Introduction. The Need for Enhanced Services. The Past. The Future Has Become the Present. Goals of the Emerging Communications Technologies. LAN Interconnectivity. A Brief Summary. Need for Greater Communications Capacity. LAN and WAN Internetworking. Costs of Connecting Dispersed LANs. The Virtual Private Network (VPN). Proposed Solutions. The Confusion Factor. Fast Relay Systems. Trends in Technology. Hardware and Software. New Technologies: To Use Them or Not to Use Them? Broadband Networks Broadband Signaling Hierarchies Applications Supported by the New Technologies New Technologies: Competitive or Complementary? Performance and Distance Considerations. Obtaining Services for the Networks: Bandwidth on Demand Where Services are Provided. Layered Architectures of the Emerging Technologies. Summary.
2. Foundations for the Emerging Technologies.
Introduction. Virtual Circuits. A Brief Digression. Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC). Switched Virtual Circuit (SVC) or Connection on Demand. Semi-permanent Virtual Circuits (SPVC). Connection-oriented and Connectionless Systems. Connection-orientated Systems. Connectionless Systems. The Pros and Cons. The Coexistence of Connection-oriented Systems and Connectionless Systems. Variable Bit Rate (VBR) and Constant Bit Rate (CBR) Applications. VBR Applications. CBR Applications. Flow Control and Congestion Management. Explicit Flow Control. Implicit Flow Control. No Flow Control. User Payload Integrity Management. Layered Protocols and Protocol Data Units. Addressing and Identification Schemes. Multiplexing Methodologies. Switching, Routing, and Relaying. Source and Non-source Routing. Fixed and Adaptive Routing. Network Interfaces. Convergence, Segmentation, and Reassembly Operations. Summary.
3. Emerged Technologies.
Introduction. T1/E1 CARRIER Systems. The Purpose of T1 and E1. Typical Topology. T1 and E1 Layers. T1/E1 PDUs. Conclusions on T1/E1. X.25. The Purpose of X.25. Typical Topology. X.25 Layers. X.25 PDUs. Other Noteworthy Aspects of X.25. Conclusions on X.25. ISDN. The Purpose of ISDN. Typical Topology. ISDN Layers. ISDN PDUs. Conclusions on ISDN. Signaling System Number 7 (SS7). The Purpose of SS7. Typical Topology. SS7 Layers. SS7 PDUs. Conclusions on SS7. FDDI. The Purpose of FDDI. Typical Topology. The FDDI Layers. FDDI PDUs. Other Notable Aspects of FDDI. Conclusion on FDDI. Summary.
4. Frame Relay.
Introduction. The Purpose of Frame Relay. Pertinent Standards. Typical Frame Relay Topology. The Frame Relay Layers. Frame Relay and Its Relationship to ISDN Layers. OSI and ANSI Layers. The Frame Relay Protocol Data Unit (PDU). Frame Relay Operations in More Detail. The Frame Relay Core Functions. The Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI). Frame Relay Link Layer Error Checking. Potential Congestion Problems. Traffic Management. Consolidated Link Layer Management (CLLM). The Discard Eligibility Bit. Committed Information Rate. Leaking CIR and Fast Forward CIR. Classes of Service Using Bc and Be. DLCIs in More Detail. The Frame Relay Network-to-Network Interface (NNI). NNI Operations. Bellcore Exchange Access FR (XA-FR) PVC Service. Other Notable Aspects of Frame Relay. DLCI Values. Added Options to Frame Relay. The Local Management Interface (LMI). Frame Relay SVC Operations. Other Quality of Service (QOS) Options. Internetworking Frame Relay and ATM. Multiprotocol Operations over Frame Relay. The Frame Relay MIB. Frame Relay Worksheet. Summary.
5. Fast and Switched Ethernet.
Introduction. Generations of LANs. First Generation. Second Generation. Third Generation. Fourth Generation. Switched Ethernet. Switched Ethernet Architecture. Store and Forward and Cut-through Switches. Virtual LANs. Fast Ethernet. 100BASET. AnyLAN. Fast/Switched Ethernet Worksheet. Summary.
6. Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs) and Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS).
Introduction. The Purpose of a MAN. Pertinent Standards. A Typical MAN Topology. Topology Reconfiguration with Self-Healing Networks. The MAN Layers. MAN Protocol Data Units (PDUs). MAN Operations in More Detail. The Access Unit (AU). Overview of the DQDB Protocol. DQDB Counters. Location Discovery. Segmentation and Encapsulation Operations. Other Notable Aspects of the MAN. MAN Summary. Introduction to SMDS. The Purpose of SMDS Pertinent Standards. A Typical SMDS Topology. SMDS Layers. SMDS Protocol Data Units. SMDS Operations in More Detail. Defining and Measuring Congestion. The Sustained Information Rate (SIR) and Access Classes. SIP Segmentation and Encapsulation Functions. SNI Quality of Service (QOS) Operations. The Interchange Carrier Interface (ICI). Quality of Service (QOS) Objectives. Other Notable Aspects of SMDS. SMDS Address Management Operations. The ISSI. The Operations System/Network Element (OS/NE) Interface (Operations Technology). The SMDS MIB. MAN/SMDS Worksheet. SMDS Summary.
7. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM).
