- The authoritative, in-depth guide to the new Bluetooth 1.1 specification
- Bluetooth 1.1's dramatic improvements in interoperability and reliability
- Includes thoroughly revised coverage of Bluetooth security and power conservation
- New Bluetooth profiles–including the long-awaited Personal Area Networking profile!
The first complete guide to the new Bluetooth 1.1 wireless specification!
The Bluetooth specification has been updated to deliver dramatic improvements in both reliability and interoperability. Bluetooth 1.1: Connect Without Cables, Second Edition updates the industry's #1 Bluetooth guide to cover these critical new enhancements–and to offer detailed guidance on every aspect of Bluetooth 1.1 development.
Bluetooth SIG committee members Jennifer Bray and Charles Sturman place Bluetooth 1.1 in context, covering markets, applications, complementary technologies, key development issues, and explaining every goal of the new release. They review the components of a Bluetooth system, explain how Bluetooth connections work, introduce essential concepts such as piconets and scatternets, and cover the Bluetooth protocol stack in detail from top to bottom.
- Interoperability between 1.0b and 1.1
- Details of 1.1 improvements with explanations of the reasons behind each change
- Important changes to Bluetooth low-power modes, encryption, and authentication
- Bridging Ethernet and Bluetooth with Bluetooth Network Encapsulation Protocol
- How to use Universal Plug and Play with the Bluetooth protocol stack
- Profiles which will bring new products including: Human Interface Devices, Hands-Free Phone usage, Basic Printing, Basic Imaging, and Hard Copy Cable Replacement
- Technologies used by Bluetooth: OBEX, WAP, GSM TS07.10, UPnP, Q.931, and UUIDs
- Comparison of related technologies: DECT, IrDA, Home RF, HiperLAN, and 802.11
Whether you're experienced with V.1.0 or working with Bluetooth for the first time, Bluetooth 1.1: Connect Without Cables, Second Edition is your definitive resource for building interoperable, reliable wireless applications–right now!
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About the Author
JENNIFER BRAY is a consultant at Cambridge Silicon Radio. She is a Councillor on the Bluetooth Architectural Review Board of the Bluetooth Special Interest Group. She holds a doctorate in wireless communications and has extensive experience in communications product development, including secure Ethernet, wireless ATM, ADSL, DAB, CDMA, GSM, and Bluetooth systems.
CHARLES STURMAN is Bluetooth Program Manager for TTPCom, responsible for Bluetooth product development and business development strategy. He is a member of the Radio1 Improvements Subgroup, chartered by the Bluetooth Specification Improvements Group to enhance the Bluetooth specification. He has ten years of experience in designing low-cost, low-power communications and computer systems.
Read an Excerpt
Chapter 1: OverviewBluetooth has been the subject of much hype and media attention over the last couple of years. As various manufacturers prepare to launch products using Bluetooth technology, an unsuspecting public is about to be catapulted into the next stage of the information technology revolution.
Bluetooth is a low cost, low power, short range radio technology, originally developed as a cable replacement to connect devices such as mobile phone handsets, headsets, and portable computers. This in itself sounds relatively innocuous; however, by enabling standardised wireless communications between any electrical devices, Bluetooth has created the notion of a Personal Area Network (PAN), a kind of close range wireless network that looks set to revolutionise the way people interact with the information technology landscape around them.
No longer do people need to connect, plug into, install, enable, or configure anything to anything else. Through a ubiquitous standardised communications subsystem, devices will communicate seamlessly. One does not need to know where one's cellular phone is, or even if it is switched on. As soon as the Web browser appears on the mobile computer screen, a link is established with the phone the Internet Service Provider is con-nected to, and the user is surfing the Web.
The Bluetooth specification is an open, global specification defining the complete system from the radio right up to the application level. The protocol stack is usually implemented partly in hardware and partly as software running on a microprocessor, with different implementations partitioning the functionality between hardware and software in different ways.
1.1 Bluetooth's OriginsVersion 1.0 of the Bluetooth specification came out in 1999, but Bluetooth started five years earlier, in 1994, when Ericsson Mobile Communications began a study to examine alternatives to the cables that linked its mobile phones with accessories. The study looked at using radio links. Radio isn't directional, and it doesn't need line of sight, so it has obvious advantages over the infrared links previously used between handsets and devices. There were many requirements for the study, including handling both speech and data, so that it could connect phones to both headsets and computing devices.
Out of this study was born the specification for Bluetooth wireless technology. The specification is named after Harald Blatand (Blatand is Danish for Bluetooth), Harald was a tenth-century Danish Viking king who united and controlled Denmark and Norway. The name was adopted because Bluetooth wireless technology is expected to unify the telecommunications and computing industries.
