in 1976–1980, 493 in 1981–1985, 916 in 1986–1990; the figure jumped to 1914 papers in the 5-year period from 1991 to 1995. In 1996–2000, we had already reached more than 3000 articles, followed by 5500 articles published during a 5-year period from 2001 to 2005. Since the first edition of this book in 2007, there have been about 8000 articles published, related to dentistry and medicine.

The reason for the ever-increasing number of publications on Titanium Biomaterials even during the last 5 years (2005–2010) is partially due to the fact that three major international journals in biomaterials, bioengineering, and biomechanics have been successfully launched. The exponentially increasing trend of published papers on medical and dental titanium materials may be attributed to different reasons that might include (i) needs from medical and dental sectors, (ii) increased numbers of researchers and scientists involved in these medical titanium materials, and (iii) an expanded industrial scale associated with the above.

Now, 15 years later from the previous forecasting (in 1996) on titanium industry and materials developments, another remarkable change has been seen. In addition to the ever-growing aerospace applications, precise forming technologies have been developed such as near-net shape (NNS) manufacturing, laser processes, electron beam processes, surface microtexturing, nanotechnology, and metal-injection molding (MIM) powder metallurgy techniques, resulting in increasing application areas for titanium materials. As for biomaterials, reflecting a natural demand for allergy-free metallic materials composed of nontoxic elements, research and development in metallic biomaterials, dental, and healthcare materials have advanced remarkably.

Due to various characteristic properties associated with titanium and titanium-based alloys, different types of dental and medical prostheses have been developed and are currently being utilized. They include cardiac devices (especially mechanical heart valves, pacemakers, stents), operational devices and equipment, and orthopedic implants. In the dental field, the list expands to specifically orthodontic brackets and wires, dental implants, prosthetic appliances, and endodontic files.

It is well recognized that the first reaction of a vital hard/soft tissue (i.e., host tissue) to any type of biomaterial (ceramics, polymers, metals and alloys, composites) is a rejection; accordingly, biomaterial is normally recognized as a "foreign material" by the host tissue. The biological acceptance of these foreign materials by the living tissues is essentially controlled by the surface and interfacial reaction between the organic substance and the inorganic substrate. The surface is not just a free end of a substance, but it is also a contact and boundary zone with other substances (either in gaseous, liquid, or solid). A physical system composed of a homogeneous component such as solid, liquid, or gas and clearly distinguishable from each other is called a phase, and a boundary at which two or three of these individual phases are in contact is called an interface. Surface and interface reactions include reactions with organic or inorganic materials, vital or nonvital species, and hostile or friendly environments. Surface activities may vary from mechanical actions (fatigue crack initiation and propagation, stress intensification), chemical action (discoloration, tarnishing, contamination, corrosion, and oxidation), mechanochemical action (corrosion fatigue and stress-corrosion cracking), thermomechanical action (thermal fatigue), tribological and biotribological actions (wear and wear debris toxicity, and friction) to physical and biophysical actions (surface contact and adhesion, adsorption, absorption, diffusion, cellular attachment, etc.). Accordingly, the longevity, safety, reliability, and structural integrity of dental and medical materials are greatly governed by these surface phenomena, which can be detected, observed, characterized, and analyzed by virtue of various means of devices and technologies.


Excerpted from Bioscience and Bioengineering of Titanium Materials by Yoshiki Oshida Copyright © 2013 by Elsevier B.V. . Excerpted by permission of ELSEVIER. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Table of Contents

CHAPTER1:Introduction CHAPTER2:Materials Classification CHAPTER 3 Chemical and Electrochemical Reactions CHAPTER 4:Oxidation and Oxides CHAPTER 5: Mechanical and Tribological Behaviors CHAPTER 6: Biological Reaction CHAPTER 7: Implant-Related Biological Reaction CHAPTER 8: Implant Application CHAPTER 9: Other Applications CHAPTER10: Fabrication Technologies CHAPTER11: Surface Modifications CHAPTER 12: Advanced Materials, Technologies and Processes

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