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Introductory Biostatistics / Edition 1

Introductory Biostatistics / Edition 1

by Chap T. Le

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ISBN-10: 0471418161

ISBN-13: 2900471418169

Pub. Date: 03/31/2003

Publisher: Wiley

To students in public health, dentistry, nursing, and other health disciplines, the introductory course in biostatistics conjures up dread images of mind-numbing formulas and dry-as-bones texts. This text, adapted from and expanding on his bestselling Health and Numbers (Wiley), will change your mind. Designed as an antidote to the usual anxiety-producing textbooks,


To students in public health, dentistry, nursing, and other health disciplines, the introductory course in biostatistics conjures up dread images of mind-numbing formulas and dry-as-bones texts. This text, adapted from and expanding on his bestselling Health and Numbers (Wiley), will change your mind. Designed as an antidote to the usual anxiety-producing textbooks, Professor Chap T. Lee's Introductory Biostatistics is a lively, user-friendly introduction that will nurture interest and motivate students to see statistics as a "way of thinking" about gathering and analyzing data -- not just a bunch of formulas or data. It is, as the author puts it, "the science of dealing with uncertainties using incomplete information." Taking a problems-based approach full of real-world examples, the text slowly and methodically builds understanding and mastery of the fundamentals of biostatistics. It briefly covers data collection and then expands on the subjects of descriptive statistics, statistical inference, probability, and probability models. Such features as "Brief Notes on the Fundamentals," end-of-chapter notes on computations using Excel, and samples of SAS computer programs strengthen the reader's grasp of the background and the concepts of biostatistical procedures. Written for the applied statistician seeking a handy and accessible reference as well as for students taking a full-year course, Introductory Biostatistics fills a long-time need for a reassuring, sensitively-presented, yet thorough exposure to a subject of increasing importance to professionals in the health disciplines.

