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Introduction to Corrections

Introduction to Corrections

by David H. McElreath

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ISBN-10: 1439860130

ISBN-13: 2901439860136

Pub. Date: 08/17/2011

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

Millions in our nation are under some type of judicial sanction, with some individuals behind bars but the majority serving their sentences while living and working among us. Introduction to Corrections examines predominant issues related to the system of administering to offenders in the United States. Written in a simple, concise style and enhanced with


Millions in our nation are under some type of judicial sanction, with some individuals behind bars but the majority serving their sentences while living and working among us. Introduction to Corrections examines predominant issues related to the system of administering to offenders in the United States. Written in a simple, concise style and enhanced with discussion questions and a list of key terms in each chapter, this volume begins with an overview of the system and a historical review and then focuses on select issues, including:

  • Sentencing goals and rationales, and types of sentencing
  • Noncustodial supervision, including probation, electronic monitoring, home confinement, halfway houses, and offender registration
  • Parole and postconfinement release
  • Jail, prison, and jurisdictional differences in correction systems
  • Challenges faced by corrections personnel, including overcrowding, health issues, sexual assault in institutions, and prison gangs
  • Constitutional challenges to inmate controls
  • Issues related to victims’ rights, including federal and state funds and notification programs
  • Correctional counseling perspectives and prevailing sociological theories
  • Controversies surrounding capital punishment in the United States
  • Juvenile corrections, including probation, parole, and life sentences for minors

The evolution of corrections in the United States has spanned three centuries and has moved from an origin of basic community-based confinement to an extensive system that includes federal, state, local, private, and military facilities and programs. Examining diverse topics relevant to a range of professionals in the corrections community, this book explores the functions of corrections as well as those who serve in the profession.

Product Details

Taylor & Francis
Publication date:
Edition description:
New Edition

Table of Contents

Section I: Foundations of Corrections

An Overview of Corrections
Correctional Foundations
The Global Community
How Do We View Corrections?
What Is Corrections?
A Snapshot of Those Adults Confined and Under Judicial Sanctions
Juvenile Offenders
Professional Opportunities in Corrections
What Is the Goal of Corrections?

Corrections: A Historical View
Foundation for Institutional Corrections and the Rule of Law
Early Prison Reform and Reformers
Development of the American Prison System
The Penitentiary in America: New-Gate, Walnut Street Jail, and the Early Efforts to Develop Prisons
The Reform Era
Emergence of the National Prison Association
Early Steps in Federal Confinement
Early 1900s
The Industrial Era
Early Twentieth-Century Correctional Leaders and the Concept of Prisonization
Riots, Litigation, and Reform
A New Era in Corrections

Sentencing Goals and Rationales
Types of Sentences
Sentencing Models
Sentencing Disparity

Section II: Community Corrections

History and Process of Probation and Noncustodial Supervision
Overview of Noncustodial Supervision
History of Probation
Foundations of Federal Probation and Pretrial Services
The Probation Process
Offender Assessment
Electronic Monitoring
Intensive Supervision Probation (ISP)
Community Corrections
Day and Evening Reporting Centers
Home Confinement Programs
Residential Reentry Centers or Halfway Houses
Offender Registration
Correctional Treatment
Termination of Probation and Noncustodial Supervision

History and Process of Parole and Postconfinement Release
Postconfinement Release Options
Foundations of the Concept of Parole
Overview of Parole in the United States
History of Parole in the United States
Parole Differs From Probation
Parole Boards and Parole Selection
Other Factors Influencing the Awarding of Parole
Process of Parole and Postconfinement Supervision
Termination of Parole or Postconfinement Release

Section III: Institutional Corrections

The Gaol
The Advent of the Jail
Coming to Jail
The Garage Sally Port
Inmate Classification
How Inmate Classification Works
Inmate Housing
Inmate Supervision
Work Release Programs
Inmate Healthcare
Inmate Programs
Managing a Jail
Jail Overcrowding
The Jail as a Place of Execution

Correctional Systems and Institutions
Types of Correctional Systems and Institutions
Local Corrections
State Corrections
Federal Corrections
Private Corrections
Military Corrections
Juvenile Corrections

Prison Life
Staff: Managing the Prisoners
Correctional Officers
The Role of the Corrections Officer
Correctional Officer Assignments
Correctional Officer Power
Training of Correctional Personnel
Administering Inmate Rehabilitation Programs
Inmate World: Living Behind Bars
The Inmate Subculture
Social Structure
How Does It Form? Prison Social Structure and the Inmate Code
Male Prison Sexuality
Inmate Suicide and Prison
Mentally Ill Inmates
Aging Offenders
A Society of Violent Males
The Radicalization of Male Prison Inmates
Female Inmates
Critical Needs in Dealing With Female Inmates
Female Prison Sexuality
Female Inmate Suicide and Self-Mutilation

Section IV: Issues in Corrections

Current Issues and Problems Facing Corrections
Personnel Recruitment, Training, and Accreditation
Overcrowding of Institutions
Health, Medical, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Treatment
Health Issues: HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Hepatitis
Drug and Alcohol Treatment
Sexual Offender Treatment Programs
Aging Offender Population
Violence and Sexual Assault in Institutions
Prison Gangs
Women in Prison
Inmate Litigation
Breaking the Cycle of Recidivism

Inmate Rights and Correctional Law
History of Correctional Law
Inmate Access to the Courts (First Amendment)
Inmate Mail and Other Communications (First Amendment)
Religion (First Amendment)
Visitation and Association Rights of Inmates (First Amendment)
Search, Seizure, and Inmate Privacy (Fourth Amendment)
Inmate Discipline and Due Process (5th and 14th Amendments)
Other Due Process Issues: Classification, Transfers,
Personal Injuries, and Property Loss (5th and 14th Amendments)
Conditions of Imprisonment: Cruel and Unusual Punishment (Eighth Amendment)
Health Care (Eighth Amendment)
Female Inmates and Other Special Inmate Populations (14th Amendment)
Inmate Labor

Victims’ Rights
History of the Crime Victims’ Movement in the United States
Types of Victims
Costs That Crime Victims Suffer
The Role Correctional Agencies Play in Meeting Victims’ Needs

Correctional Counseling
Defining Correctional Treatment
Institutional Versus Community-Based Correctional Treatment Specialists
Custodial Staff Versus Correctional Treatment Staff
Theoretical Counseling Perspectives
Group Versus Individual Counseling

Capital Punishment
Methods of Execution Used in the United States
History of the Death Penalty in the United States
Further Evolution of the Death Penalty in the United States
Old Sparky: Texas Prison Museum
The Move to Eliminate Capital Punishment
Death Penalty in the United States after Gilmore
Execution and Gender
Capital Punishment: Jurisdictional View
Issues in Capital Punishment

Juvenile Corrections
Juvenile Crime
Who Is the Juvenile Offender?
The Juvenile System
Balanced and Restorative Justice and the Juvenile Offender
Juvenile Corrections: A Historical Glance
Juvenile Institutions, Detention, and Residential Confinement
Sheltered Care Facilities and Community Residential Facilities
Case Management and Supervision
Juvenile Justice Issues
Juvenile Probation, Parole, and Aftercare
Life Without Parole for Juveniles
Interstate Compact on Juveniles


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