For a quarter of a century, the Council for Responsible Genetics has provided a unique historical lens into the modern history, science, ethics, and politics of genetic technologies. Since 1983 the Council has had leading scientists, activists, science writers, and public health advocates researching and reporting on a broad spectrum of issues, including genetically engineered foods, biological weapons, genetic privacy and discrimination, reproductive technologies, and human cloning.
Biotechnology in Our Lives examines how these issues affect us daily whether we realize it or not. Written for the nonscientist, it looks at the many applications of genetics on the world around us by posing questions such as:
- What should we know about genetics and childbirth?
- Can our genes keep us from qualifying for health insurance?
- Can gene therapy cure cancer?
- Is behavior genetically determined?
- Why would the FBI want our genes?
- Are foreign genes in our food?
- And much more
Ultimately, this definitive book on the subject also encourages us to think about the social, environmental, and moral ramifications of where this technology is taking us.
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About the Author
Sheldon Krimsky is the Carol Zicklin Visiting Professor of Philosophy at Brooklyn College, the Lenore Stern Professor of Humanities and Social Sciences at Tufts University, and adjunct professor in the Department of Public Health and Community Medicine at the School of Medicine at Tufts University. He lives in New York City and Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Table of Contents
Introduction Sheldon Krimsky Jeremy Gruber ix
Part I Genetic Privacy and Discrimination: Can Your Genes Keep You from Getting Insurance?
1 New Genetic Privacy Concerns Patricia A. Roche George J. Annas 5
2 Position Statement on Genetic Discrimination by the Human Genetics Committee of the Council for Responsible Genetics 10
3 When Science Fiction Became Fact Samuel W. Anderson 17
4 How the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act Came to Pass Jeremy Gruber 24
5 Politics and Perseverance, interview with Louise Slaughter 32
6 GINA's Beauty Is Only Skin Deep Mark A. Rothstein 36
7 Lessons Learned: How Berkeley Came to Abruptly Change Its Genetic Testing Program Jeremy Gruber 41
8 Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing and Privacy Concerns Jeremy Gruber 46
9 From the Cradle to the Lab Samuel W. Anderson 50
10 Time to Raise Some Hell Henry T. Greely 55
11 Suspect Creatures: Balancing Ethics and Utility in Research Biobanks a conversation with George Annas Robert Green Patricia Roche Susan Wolf 59
Part II Genetics and Medicine: Can Gene Therapy Cure Cancer and Other Diseases?
12 The DNA Era Richaid C. Lewontin 71
13 Autism and Genetics Chloe Silverman Martha Herbert 78
14 Looking Upstream: Cancer Genomics Project Obscures Causes of Cancer Jonathan King 87
15 Back to the Drawing Board? Carlos Sonnenschein Ana M. Soto 95
16 Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing: What's the Prognosis Jordan P. Lerner-Ellis J. David Ellis Robert Green 104
17 Time to Reconsider Marcy Darnovsky Stuart Newman 109
18 Where Are the Genes? Richard Lewontin 114
19 The Broken Clock: Accuracy and Utility of Direct-to-Consumer Tests interview with James Evans 119
20 Consumer Genomics and the Empowered Patient Paul Billings 125
21 Genetic Counselors: Don't Gel Tested without One interview with Elizabeth Kearney 128
22 What Genomic Research Will Give Us interview with Eric Green 132
23 Toxicology in the Genome Sheldon Krimsky 136
24 Personalized Genetic Medicine: Present Reality, Future Prospects Donna Dickenson 140
25 Déjà Vu All Over Again? Incidental Findings in Whole Genome Sequencing Marc Williams 145
Part III Assisted Reproduction: What Do You Need to Know About Genetics and Childbirth?
26 Child bearing in the Age of Biotechnology Ruth Hubbard 155
27 On Order Barbara Katz Rothman 159
28 What Human Genetic Modification Means for Women Judith Levine 165
29 Reproductive Trafficking Hedva Eyal 171
30 The Booming Baby Business interview with Debora Spar 176
31 Commercial Surrogacy and the Cost of Reproductive "Freedom" Marsha Darling 182
32 Eggs for Sale Judy Norsigian 187
33 IVF and Multiple Embryo Transfers: Everything in Moderation interview with Judy Stern 192
34 The Fast and the Furious Lori Haymon 199
35 The Southern Baptist Ethics of ARTs interview with Barrett Duke 207
36 Willful Ignorance Abby Lippman 212
37 Prenatal Diagnosis and Selective Abortion Adrienne Asch 215
Part IV Behavioral Genetics: Does Our DNA Determine How We Act?
38 Criminal Genes Evan Balaban Richard Lewontin 225
39 Deconstructing Violence Corey Morris Aimee Shen Khadija Pierce Jon Beckwith 233
40 The Folly of Geneticizing Criminal Behavior Troy Duster 245
41 Genetics without Ideology Kenneth Weiss 250
42 The Crumbling Pillars of Behavioral Generics Jay Joseph 256
43 Behavioral Genetics Research interview with Jonathan Beckwith 263
44 In Our DNA? Stuart Newman 270
45 Wising Up on the Heritability of Intelligence Ken Richardson 274
46 Race, Genes, and Intelligence Pilar Ossorio 281
47 Gene Association Studies Evan Charney 288
Part V Forensic DNA: Why Would the FBI Want Your Genes?
48 Statisticians Not Wanted: The Math behind Cold-Hit DNA Prosecutions Keith Devlin 299
49 Genetic Privacy: New Frontiers Sheldon Krimsky Tania Simoncelli 305
50 Differential Trust in DNA Forensics Troy Duster 316
51 The Potential for Error in Forensic DNA Testing William C. Thompson 327
52 Can DNA "Witness" Race? Duana Fullwiley 333
53 Forensic Genetics: A Global Human Rights Challenge Jeremy Gruber 338
54 Twenty Years of DNA Databanks in the U.S. Sheldon Krimsky 343
55 The UK DNA Database: The Founders Effect Helen Wallace 348
56 Presumed Innocent? The Confused State of U.S. DNA Collection Laws Michael T. Risher 352
57 Can a DNA Dragnet Undermine an Investigation? A Case Study in Canada Micheal Vonn 358
58 Forensic DNA, the Liberator interview with Peter Neufeld 361
59 Why DNA Is Not Enough Elizabeth Webster 365
60 The CSI Effect Robert A. Perry 369
Part VI Genetics and Popular Culture: How Does the Media Portray Biotechnology?
61 How Art and Literature Can Contribute to Genetic Policy Lon Andrews 377
62 Generations Ahead: Genetic Technologies Meet Social Justice interview with Sujatha Jesudason 381
63 Dinosaurs in Central Park Rob DeSalle 388
64 Myth, Mendel, and the Movies interview with Priscilla Wald 393
65 Liberation or Enslavement? Elaine Graham 399
66 Musical Genes interview with Greg Lukianoff 406
67 Back on "The Farm" Rob DeSalle 410
68 Deflated Expectations Emily Senay 414
69 Culturing Life: From the Laboratory to the Studio Suzanne Anker 417
70 Biology in Science Fiction Mark C. Glassy 422