Boiler Water Treatment Principles and Practice: Charts and Notes for Field Use

Boiler Water Treatment Principles and Practice: Charts and Notes for Field Use

by Colin Frayne

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Overview

Table of Contents:

About the Author -

Saturated steam temperatures at various boiler pressures -

Boiler Energy and Power Units -

Typical gross heating values of common fuels (based on approximately 80% fuel to steam efficiency) -

Typical energy consumption and output ratings for a fire tube boiler -

Steam tables suitable for pressure deaerators -

Calculating Blowdown -

Coefficients of thermal conductivity for some heat-exchanger metals and boiler deposits -

Types of water or steam commonly employed in most HW heating and steam generating plants -

Commonly occurring minerals in natural MU water sources -

Specific waterside / steamside problems affecting MPHW and HPHW boiler plants -

Salt concentration indicators -

Summary of waterside / steamside problems affecting LPHW and LP steam heating boiler plants -

FW contamination from MU water -

FW contamination from returned condensate -

Problems associated with the final FW blend -

Deposition of boiler section waterside surfaces by alkaline earth metal salts, other inorganic salts and organics -

Silica and silicate crystalline scales and deposits affecting boiler section waterside surfaces -

Iron oxide and other boiler section corrosion debris deposits -

Boiler section corrosion problems involving oxygen, concentration cells and low pH -

Stress and high temperature related corrosion -

Steam purity, quality and other operational problems -

Specification for grades of high-quality water suitable for higher pressure WT boilers -

Practical considerations for a RW ion-exchange softener -

Types of Internal Treatment Program -

Carbonate Cycle Requirement Calculations -

Phosphate-Cycle Requirement Calculations -

A Guide to Tannin Residuals in BW -

Carbonate-Cycle Program. BW Carbonate Reserve Requirements by Pressure and Sulfate Concentration -

Carbonate-Cycle Coagulation and Precipitation Program. Recommended BW Control Limits for Non-Highly-Rated FT Boilers Employing Hard or Partially Softened FW -

Phosphate-Cycle Coagulation and Precipitation Program. Recommended BW Control Limits for Non-Highly-Rated FT Boilers Employing Hard, Partially Softened, or Fully Softened FW -

Phosphate-Cycle Coagulation and Precipitation Program. Recommended BW Control Limits for Non-Highly-Rated WT Boilers Employing Hard, Partially Softened, or Fully Softened FW -

Chelant demand (ppm product) per 1ppm substrate

EDTA Chelant or All-Polymer/All-Organic Program. Recommended BW Control Limits for Fired WT Boilers Employing Demineralized or Similar Quality FW -

Oxygen Solubility at Atmospheric Pressure -

Properties of Oxygen Scavengers -

Carbon Dioxide Evolution from FW Alkalinity -

Amine Requirement to Reach a Stable Condensate pH -

Amine Basicity Dissociation Constants -

Neutralizing Amine Summary Notes -

Some DR values for CO2, NH3 and neutralizing amines at various pressures -

Calculating Alkalinity Feed-Rate Requirements -

[ASME Consensus table 1: Suggested water chemistry limits. Industrial watertube, high duty, primary fuel fired, drum typeMakeup water percentage: Up to 100% of feedwater. Conditions: Includes superheater, turbine drives or process restriction on steam purity] -

[ASME Consensus table 2: Suggested chemistry limits. Industrial watertube, high duty, primary fuel fired, drum type] -

[ASME Consensus table 3: Suggested chemistry limits. Industrial firetube, high duty, primary fuel fired] -

[ASME Consensus table 4: Suggested water chemistry limits. Industrial coil type, watertube, high duty, primary fuel fired rapid steam generators] -

[ASME Consensus table 5: Suggested water chemistry limits. Marine propulsion, watertube, oil fired drum type] -

[ASME Consensus table 6: Suggested water chemistry limits. Electrode, high voltage, forced circulation jet type] -

Notes

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780820601731
Publisher: Chemical Publishing
Publication date: 07/03/2013
Pages: 66
Product dimensions: 5.50(w) x 8.50(h) x 0.14(d)

Table of Contents


Table of Contents: About the Author - Saturated steam temperatures at various boiler pressures - Boiler Energy and Power Units - Typical gross heating values of common fuels (based on approximately 80% fuel to steam efficiency) - Typical energy consumption and output ratings for a fire tube boiler - Steam tables suitable for pressure deaerators - Calculating Blowdown - Coefficients of thermal conductivity for some heat-exchanger metals and boiler deposits - Types of water or steam commonly employed in most HW heating and steam generating plants - Commonly occurring minerals in natural MU water sources - Specific waterside / steamside problems affecting MPHW and HPHW boiler plants - Salt concentration indicators - Summary of waterside / steamside problems affecting LPHW and LP steam heating boiler plants - FW contamination from MU water - FW contamination from returned condensate - Problems associated with the final FW blend - Deposition of boiler section waterside surfaces by alkaline earth metal salts, other inorganic salts and organics - Silica and silicate crystalline scales and deposits affecting boiler section waterside surfaces - Iron oxide and other boiler section corrosion debris deposits - Boiler section corrosion problems involving oxygen, concentration cells and low pH - Stress and high temperature related corrosion - Steam purity, quality and other operational problems - Specification for grades of high-quality water suitable for higher pressure WT boilers - Practical considerations for a RW ion-exchange softener - Types of Internal Treatment Program - Carbonate Cycle Requirement Calculations - Phosphate-Cycle Requirement Calculations - A Guide to Tannin Residuals in BW - Carbonate-Cycle Program. BW Carbonate Reserve Requirements by Pressure and Sulfate Concentration - Carbonate-Cycle Coagulation and Precipitation Program. Recommended BW Control Limits for Non-Highly-Rated FT Boilers Employing Hard or Partially Softened FW - Phosphate-Cycle Coagulation and Precipitation Program. Recommended BW Control Limits for Non-Highly-Rated FT Boilers Employing Hard, Partially Softened, or Fully Softened FW - Phosphate-Cycle Coagulation and Precipitation Program. Recommended BW Control Limits for Non-Highly-Rated WT Boilers Employing Hard, Partially Softened, or Fully Softened FW - Chelant demand (ppm product) per 1ppm substrate EDTA Chelant or All-Polymer/All-Organic Program. Recommended BW Control Limits for Fired WT Boilers Employing Demineralized or Similar Quality FW - Oxygen Solubility at Atmospheric Pressure - Properties of Oxygen Scavengers - Carbon Dioxide Evolution from FW Alkalinity - Amine Requirement to Reach a Stable Condensate pH - Amine Basicity Dissociation Constants - Neutralizing Amine Summary Notes - Some DR values for CO2, NH3 and neutralizing amines at various pressures - Calculating Alkalinity Feed-Rate Requirements - [ASME Consensus table 1: Suggested water chemistry limits. Industrial watertube, high duty, primary fuel fired, drum typeMakeup water percentage: Up to 100% of feedwater. Conditions: Includes superheater, turbine drives or process restriction on steam purity] - [ASME Consensus table 2: Suggested chemistry limits. Industrial watertube, high duty, primary fuel fired, drum type] - [ASME Consensus table 3: Suggested chemistry limits. Industrial firetube, high duty, primary fuel fired] - [ASME Consensus table 4: Suggested water chemistry limits. Industrial coil type, watertube, high duty, primary fuel fired rapid steam generators] - [ASME Consensus table 5: Suggested water chemistry limits. Marine propulsion, watertube, oil fired drum type] - [ASME Consensus table 6: Suggested water chemistry limits. Electrode, high voltage, forced circulation jet type] - Notes

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