Introduction. The Purpose of ATM. Pertinent Standards. An ATM Topology. The VPI and VCI Labels. ATM Layers. ATM and the B-ISDN Model. ATM Protocol Data Units (Cells). ATM Operations in More Detail. Physical Layer Interfaces. ATM over Copper. Rationale for the Cell Size. Network Transparency Operations. ATM Labels. Multiplexing VCIs and VPIs. ATM Connections on Demand. ATM Switching. Classes of Traffic. AAL Types. Traffic Management in an ATM Network. ATM Forum and ITU-T Traffic Control and Congestion Control. The ATM B-ISDN Intercarrier Interface (B-ICI). Physical Layer Requirements at the B-ICI. Traffic Management at the B-ICI. Reference Traffic Loads. B-ICI Layer Management Operations. Other Notable Aspects of ATM. Addressing in an ATM Network. Network Management. The ATM MIB. ATM Worksheet. Summary.
8. Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)/Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH).
Introduction. Purpose of SONET/SDH. Synchronous Networks. Pertinent Standards. Typical SONET/SDH Topology. SONET/SDH Layers. SONET/SDH in More Detail. Automatic Protection Switching (APS). The SDH Multiplexing Structure. Payloads and Envelopes. Payload Pointers. Examples of Payload Mapping. Mapping and Multiplexing Operations. Error Checking, Diagnostics, and Restoration. The Control Headers and Fields. SONET/SDH Equipment. Other Notable Aspects of SONET/SDH. Operation Administration and Maintenance (OAM) Operations. Progress in SONET/SDH Penetration. SONET/SDH Worksheet. Summary.
9. Mobile Communications Technologies.
Introduction. The Purpose of Mobile Communications Systems. Typical Cellular Systems Topology. Cellular Systems Operations in More Detail. Cellular System Types and Market Penetration. GSM. GSM Interfaces. Call Routing. Location Updating. GSM 900/DCS1800: Foundation for PCS 1900 (TDMA). CDMA: A New Arrival into the Commercial Mobile, Wireless World. TDMA versus CDMA. Cordless Systems Operations in More Detail. CT2. DECT. Other Standardization Efforts for PCS. The Auctions in the U.S. and the PCS Marketplace. Candidates for PCS Technologies. The Cellular Digital Data Packet System Specification (CDPD). CDPD Services and Servers. Third-Generation Mobile Systems. Some Concluding Thoughts. Mobile Communications Systems Worksheet. Mobile Communications Summary.
10. Residential Broadband.
Introduction. The Problem with the Subscriber Loop. The Proposed Solutions: Two Interlocking Approaches, Coding/Modulation and Wiring. How Much Bandwidth Is Needed to Satisfy the Subscriber? Downstream Bandwidth. Upstream Bandwidth. Beyond the Coding/Modulation and Wiring: Service Provisions. Switched Digital Video (SDV). Coding and Modulation. HDSL. ADSL. Wiring at the Local Loop: Subscriber Loop Options. Hybrid/fiber Copper (HFCop). Hybrid/fiber Coax (HFC). Fiber to the Curb (FTTC) and Fiber to the Home (FTTH). The Wireless Option. Managing the Broadband Signals. Bellcores TR-303 Specification. Residential Broadband Worksheet. Summary. Appendix 10A: Coding and Modulation Techniques for Residential Broadband. Introduction. Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). Examples of Modulation Schemes and Bit Rates. Carrierless Amplitude/Phase Modulation (CAP).
11. Broadband Signaling Networks.
Introduction. What Are Broadband Signaling Networks? Differences between Broadband and Conventional Signaling Systems. N-ISDN and B-ISDN. Example of a Broadband Signaling Network Operation. Examples of Services Provided by the Broadband Network. ISO 9577. ATM Parameters. The Broadband Signaling Protocols. How the Broadband Signaling Stacks Operate. Broadband Signaling Worksheet. Summary.
12. Advanced Intelligent Network.
Introduction. Operator Services Systems (OSS). The 800 ServiceInklings of an Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN). Key Aspects of the AIN. The Intelligent Network and the Advanced Intelligent Network. Distribution of Functions. Evolution to the AIN. Other Parts of the AIN. Example of an AIN Operation. The AIN Basic Call Model. Standardized Messages. The Private Virtual Network. AIN Worksheet. Summary.
13. Internet Protocol, Version 6 (Ipv6).
Introduction. Functions of the Internet Protocol (Ipv4). The IP Address. Problems with IP and the IP Address. The Solutionan Expanded IP Address Space. Alternatives to the Overhead of IPv6 Addresses. The Next Generation IPIPv6. Functions of the IPv4 Header Fields. Functions of the IPv6 Header Fields. IPv6 and ATM. Fixed Routing and Virtual Circuits. Supporting Different Types of Traffic. The IPv6-ATM Debate. IPv6 Worksheet. Summary.
Appendix A: A Tutorial on Communications Networks.
Introduction. Data Communications Networks. Classifying Networks. Wide Area and Local Area Networks. Network Components. Voice Networks. Nonhierarchical Routing. History of and Inherent Problems with Coexistence of Analog and Digital Systems. Analog-to-Digital Conversion. Data Images over Voice Channels. FDM, TDM, and STDM. Circuit, Message, Packet, and Cell Switching. Network Routing Operations. The Challenge of Integrating Voice, Data, and Video Applications. Fast Packet Switching (FPS). Hybrid Switching.
Appendix B: Layered Protocols, OSI, and TCP/IP.
Introduction. Protocols and the OSI Model. OSI Layer Operations. The Internet Protocols (TCP/IP). The Internet Layers. IP Functions. TCP Operations.
Appendix C: Management Information Bases (MIBs).
Introduction. Purpose of a MIB. Examples of MIB Objects and Other Entries.
Appendix D: Emerging Communications Technologies Worksheet.