1.2 The Bluetooth SIGThe Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) is a group of companies working together to promote and define the Bluetooth specification. The Bluetooth SIG was founded in February 1998 by the following group of core promoters:
- Ericsson Mobile Communications AB.
- Intel Corp.
- IBM Corp.
- Toshiba Corp.
- Nokia Mobile Phones.
1.2.1 Joining the Bluetooth SIGAny incorporated company willing to sign the Bluetooth SIG membership agreement can join the SIG as a Bluetooth adopter company. To join the SIG, companies simply fill in a form on the Bluetooth Web site, www.bluetooth.com. This form commits SIG members to contributing any key technologies which are needed to implement Bluetooth.
This commitment to share technology means that Bluetooth SIG member companies who put their products through Bluetooth qualification are granted a free license to build products using the Bluetooth wireless technology. The license is important because there are patents required to implement Bluetooth; companies that do not sign the Bluetooth adopter's agreement will not be entitled to use the technology. This offer proved so attractive that by April 2000, the SIG membership had grown to 1,790 members.
In addition to getting a free license to patents needed to implement Bluetooth wireless technology, Bluetooth SIG members also have permission to use the Bluetooth brand. There are restrictions on the use of the brand, and these are set out in the Bluetooth brand book. The trademark may only be used on products which prove they are correctly following the Bluetooth specification by completing the Bluetooth qualification program (a testing process).
To get the Bluetooth figure mark and instructions on how to use it, companies sign the Bluetooth trademark agreement, also available on www.bluetooth.com. Questions on the Bluetooth trademark can be emailed to brand.manager@Bluetooth.com.
1.2.2 Bluetooth SIG OrganisationAt the head of the Bluetooth SIG is the program management board. This board oversees the operations of a number of other groups as shown in Figure 1–1.
The main work of defining the specification is done by the technical working groups. Adopter companies can apply to become associate members of the SIG; they may then apply to join working groups and hence contribute directly to the forming of Bluetooth specifications.
Sitting on the technical working groups is quite time-consuming, and so many companies with valid comments on the specification do not have the resources to sit on the working groups. These companies can pass comments via email to the writers of the standard and can also participate in an online discussion forum on the Bluetooth Web site.
1.3 AimsWhy should a group with such diverse interests as the Bluetooth promoters cooperate? Basically, because it's good for their businesses. The members of the Bluetooth promoters group all stand to gain something from mobile devices communicating better, whether by selling devices that have enhanced functionality or by selling the extra software that people will need once they can more easily access information on the move.
The reasons for making the Bluetooth specification freely available to anyone who cares to sign an adopter's agreement are basically the same. The Bluetooth promoters group has made Bluetooth an open specification, rather than keeping it restricted and proprietary, because consumers are more likely to adopt a technology which can be bought from many manufacturers than one which is just limited to a select few. Wide acceptance among consumers is likely to lead to a larger overall market for Bluetooth devices. So the promoters will gain from more companies becoming involved in the Bluetooth SIG. The aim of the Bluetooth specification is basically to sell more of the core promoters' products. This will happen because Bluetooth will make their products more useful by improving communications between them. Before the advent of Bluetooth, telecommunications and computing devices were usually connected by cables, which were easily broken or lost. Cables are also awkward to carry around. The Bluetooth specification aimed to ease communication between mobile devices by providing a cable replacement.
Being a cable replacement technology imposes several requirements. If Bluetooth technology is to replace cables, it can't be much more expensive than a cable or nobody will buy it. At the time of writing, a data cable for a cellular mobile phone was about $10. Allocate half the cost of the cable to each end of the link and it's obvious that for a cable replacement technology to be attractive on purely financial grounds, each unit should cost no more than $5. So, the two ends of the link should cost the same as the cable they replace. Because Bluetooth technology is designed for mobile devices, it must be able to run on batteries. So, it must be very low power, and should run on low voltages. It must also be lightweight and small enough not to intrude on the design of compact mobile devices such as cellular phones, headsets, and PDAs.
It must be as easy and convenient to use as plugging in a cable, and it must be as reliable as the cable it replaces. Because it is a wireless technology, to be reliable, Bluetooth must also be resilient. Reliability means it works overall; resilience means that it can cope with errors.
So, Bluetooth aims to be widely available, inexpensive, convenient, easy to use, reliable, small, and low power. If Bluetooth achieves all these goals, it will be incredibly good for the businesses involved with it.
1.4 The Protocol StackA key feature of the Bluetooth specification is that it aims to allow devices from lots of different manufacturers to work with one another. To this end, Bluetooth does not just de-fine a radio system, it also defines a software stack to enable applications to find other Bluetooth devices in the area, discover what services they can offer, and use those services.
The Bluetooth stack is defined as a series of layers, though there are some features which cross several layers.