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Table of Contents

1Descriptive Methods for Categorical Data1
1.1.1Comparative Studies2
1.1.2Screening Tests5
1.1.3Displaying Proportions8
1.2.2Measures of Morbidity and Mortality13
1.2.3Standardization of Rates16
1.3.1Relative Risk19
1.3.2Odds and Odds Ratio19
1.3.3Generalized Odds for Ordered 2 x k Tables22
1.3.4Mantel Haenszel Method26
1.3.5Standardized Mortality Ratio30
1.4Notes on Computations31
2Descriptive Methods for Continuous Data57
2.1Tabular and Graphical Methods57
2.1.1One-Way Scatter Plots57
2.1.2Frequency Distribution58
2.1.3Histogram and the Frequency Polygon62
2.1.4Cumulative Frequency Graph and Percentiles67
2.1.5Stem-and-Leaf Diagrams70
2.2Numerical Methods72
2.2.2Other Measures of Location76
2.2.3Measures of Dispersion77
2.2.4Box Plots80
2.3Special Case of Binary Data81
2.4Coefficients of Correlation83
2.4.1Pearson's Correlation Coefficient85
2.4.2Nonparametric Correlation Coefficients88
2.5Notes on Computations90
3Probability and Probability Models108
3.1.1Certainty of Uncertainty109
3.1.3Statistical Relationship111
3.1.4Using Screening Tests115
3.1.5Measuring Agreement118
3.2Normal Distribution120
3.2.1Shape of the Normal Curve120
3.2.2Areas under the Standard Normal Curve123
3.2.3Normal Distribution as a Probability Model128
3.3Probability Models for Continuous Data131
3.4Probability Models for Discrete Data132
3.4.1Binomial Distribution133
3.4.2Poisson Distribution136
3.5Brief Notes on the Fundamentals137
3.5.1Mean and Variance137
3.5.2Pair-Matched Case-Control Study138
3.6Notes on Computations140
4Estimation of Parameters147
4.1Basic Concepts148
4.1.1Statistics as Variables149
4.1.2Sampling Distributions149
4.1.3Introduction to Confidence Estimation152
4.2Estimation of Means152
4.2.1Confidence Intervals for a Mean154
4.2.2Uses of Small Samples156
4.2.3Evaluation of Interventions158
4.3Estimation of Proportions160
4.4Estimation of Odds Ratios165
4.5Estimation of Correlation Coefficients168
4.6Brief Notes on the Fundamentals171
4.7Notes on Computations173
5Introduction to Statistical Tests of Significance188
5.1Basic Concepts190
5.1.1Hypothesis Tests190
5.1.2Statistical Evidence191
5.2.1Trials by Jury194
5.2.2Medical Screening Tests195
5.2.3Common Expectations195
5.3Summaries and Conclusions196
5.3.1Rejection Region197
5.3.2p Values198
5.3.3Relationship to Confidence Intervals201
5.4Brief Notes on the Fundamentals203
5.4.1Type I and Type II Errors203
5.4.2More about Errors and p Values203
6Comparison of Population Proportions208
6.1One-Sample Problem with Binary Data208
6.2Analysis of Pair-Matched Data210
6.3Comparison of Two Proportions213
6.4Mantel-Haenszel Method218
6.5Inferences for General Two-Way Tables223
6.6Fisher's Exact Test229
6.7Ordered 2 x k Contingency Tables230
6.8Notes on Computations234
7Comparison of Population Means246
7.1One-Sample Problem with Continuous Data246
7.2Analysis of Pair-Matched Data248
7.3Comparison of Two Means253
7.4Nonparametric Methods257
7.4.1Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test257
7.4.2Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test261
7.5One-Way Analysis of Variance263
7.6Brief Notes on the Fundamentals269
7.7Notes on Computations270
8Correlation and Regression282
8.1Simple Regression Analysis283
8.1.1Simple Linear Regression Model283
8.1.2Scatter Diagram283
8.1.3Meaning of Regression Parameters284
8.1.4Estimation of Parameters285
8.1.5Testing for Independence289
8.1.6Analysis-of-Variance Approach292
8.2Multiple Regression Analysis294
8.2.1Regression Model with Several Independent Variables294
8.2.2Meaning of Regression Parameters295
8.2.3Effect Modifications295
8.2.4Polynomial Regression296
8.2.5Estimation of Parameters296
8.2.6Analysis-of-Variance Approach297
8.2.7Testing Hypotheses in Multiple Linear Regression298
8.3Notes on Computations305
9Logistic Regression314
9.1Simple Regression Analysis316
9.1.1Simple Logistic Regression Model317
9.1.2Measure of Association318
9.1.3Effect of Measurement Scale320
9.1.4Tests of Association321
9.1.5Use of the Logistic Model for Different Designs322
9.2Multiple Regression Analysis325
9.2.1Logistic Regression Model with Several Covariates326
9.2.2Effect Modifications327
9.2.3Polynomial Regression328
9.2.4Testing Hypotheses in Multiple Logistic Regression329
9.2.5Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve336
9.2.6ROC Curve and Logistic Regression337
9.3Brief Notes on the Fundamentals339
10Methods for Count Data350
10.1Poisson Distribution350
10.2Testing Goodness of Fit354
10.3Poisson Regression Model356
10.3.1Simple Regression Analysis357
10.3.2Multiple Regression Analysis360
10.3.4Stepwise Regression370
11Analysis of Survival Data and Data from Matched Studies379
11.1Survival Data381
11.2Introductory Survival Analyses384
11.2.1Kaplan Meier Curve384
11.2.2Comparison of Survival Distributions386
11.3Simple Regression and Correlation390
11.3.1Model and Approach391
11.3.2Measures of Association392
11.3.3Tests of Association395
11.4Multiple Regression and Correlation395
11.4.1Proportional Hazards Model with Several Covariates396
11.4.2Testing Hypotheses in Multiple Regression397
11.4.3Time-Dependent Covariates and Applications401
11.5Pair-Matched Case-Control Studies405
11.6Multiple Matching409
11.6.1Conditional Approach409
11.6.2Estimation of the Odds Ratio410
11.6.3Testing for Exposure Effect411
11.7Conditional Logistic Regression413
11.7.1Simple Regression Analysis414
11.7.2Multiple Regression Analysis418
12Study Designs445
12.1Types of Study Designs446
12.2Classification of Clinical Trials447
12.3Designing Phase I Cancer Trials448
12.4Sample Size Determination for Phase II Trials and Surveys451
12.5Sample Sizes for Other Phase II Trials453
12.5.1Continuous Endpoints454
12.5.2Correlation Endpoints454
12.6About Simon's Two-Stage Phase II Design456
12.7Phase II Designs for Selection457
12.7.1Continuous Endpoints457
12.7.2Binary Endpoints458
12.8Toxicity Monitoring in Phase II Trials459
12.9Sample Size Determination for Phase III Trials461
12.9.1Comparison of Two Means462
12.9.2Comparison of Two Proportions464
12.9.3Survival Time as the Endpoint466
12.10Sample Size Determination for Case-Control Studies469
12.10.1Unmatched Designs for a Binary Exposure469
12.10.2Matched Designs for a Binary Exposure471
12.10.3Unmatched Designs for a Continuous Exposure473
Answers to Selected Exercises499

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