Every block in Figure 1–2 corresponds to a chapter in the core Bluetooth specifica-tion. The core specification also has three chapters on test and qualification:
- Bluetooth Test Mode.
- Bluetooth Compliance Requirements.
- Test Control Interface.
1.4.1 The OSI Reference ModelFigure 1–3 shows the familiar Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) standard reference model for communications protocol stacks. Although Bluetooth does not exactly match the it is a useful exercise to relate the different parts of the Bluetooth stack to the various parts of the model. Since the reference model is an ideal, well-partitioned stack, the comparison serves to highlight the division of responsibility in the Bluetooth stack. The Physical Layer is responsible for the electrical interface to the communications media, including modulation and channel coding. It thus covers the radio and part of the baseband. The Data Link Layer is responsible for transmission, framing, and error control over a particular link, and as such, overlaps the link controller task and the control end of the baseband, including error checking and correction.
From now on, it gets a little less clear. The Network Layer is responsible for data transfer across the network, independent of the media and specific topology of the network. This encompasses the higher end of the link controller, setting up and maintaining multiple links, and also covering most of the Link Manager (LM) task. The Transport Layer is responsible for the reliability and multiplexing of data transfer across the network to the level provided by the application, and thus overlaps at the high end of the LM and covers the Host Controller Interface (HCI), which provides the actual data transport mechanisms.
The Session Layer provides the management and data flow control services, which are covered by L2CAP and the lower ends of RFCOMM/SDP. The Presentation Layer provides a common representation for Application Layer data by adding service structure to the units of data, which is the main task of RFCOMM/SDP. Finally, the Application Layer is responsible for managing communications between host applications....
Table of Contents(N>Each chapter concludes with a Summary.).
Foreword to the Second Edition.
Foreword to the First Edition.
Preface to the Second Edition.
Preface to the First Edition.
Bluetooths Origins. The Bluetooth SIG. Aims. The Protocol Stack. Security. Applications and Profiles. Using Bluetooth. Management. Test and Qualification. Bluetooth in Context.
PROTOCOL STACK PART 1–THE BLUETOOTH MODULE.2. Antennas.
Radiation Pattern. Gains and Losses. Types of Antennas. Ceramic Antennas. On-chip Antennas. Antenna Placement.
Introduction. Frequency Hopping. Modulation. Symbol Timing. Power Emission and Control. Radio Performance Parameters. Simple RF Architecture. RF System Timing. Blue RF.
Introduction. Bluetooth Device Address. Masters, Slaves, and Piconets. System Timing. Physical Links: SCO and ACL. Bluetooth Packet Structure. Packet Types and Packet Construction. Logical Channels. Channel Coding and Bitstream Processing. Timebase Synchronisation and Receive Correlation. Frequency Hopping.
5. The Link Controller.
Introduction. Link Control Protocol. Link Controller States. Link Controller Operation. Piconet Operation. Scatternet Operation. Master / Slave Role Switching. Low-Power Operation. Baseband / Link Controller Architectural Overview.
Introduction. Audio Transports in the Protocol Stack. Quality and Bandwidth. SCO Links. Audio CODECs. Audio Subsystem. Audio Data Formats and HCI. Implementation.
7. The Link Manager.
LMP Protocol Data Units (PDUs). The Link Management Channel. Link Setup. LMP Link Shutdown. Role Change. Control of Multi-Slot Packets. Security. Low-Power Modes. Power Control. Quality of Service. Information Messages. Supported Features. LMP Version. Name Request. Test Mode.
8. The Host Controller Interface.
HCI Packet Types. The HCI Transport Layer. Flow Control. Configuring Modules. Inquiring: Discovering Other Bluetooth Devices. Inquiry Scan: Becoming Discoverable. Paging: Initiating Connections. Page Scan: Receiving Connections. Sending and Receiving Data. Switching Roles. Power Control.
PROTOCOL STACK PART 2–THE BLUETOOTH HOST.9. Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol.
Multiplexing Using Channels. L2CAP Signalling. Establishing a Connection. Configuring a Connection. Transferring Data. Disconnecting and Timeouts. Connectionless Data Channels. Enabling and Disabling Incoming Connectionless Traffic. Handling Groups. Echo and Ping. Get Information. L2CAP State Machine. Implementation-Dependent Issues.
Serial Ports and UARTs. Types of RFCOMM Devices. RFCOMM Frame Types. Connecting and Disconnecting. Structure of RFCOMM Frames. Multiplexer Frames. Service Records.
11. The Service Discovery Protocol.
SDP Client/Server Model. The SDP Database. Browsing SDP Records. Universally Unique Identifiers (UUIDs). SDP Messages. Service Discovery Profile.
12. The Wireless Application Protocol.
The WAP Forum. The WAP Stack. PPP Links. WAP Clients and Servers. Suspend and Resume. Service Discovery. WAP Interoperability. Using WAP.
13. OBEX and IrDA.
OBEX in the Bluetooth Stack. Object Model. Session Protocol.
14. Telephony Control Protocol.
TCS Signalling. Call Establishment Signalling. Call Clearing Signalling. DTMF Signalling. Wireless User Group (WUG) Signalling. Connectionless Signalling. TCS Call States.
PROTOCOL STACK PART 3–CROSS LAYER FUNCTIONS.15. Encryption and Security.
Key Generation and the Encryption Engine. Secret Keys and PINs. Pairing and Bonding. Starting Encryption. Security Modes. Security Architecture.
16. Low-Power Operation.
Controlling Low-Power Modes. Hold Mode. Sniff Mode. Park Mode. Low-Power Oscillator.
17. Quality of Service.
Requesting QOS. QOS Violations. Flushing and Delays. Link Supervision. Broadcast Channel Reliability. Data Rates and Packet Types.
18. Managing Bluetooth Devices.
Link Configuration and Management. Device Manager Architecture. Security Management. Integrating Applications. Accounting Management. Capacity. User Interface Design.
APPLICATIONS–THE BLUETOOTH PROFILES.19. Foundation Profiles.
Structure of Profiles. The Generic Access Profile. The Serial Port Profile. Dial Up Networking. FAX Profile. Headset Profile. LAN Access Point Profile. Generic Object Exchange Profile. Object Push Profile. File Transfer. Synchronisation Profile. Intercom Profile. The Cordless Telephony Profile. Benefits of Profiles.
20. Draft Post Foundation Profiles.
The Human Interface Device Profile. The Hands-Free Profile. The Basic Imaging Profile. The Basic Printing Profile. The Hard Copy Cable Replacement Profile.
21. Personal Area Networking.
The PAN Profile. Bluetooth Network Encapsulation Profile.
22. ESDP for UPnP.
Universal Plug and Play Device Architecture. L2CAP Based Solutions. IP Based Solutions.
TEST AND QUALIFICATION.23. Test Mode.
Activating Test Mode. Controlling Test Mode. Radio Transmitter Test. Loopback Test.
24. Qualification and Type Approval.
Bluetooth Qualification. Bluetooth Interoperability Testing. Regulatory Type Approval.
BLUETOOTH IN CONTEXT.25. Implementation.
Introduction. System Partitioning. Hardware Integration Options. Bluetooth as an IP Core. ASIC Prototyping and FPGAs. Making the Right Design Choices. Radio Implementation.
26. Related Standards and Technologies.
Introduction. What Are the Requirements? Infrared Data Association (IrDA). Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT). IEEE 802.11. The HomeRF™ Working Group (HRFWG). IEEE 802.15 and the Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN). HIPERLAN. MMAC. The Future. Useful Web Addresses.
27. The Bluetooth Market.
Introduction. Market Pull and Technology Push. Market Segments. Success in the Marketplace. Enabling Technologies and Components. Consumer Products. The Bluetooth Brand.
28. Future Developments.
Working Groups and New Bluetooth Profiles. Profile Working Groups. Future Bluetooth Core Specifications.
APPENDIXBLUETOOTH 1.1 UPDATES.Glossary.
Preface to the Second EditionA year later, and another version of the Bluetooth specification released, the Bluetooth World has moved on far enough to justify a second edition of this book. Whilst updating for version 1.1 we've also taken the opportunity to correct a few errors that crept into the first edition, thanks to Don Felton, Bill Saltzstein, Klaus Mehle, Steve Singer, Simon Morris, and everyone else who provided us with errata.Each section of the book has been updated with information on version 1.1 of the Bluetooth specification. Many of the changes have just been clarifications, but here and there functionality has been altered and improved. Where 1.0b and 1.1 are different we have identified the changes, and where relevant included notes on backwards compatibility.For those of you who want a summary of the changes there is an appendix with details on the critical errata which led to version 1.1. This appendix tells you in one place what is different, and why it was altered.
Of course as the specification progresses, so does the rest of the community of Bluetooth users. In the past year many new products and components have qualified, and the qualification program itself has matured. Real products have come on the market, and we're starting to see Bluetooth technology in use for real. To reflect those developments you'll find the section on Bluetooth in Context has changed.We've reached version 1.1, but still more progress is being made in many Bluetooth SIG working groups to bring out a new generation of profiles, and to enhance the core Bluetooth specification. As we were updating the book for version 1.1 some draft profiles were put on public release. These profiles open up new applications for Bluetooth devices, so to cover them we've added a whole new section to the book called "Applications—The Bluetooth Profiles". The draft profiles may change slightly before being formally adopted, and more new profiles are due for public release soon. Watch the book's companion web site http://www.phptr.com/bluetooth/bray/index.html for more details: we'll publish these after information is made available in public.